Method for integrated processing of liquid radioactive waste and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to chemical technology, specifically for nuclear ecology and can be used in the processing of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) generated by the operation of the various nuclear power plants (NPP) on vehicles (atomic icebreakers, submarines, floating NPP). The essence of the invention is that liquid radioactive waste is subjected to processing by cleaning from radionuclides using inorganic sorbent on the basis of ferrocyanide transition metal (copper or Nickel), followed by desalting and preconcentration, separation of the flow on the filtrate with salinity less than 0.5 g/DM3and brine and then concentrated to obtain salts and subsequent purification of the filtrate by passing it through columns with sorbents, drainage of waste sorbents and disposal of salts and waste sorbents by placing them in an insulating protective container for storage. To implement the method proposed installation comprising sequentially arranged and interconnected receiver tanks, pretreatment unit, the content is clean filtrate in a protective container, equipped with removable top covers and inlet and outlet pipes, blocks desalting and concentration and disposal unit waste sorbents and salts, provided with a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste, and disposal unit waste sorbents is a device consisting of a node for drying the sorbent in the column, handling the shipping container for the extraction columns of the protective container, delivery and installation in a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste. 2 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table. 3 Il.

The invention relates to nuclear ecology and can be used in the processing of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) generated by the operation of the various nuclear power plants (NPP) NPP, vehicles (atomic icebreakers, submarines (NPS) floating NPP).

In the operation of the NPP are three main types of LRW belonging to the class of medium - and low-level, the composition of which is given in the table.

Based on the ecological requirements existing in the Russian Federation and reflected in NRB-96 [1] and IAEA recommendations the processing of LRW should include them on the figure are the radionuclides cesium-137 and strontium-90, activity which in the standard LRW is about 80% of the total, and the chemical nature is that they are very difficult retrieved from salt solutions. In addition, due to sanitary requirements (SPORO-85) activity subject to the final disposal of solid radioactive waste (SRW), as a rule, should not exceed 10-(3-4)CI/K. This requirement for permissible levels of radiation exposure of maintenance personnel repositories.

Therefore, comprehensive methods of LRW processing include the pretreatment of some chemical impurities, preventing the further processes of demineralization and purification of radionuclides, subsequent desalting and purification of LRW from radionuclides by different methods and sorption purification desalted solutions to an acceptable discharge standards [2, 3]

Closest to the described method for integrated processing of liquid radioactive waste from radionuclides is a process comprising a stage of pretreatment, desalination and concentration, separation of the flow on the filtrate with salinity less than 0.5 g/DM3and brine and then concentrated to obtain salts and subsequent purification of the filtrate by passing it through coer for storage [4]

In this way LRW sequentially subjected to the following stages of processing. First, the solutions are sent to the stage pretreatment. Depending on the degree of contamination of suspended solids, petroleum products (TM) and surface-active substances (surfactants) this stage includes: purification from suspended substances and petroleum products on special filters with filter material, retention of organic matter and petroleum products (foam, highly porous organic sorbents type Porous-TM", active carbons); subsequent filtering LRW through the cartridge filter element with filtration 20 micron and ultrafiltration membranes.

At low concentrations in the original LRW suspended solids and oil products from this stage eliminates the process of ultrafiltration, and apply only a sorption pretreatment of traces of NP and surfactants. On stage pretreatment can be used precipitation methods for removing various impurities, hardness salts, surfactants, iron, oxalates, which will interfere with the processes of concentration of salts in various ways. Then pre-treated solutions serves on stage desalting. This stage is the residue, kororareka alternative ways primary desalting and concentration, for example, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, or their combination with obtaining the brine with a salt concentration of 20-80 g/DM3and desalted filtrate with salinity less than 0.5 g/DM3. Then received at the first stage of concentration of the brine is subjected to Parke "dry" with obtaining crystalline salts. At the final stage these salts can be by heat treatment Dossena to dry salts. Formed in the stages of concentration desalted filtrates additionally subjected to sorption purification using ion exchange resins to obtain at the output of clean solution, which is subject to discharge to the sewer. Obtained in this way TRO (salt and the spent sorbents) is disposed by cementing, for which there are special rather complicated installation. The cementation process includes the mixing of salt and pre-discharged and granulated sorbents with natural zeolites, and then they are mixed with a pre-prepared cement mass and pour the resulting mixture into an iron barrels or concrete containers. After holding the mixture for the formation of a cement stone TRO sent for storage in a repository.

When processing of the main economic indicators of the entire recycling process, will be inversely proportional to the content in the original LRW salts.

The main disadvantage of this method is that it is multi-stage and leads to the formation of large amounts of radioactive waste. Thus, when processing a typical LRW with a salt content of about 5 g/DM3the degree of concentration of radionuclides in the end buried the product container with cement mass by a known method does not exceed 70-80.

Closest to the described setup for complex processing of liquid radioactive waste is an installation comprising sequentially arranged and interconnected receiver tanks, blocks pretreatment (desalting and concentration), column sorption purification of the filtrate and disposal unit waste sorbents and salts, provided with a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste [4]

LRW this unit is sequentially subjected to the following stages of processing, which is carried in the combined device consisting of two separate units (installation on treatment of LRW and installation cementing waste sorbents, brines and slurries): pretreatment with filter blocks, microfiltration, electrodialysis, or combinations thereof; the concentration of obtaining salts using blocks evaporation to dryness; purification using the sorption unit; disposal of used sorbents, salts and slurries by setting cementing with getting as buried TRO cement product.

A disadvantage of the known device is its complexity and the large number produced during its operation SRW.

The objective of the invention is to develop a method and installation, allowing to achieve a high degree of concentration of radionuclides utilized in the final product solid waste, and thus reducing the number of buried solid waste, and improve the ecological security of the processing of LRW by reducing cycle processing and disposal of radionuclides.

The problem is solved is described by way of complex processing of liquid radioactive waste, including stage pretreatment desalting and preconcentration, separation of the flow on the filtrate with salinity less than 0.5 g/DM3and brine and then concentrated to obtain salts and subsequent purification of the filtrate by parentof by placing them in an insulating protective storage container, and before receiving salts conducts the removal of radionuclides from liquid radioactive waste using selective inorganic sorbent, before disposing of the spent sorbent in the column drain and the disposal of lead by placing columns together with dried sorbents vertically in the container.

While it is preferable to remove the radionuclides using selective inorganic sorbent-based transition metal ferrocyanides copper or Nickel, and a porous inorganic carrier, which is preferably used sorbents grade NGA or MJA, and stage desalting and concentration of lead by distillation or in two stages with the first electro-membrane or reverse osmosis desalination, and the second distillation concentration of obtaining salt and the filtrate and its sorption purification by passing through the column with sorbent. The sorbent is preferable to use inorganic sorbents on the basis of transition metal ferrocyanides copper or Nickel and a porous inorganic carrier and/or natural or synthetic zeolites cubic, monoclinic or sexagenarian moisture in them is less than 5 wt.

Removal of radionuclides before receiving salts is preferably carried out in the following alternative ways: on stage pretreatment before desalting of liquid radioactive waste; by cleaning concentrate 20-80 g/DM3with stages electro-membrane or reverse osmosis desalination; by cleaning concentrate with stage distillation concentration.

A distinctive feature of the method is the fact that before obtaining salts conducts the removal of radionuclides from liquid radioactive waste using selective inorganic sorbent, before disposing of the spent sorbent in the column drain and the disposal of lead by placing columns together with dried sorbents vertically in the container for storage.

Another difference lies in that the dewatering sorbents lead to moisture content in them is less than 5 wt.

Another difference method are that the removal of radionuclides is performed using a selective inorganic sorbent-based transition metal ferrocyanides copper or Nickel and a porous inorganic carrier, and as such sorbent used sorbent grade NGA or MJA.

In addition titanium liquid radioactive waste or by cleaning concentrate 20-80 g/DM stages with electro-membrane or reverse osmosis desalination or by cleaning concentrate with stage distillation concentration. In addition, the distinctive features of the process are that the desalting and concentration LRW lead by distillation or in two stages using a first electro-membrane or reverse osmosis desalination, and then distillation of the concentrate to obtain the salts.

Another difference lies in the fact that reverse osmosis or electro-membrane desalting is carried out to obtain a concentrate 20-80 g/DM3while the filtrates from the stages of the desalination combined with the filtrate from the stage distillation concentration and sent for sorption purification.

Differences of this method are that the stage of purification of the filtrate using sorbents selected from the group of zeolites cubic structure type "A", Sabitov hexagonal structure or zeolites monoclinic structure type of the modified zeolite "Selex-KM and/or ion-exchange resins.

The problem is solved also described plant for complex processing of liquid radioactive waste containing sequentially arranged and interconnected receiver tanks, pretreatment unit, containing the column sorption purification of liquid snabjennyi upper removable covers and inlet and outlet pipes, blocks desalting and concentration and disposal unit waste sorbents and salts, provided with a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste, and disposal unit waste sorbents is a device consisting of a node for drying the sorbent in the column, handling the shipping container for the extraction columns of the protective container, delivery and installation in a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste.

Column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste are established in a protective container so that its output connected to or entering the desalination unit, or block inlet concentration. In a protective container, preferably 4-8 set of columns sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and purification of the filtrate, and the protective container preferably is a module with a cylindrical hole, over which are removable cover with clamping bolts, provided with inlet and outlet pipes. Column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and sorption purification of the filtrate is designed as a sealed cylindrical shells with loading the a or o solution and inlet and outlet pipes, located on one level and is equipped with a detachable sealing hub with spacers, on which they placed in a protective container under the removable covers in limbo at its inlet and outlet pipes. In addition, handling of the transport container recovery unit equipped with a mechanism for remote capture with lock for excavation sorption shell of the protective container, delivery and installation in a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste in the form of a concrete cube with dimensions L x h x H 1.52 x 1.52 x 1,4 m volume 300-900 DM3and features a removable lid.

The hallmark of the installation is that it additionally contains the column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste, placed together with columns sorption purification of the filtrate in a protective container, supplied with removable top covers and inlet and outlet nozzles, and disposal unit waste sorbents is a device consisting of a node for drying the sorbent in the column, handling the shipping container for the extraction columns of the protective container, delivery and installation in protective montaney the container is made in the form of a module with a cylindrical hole, which contained the column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and purification of the filtrate.

Another difference in the installation is that the column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste are established in a protective container so that its output connected to or entering the desalination unit or block inlet concentration.

In addition, a distinctive feature of the installation is that the column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and purification of the filtrate is designed as a sealed cylindrical shell with the loaded sorbent, provided with upper and lower distribution devices and the Central pipe for input or output of the solution and the inlet and outlet nozzles located on one level and is equipped with a detachable sealing hub with spacers.

Other differences install is that the column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and purification of the filtrate is placed in a protective container in the number of 4-8 pieces in limbo at the outlet and inlet connections of the protective container at its top by a removable lid, provided with clamping bolts, using a socket the Wallpaper reinforced concrete module with cylindrical holes.

Another difference of the installation is that reloading a transport container for excavation sorption shell equipped with a mechanism for remote capture feature.

Another difference in the setup is that for recycling of used sorbents and salts using reinforced concrete container, made in the form of a cube with dimensions L x h x H 1.52 x 1.52 x 1,4 m volume 300-900 DM3and features a removable lid.

The proposed installation, the scheme of which is shown in Fig. 1, consists of the following main components: 1 receiver tanks (there are two pieces to separate acceptance of solutions with different salinity, 2 blocks pretreatment (mechanical cleaning, cleaning of NP and surfactant adsorption pretreatment from radionuclides), 3 block desalination (reverse osmosis, electro or distillation desalination), 4 block distillation concentration of obtaining salts, 5 sorption purification unit, 6 unit recycling of used sorbents and salts. 7 protective container for storing solid radioactive waste.

The device operates as follows. The original LRW with a salt content of 0.1-20 g/l served in the receiving tank 1. From these tanks the solutions pumps served on the depending on their content solutions served successively through the various nodes in this block. Then to remove radionuclides of cesium, cobalt and strontium source LRW on stage pretreatment is passed through the column with ferrocyanide sorbent placed in the sorption unit. Schematic of the device of the sorption unit with four columns is shown in Fig. 2.

The block diagram of the column installed in the container depicted in Fig. 3. It consists of the following main parts: 1 detachable protective cover of the container 2 protective rectangular container, 3 sorption shell with a sorbent, 4 top and bottom of the switchgear, the Central pipe 5, 6 inlet and outlet pipes of the container 7 inlet and outlet pipes shells, 8 detachable sealing unit with pads.

The sorption unit additionally has an external clamping bolts 9, installed in a removable container cover, which serve to provide a more reliable seal gaskets in node 8.

Installation for processing of LRW can have several variants. In one of them, modular, sorption unit is installed in an external protective transport container so that on each side there are tanks with original and refined solutions, which odnovremennykh columns in a protective container and the sorption unit in the external protective transport container. The sorption unit is a rectangular container that is shielded from radiation (concrete, metal, including lead). Typically, this block is a rectangular reinforced concrete container, the inner parts of which are four to eight cylindrical holes for installation of the sorption shells. At the top, above the shells, the unit has four to eight removable covers to ensure radiation safety staff. On one of the outer panels of the unit are derived in the General site all inlet and outlet pipes, equipped with a control device. In the inner upper cylindrical portion of the block derived inlet and outlet pipes, which with the help of detachable sealing unit is provided with a gasket placed in limbo columns.

Functional device and the scheme of circulation of fluids in the block shown in Fig. 3.

The original solution for cleaning from mechanical suspensions, and oil is supplied in pre-assembled sorption unit with pre-installed in it all columns pretreatment and sorption purification. Incoming and outgoing rastvorityelye node 8 are received in the inlet pipe shells and then get on top switchgear shell 4. Using this device solutions are evenly distributed across the width of the column and filtered down through the layer of adsorbent located in the adsorption cowling 3. The purified solution (filtrate) is going through the bottom of the distribution device 4 and through the Central tube 5 is fed in the reverse order, first through the discharge pipe shell 7, then through the sealing unit 8 in the outlet branch of the protective container 6. Passing thus consistently on stage pretreatment LRW through two columns loaded with quartz sand and sorbent type Porous-TM" to absorb the oil, and then through two columns loaded ferrocyanides and zeolite sorbents, they almost completely (99%) are cleaned from mechanical impurities, oil and radionuclides of cesium and strontium. Treated thus solutions act in the intermediate tank, and thence pumps, they are served on the block desalting and concentration. From these blocks, the filtrate is directed to the column sorption purification, also installed in the same sorption unit. To get completely free from all harmful chemical contaminants and radionuclides in water solutions complement and microfiltration elements. These two columns are also set in the sorption unit. After such purification solutions do not contain harmful chemical contaminants and radionuclides, and send them to drain in household drains.

If necessary, this sorption unit can operate in a mode filter from the bottom up. In this case, after passing through the supply pipe shell 7 solutions through the Central tube arrives at the bottom of the distribution device 4 and then upwards filtered through a layer of sorbent. Then through the detachable sealing unit 8 solutions come in the outlet branch of the protective container and then on the following stages of treatment.

Through the sorption unit flow solutions with a speed of 10-20 K. O./h (volume of solution equal to the volume of the sorbent).

After the establishment of a resource sorbent to produce a replacement together with sorption shell with the help of the device included in the recovery unit 6 (Fig. 1) in the following sequence. Stop filing initial solution, followed by drying of the sorbent directly into the sorption cowling by means of its connection to a vacuum pump or blowing hot nitrogen. Then use manual prisposobljaemogo mechanism remote capture with lock, pull the sides together with the active sorbent is transported inside the protective container and transported for disposal in special reinforced concrete protective container 7 (Fig. 1).

A seat with a detachable sealing unit put in a new sorption shell with fresh sorbent. Thus, after installation of the sorption shell is inside a protective container in limbo at two o nodes, which are points of support. Due to this, and under the action of its own weight is a reliable sealing of the entire system, preventing leakage of the radioactive solution.

Such a device sorption site allows you to provide the required norms of radiation safety (SPORO-85) conditions of work of the staff during LRW purification and replacing the spent sorbent, removing dangerous operation overload and enabling its compact and safe disposal.

Example 1. Conduct comprehensive purification of liquid radioactive waste of the following composition: total salt content of 2 g/l; suspended solids 100 mg/l; oil 10 mg/l; hardness of 35 mg/l; Cl 0.8 g/l; SAS-6 mg CLASS="ptx2">

Cleanup of lead in the following sequence.

In the first stage mother liquor is directed to the stage pretreatment (removal of mechanical impurities and oil products). These operations are conducted by passing it through a mechanical filter, loaded with quartz sand or modified clinoptilolite sorbent brand "SELEX-KM, and the sorption filter, the loaded sorbent to remove oil - PAROLES-TM". These filters are placed in the sorption unit, similar to those shown in Fig. 2. This block is a rectangular reinforced concrete container, the inner end of which there are eight cylindrical holes for installation of the sorption shells. The top block has eight removable covers to ensure radiation safety. On one of the outer panels of the unit are derived in the General regulatory site all inlet and outlet pipes, equipped with a control device. In the upper parts of the cylindrical holes of the block derived inlet and outlet pipes with gaskets. After these stages LRW with a speed of 10 K. O./h (volume of solution equal to the volume of the sorbent) is passed through the composite ferrocyanide sorbent n is Briony block. Cleared from the main quantity of mechanical impurities, oil and radionuclides of cesium and cobalt solution is directed to electrodialysis desalting on electrodialyzer with running diluate and brine cameras.

In the process, in electrodialyzer salt ions, including radioactive, are transferred from diluate cameras in brine, resulting in the desired degree of purification dilute salts. Electrodialyzer works in the following electric mode: voltage 200 V; current 3 A.

Desalted prior to the salinity of 0.15 g/l of filtrate from diluate camera electrodialyzer desalting again served on the sorption unit for purification by passing through the shell, filled with a synthetic zeolite of the type "A" brand CIP and modified zeolite monoclinic structure brand "SELEX-KM". Shells with sorbents in a protective container are arranged so that the outer part of the shell with sorbents for purification of the filtrate, which serve as radiation protection for the more "active" stages with the pretreatment located in the inner part. Then the solutions are sent to finish the conditioning and deciduousness then 5-10 μm. These operations are necessary to obtain solutions that satisfy sbresny standards for all toxic chemical impurities. Thus, the sorption unit, consisting of 8 sorption of the rings: the four stages of pretreatment and four at the stage of purification is cleaned from radionuclides and hazardous chemical contaminants. In a purified solution of contents b-active radionuclides is < 10-10Ku/l, which corresponds to sbresny standards NRB-96.

The brine solution from the cells with a concentration of 20 g/l direct to the stage of the final concentration, which is carried out in the evaporator the hub of obtaining salts. Homogeneous mixture of dry salts salariat in the primary waterproof container (metal or plastic barrel), and then salariat in the container for long-term storage of SRW, which is used as concrete is made in the form of a cube of size L x h x H 1.52 x 1.52 x 1.4 m and a capacity of 900 cubic inch

Spent sorbents with blocks sorption pretreatment and post-treatment after they reach the specific activity of 10-(2-4)CI/kg also subjected to burial in the same concrete container, but with thicker walls and inner shells using the aforementioned special devices.

Then in their place put a new sorption shell with fresh sorbent. After installing sorption shell is inside a protective container in limbo at two o nodes, which are points of support.

Thus, all of the radionuclides contained in the initial solution, they end up only solid inorganic phase,inorganic sorbents or dry salt.

Example 2. Spend the purification of solutions of type III, with a salt content of 12 g/l; hardness 30 mEq/l; petroleum products (TM) 200 mg/l; suspended solids 100 mg/l; content of other impurities and radionuclides at the level of example 1. Cleaning are on the installation comprising a sorption unit 5 columns, in the following sequence.

First LRW is passed through a filter with "plavusa" foam boot, then filtered through a cartridge filter element with filtration 20 micron. When this is cleaned from NP 95% of the suspended solids 95% Filtration is carried out at an operating pressure of 0.2-0.3 MPa. Next LRW filtered under pressure of 0.04 MPa through the column with a microporous polymeric sorbent mark "PAROLES-TM". All filters are placed in the litter is AB. Throughout these stages is achieved by the removal of radionuclides with a factor of 3-4. Then LRW served on the reverse osmosis desalination unit, equipped with two roll-up of reverse osmosis elements SWHR 30-8040 and cartridge filters 20 and 5 μm. Filtering is carried out at an operating pressure of up to 5.9 MPa by serial transmission LRW through two elements.

Delaying the ability of the used membranes trademark "FT-30 Filmtec" company Dow chemical company (USA) ions of sodium, cesium, chlorine is at least 99.3%, while ions of calcium, magnesium, strontium, heavy metals, surfactants not less than 99.9%

The concentrates from the stage reverse osmosis with a salt content of 80 g/l are collected in a special tank from where it is directed to sorption purification from radioactive cesium. They passed through the column with the FSC brand, MJA, also placed in the sorption unit. After this stage concentrates, not containing radionuclides of cesium, sent for distillation concentration of obtaining crystalline salts and condensate. The concentration of lead in the evaporation apparatus of the direct-flow type heat exchangers pipe-in-pipe, provided with a condenser for condensing the secondary pair. The crystalline salts, leaving the content < 2 mg/l and the specific activity of < 10-9CI/L. After drying, the dry salt utilized in example 1. The condensate after residue combined with demineralized to salt content < 10 mg/l solution after the reverse osmosis (permeate) and subjected to purification by passing through the zeolite monoclinic structure - modified clinoptilolite brand "Selex-KM and active coal SKT. These sorbents loaded in sorption shell also placed in the sorption unit. After purification solutions contain < 10-10CI/l b-active radionuclides and can be discharged into open waters.

Disposal of sorbents are also as described in example 1.

Example 3. Are LRW purification in example 1, except that for processing a mixture of solutions I and II, containing 50 mg/l of ammonium ions and pH-10. Other components of the solution correspond to the shown in example 1. At the stage of purification of the filtrate with a salt concentration of 0.1 g/l consistently passed first through a modified clinoptilolite brand "Selex-KM, and then through synthetic zeolite Sabitova patterns brand JE-95. Disposal of waste (salts and waste sorbents) carried out as in example 1.

Predestinationism way. Before parcoy solutions are subjected to mechanical filtration and cleaning of traces of oil and surfactant, which use a phase separator and two columns sorption pretreatment.

The residue LRW spend the heating steam with R 0.4 MPa in the evaporation apparatus of the natural circulation privelage solution and remote heating chamber with the heat exchange surface 80 m at atmospheric pressure. Obtained after parki VAT residue has a salinity of about 200 g/DM3and the specific activity of 1.5 x 10 CI/k. He was sent first to the sorption purification for the removal of caesium radionuclides through the sorbent NGA, which is located in the sorption unit. Then the purified solution is directed to the crystallization of obtaining salts, which are similar to those described in example 2.

The secondary steam condensate has a specific activity of < 10-9CI/l and sent for treatment. The purification is carried out by passing the condensate through the zeolites CIP and SELEX-KM or through organic sorbents marks KU-2-8 ES and AV-17-YAK. These sorbents loaded into the column in the form of a mixture with a volumetric ratio of 1:1. After purification of the waste solutions are activity < 10-10CI/sheet Disposal of waste (salts and obrezannyy in Fig. 2, includes four columns with sorbent (two stage pretreatment and two at the stage of purification).

In all the above examples, the degree of concentration of radionuclides in TRO 210-250, which is approximately three times higher than the prototype method. This is achieved due to the greater concentration of radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, with the hard spectrum of g-radiation on the sorbents than normal concentration of the evaporating method of obtaining salt and a special method of disposal of used sorbents directly in the column. More than 90% of the total radioactivity in the described way are concentrated in the solid phase selective inorganic sorbents, which after drying themselves are solid inorganic matrix suitable for the disposal of radioactive waste.

Due to this, in the described method using the described device is also significantly reduced the total number of buried radioactive waste. All these factors combined lead to a reduction of the processing cycle and to improve the environmental soundness of the entire process of processing waste.

1. Method for integrated processing of liquid radioactive waste, including the receiving less than 0.5 g/DM3and brine and then concentrated to obtain salts and subsequent purification of the filtrate by passing it through columns with sorbent and disposal of salts and waste sorbents by placing them in an insulating protective storage container, characterized in that before obtaining salts conducts the removal of radionuclides from liquid radioactive waste using selective inorganic sorbent, before disposing of the spent sorbent in the column drain and disposal of lead by placing columns together with dried sorbents vertically in the container.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein as the inorganic sorbent for removal of radionuclides used sorbent-based transition metal ferrocyanides copper or Nickel and a porous inorganic carrier.

3. The method according to p. 2, wherein as the inorganic sorbent used sorbents grade NGA or MJA.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the dehydration of sorbents lead to moisture content in them is less than 5 wt.

5. The method according to p. 1, wherein the desalting and concentration of liquid radioactive waste are by distillation until the floor is lacienega concentration.

7. The method according to p. 1, wherein the desalting and concentration of liquid radioactive waste are in two stages using at the beginning of electro-membrane or reverse osmosis desalination, and then distillation of the concentrate to obtain the salts.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the removal of radionuclides is performed on stage pretreatment before desalting of liquid radioactive waste or before the stage of concentration.

9. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the electro-membrane or reverse osmosis desalting is carried out to obtain a concentrate of 20 to 80 g/DM3while the filtrates from the stages of the desalination combined with the distillate from the stage distillation concentration and direct to the stage of purification.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at the stage of purification of the filtrate use of inorganic sorbents on the basis of transition metal ferrocyanides copper or Nickel and a porous inorganic carrier and/or natural or synthetic zeolites cubic, monoclinic or hexagonal structure and organic cation exchangers and anion exchangers.

11. Plant for complex processing of liquid radioactive environment, and, desalting and concentration, column sorption purification of the filtrate and disposal unit waste sorbents and salts, provided with a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste, characterized in that it further comprises a column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste, placed together with columns sorption purification of the filtrate in a protective container, supplied with removable top covers and inlet and outlet nozzles, and disposal unit waste sorbents is a device consisting of a node for drying the sorbent in the column, handling the shipping container for the extraction columns of the protective container, delivery and installation in a protective container for storing solid radioactive waste.

12. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that the protective container is made in the form of a module with a cylindrical hole, which contained a column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and purification of the filtrate.

13. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste are established in a protective container so that its output connected to or entering the block Onna sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and purification of the filtrate is designed as a sealed cylindrical shell with the loaded sorbent, equipped with upper and lower distribution devices, a Central pipe for input or output of the solution and the inlet and outlet nozzles located on one level and is equipped with a detachable sealing hub with spacers.

15. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that column sorption purification of liquid radioactive waste and purification of the filtrate is placed in a protective container 4 8 pieces under his upper removable lids provided with clamping bolts, so that they are in limbo for two detachable sealing the nodes based on the discharge and supply pipes protective container.

16. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that the handling of the transport container for excavation sorption shell equipped with a mechanism for remote capture feature.

17. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that a protective container for the disposal of salts and waste sorbents is a concrete cube with external dimensions L B H 1,52 1,52 1.4 m, with a volume of 300 900 DM3equipped with a removable cover.

 

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