A method of obtaining a polymer and installation for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the chemical industry, in particular in the field of polymer chemistry. The inventive reactor, connected to the means for creating a low pressure through a supersonic nozzle of the plasma torch and input devices monomer gas at a supersonic velocity of the injected plasma flows and Monomeric gas, respectively. These flows are directed into the cavity of the reactor towards each other with the formation of the interaction of shock waves that activates included in the polymerization reaction of the particles of substances such as ions, radicals, etc., the Plasma will receive the torch from a mixture of monomer and inert gases. Additionally, in the reaction zone of the polymerization through the device, the introduction of various chemical additives, which provides for the production of polymer with different physico-chemical properties. In this case the formation of the polymer is conducted in the volume of the cavity of the reactor with the use of the substrate, and without the latter. The polymer rebuff on the reactor plates. In the device for producing polymer input device monomer gas of the reactor and the outlet pipe of the plasma torch is made in the form of supersonic nozzles, RA. plasmatron has a mixer connected to the pipe entering the monomer gas. The connection of the input of inert gas connected to the specified mixer. The reactor is made from at least one input device chemical additives. Installation is also provided with plates for separation of the polymer is placed in the cavity of the reactor with the orientation of their surfaces to meet the resulting stream from the collision of the above counter-flows and/or parallel to the axis of the plasma flow to the zone of interaction of these opposing streams. At least a portion of the plates for separation of the polymer is made of metal and has a device for connecting a voltage source. 2 S. and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to the field of polymer chemistry, in particular to obtain the latest plasma method, and can be used to create polymers with different properties.

A method of obtaining polymers with glow discharge, namely, that in the area of low pressure serves monomer and create a charge when this occurs, the collapse of the monomer with the formation of ions, radicals and, to a lesser extent, with the formation of neutral atoms. Polymerization occurs either on elec is alimera because of the small volume of incoming into the reaction zone of the monomer (1 cm2not more than 5 DM3and /or restrictions designated polymer formation area of the substrate, a low rate of polymer formation (less than 60 at high energy cost (over 104J/g).

The closest analogue of the claimed method is a method of producing polymers, namely, that by using the plasma generator based on a cascade arc discharge creates a plasma torch in the area of low pressure, Inuktitut him monomer and induce a plasma torch on a substrate for formation of her thin polymer films [2]

As follows from the above description of the known method, when it is used to receive the polymer in the form of a thin film on a substrate, to obtain the same powder with a polymer coating, it is necessary injection of monomer to introduce the powder, such as metal, acting as a substrate. Moreover, in accordance with this method to obtain a polymer required to produce the energy consumption of the order of 104.105J per 1 g of the obtained polymer.

The disadvantages of the above method include low polymer yield (the rate of its formation, and the number of finished product), inability to obtain tx2">

A known device for producing a polymer containing a reactor device for creating a low pressure and input Monomeric gas and connected to the output of the plasma torch with a nozzle entering inert gas [2]

Known installation inherent low speed interaction of the monomer with the plasma compared to the rate of formation of the plasma, which leads to a low rate of formation of polymer at high energy cost (of the order of 104.105J to obtain 1 g of polymer), and the low utilization rate of the monomer (less than 10%). In addition, in this setting it is impossible to obtain pure polymer in powder form.

The aim of the invention is to develop a method of obtaining a polymer and installation for its implementation, allowing to expand the composition of the obtained polymers, such as polymer powders (without substrate), and films, as well as increase the rate of formation of polymers and the increasing use of monomers.

The above technical result is in accordance with the proposed method is achieved by the fact that the plasma creates a non-equilibrium (with superequilibrium concentrations of active particles (radicals, ions, mashabela) of a mixture of a trade is education in their interaction of shock waves, in this case, to obtain a polymer with the desired properties in the zone of interaction between the plasma and Monomeric gas is injected additives that modify the structure of the polymer, for example SO2, NO2, mercaptans and other [3] As is known, the polymerization of hydrocarbons, mercaptans are analogues of alcohols, from which they differ, that instead of the oxygen atom in the radical linked to the alkyl radical, they contain a sulfur atom.

Easily giving the hydrogen atom in the interaction with the growing polymer radical, in which the latter becomes saturated polymer molecule), a molecule mercaptan becomes the initiator of a polymer chain.

The polymer can be mounted on plates that are installed in the reactor for process intensification, these plates can be connected to the voltage source.

In accordance with the proposed installation of the technical result is achieved by the fact that the plasma torch is made with a mixer and an additional pipe entering the monomer gas, the pipe entering the inert gas is connected to the above mixer, and an output section. The last and the input device monomer gas of the reactor is performed in the I in the cavity of the reactor opposing streams flowing out of the nozzles environments. This reactor can be provided with an input device additives and plates for separation of the polymer, is connected to the voltage source.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of a plant for producing polymer; Fig. 2 - comparative curves of polymer formation on the well-known 1 and II methods; Fig. 3 absorption spectra of the polymer obtained in the interaction of argon-methane plasma with blown CH4(about 30% of plasma), and Fig. 4 spectrograms of absorption of the polymers obtained by the reaction of a mixture of CH4-SO2-CH3SH c argon-methane plasma with different concentrations of the above mixture (5.10% compared to methane), and Fig. 5 spectrogram absorption of the polymers obtained by the reaction of argon-methane (1) and krypton-methane (2) plasmas with methane and additives: SO2and mercaptan (not more than 5% compared to methane);

in Fig. 6 absorption spectrum of the polymer film obtained on the basis of argon-methane plasma;

in Fig. 7 characteristics of heat resistance of the polymer obtained in the interaction of argon-methane plasma with methane and additives CH3SH (about 5% relative to methane).

In Fig. 1 in schematic image shows thou shalt open shows) create in his oral low pressure. When this reactor is made with the input device 3 Monomeric gas in its cavity, which is a supersonic nozzle type, and the plasma torch has a mixer (the drawing is not marked) two pipes 4 and 5, respectively, to enter inert and Monomeric gases, and also to the output section 6 in the form of a supersonic nozzle connected to the reactor. The location in the cavity of the reactor 1 nozzle device 3 enter monomer gas and the output section 6 of the plasma torch is so leaving them flows environments would be directed towards or at an angle to each other with the formation in the interaction of shock waves.

The reactor may be provided with a device 7 input additives, and its cavity can be placed in the plate 8 for separation of the polymer and the surface of the wafer, it is advisable to Orient towards the resulting stream is obtained when the collision of plasma coming out of the plasma torch 2, and the monomer gas which is blown through the supersonic nozzle device 3 of the reactor 2. Plate 8 can be placed in the cavity of the reactor 1 to the area of occurrence of shock waves with the orientation of their surfaces parallel to the axis of the plasma flow. These plates 8 may be the implementation of the rd connection thereto of a voltage source (not shown). Most preferred is the placement device 7 input additives to ensure delivery of the latest in the plasma flow.

Obtaining a polymer in accordance with the proposed method is carried out in the above setting as follows.

In the plasma torch 2 through the pipe 4 introducing the inert gas through the pipe 5 - monomer gas, which can be used, for example, argon or krypton, and methane, respectively. In the plasma torch 2 get nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma, which through a supersonic nozzle outlet area 6 is blown into the cavity of the reactor 1, through a supersonic nozzle device 3 enter monomer gas.

As a result of interaction of these supersonic flows in the cavity of the reactor 1 are formed of a shock wave, which contribute to the activation comprising the polymerization reaction of the particles, such as ions, radicals, etc., by increasing their density and electronic excitation. In Fig. 2 shows comparative curves of polymer formation on the basis of CH4on the surface of the substrate. In the zone of interaction of plasma jets with additional blown Monomeric gas intensive course of reactions of polymerization and is built in the result of the above actions powdery polymer. For plasma used argon and methane in the number of, respectively, 80 and 20% of the feed rate of the gases was DM3/with deposited power was 6 kW. As the monomer gas was used methane, which was uduwela with weight consumption, 30% of the plasma flow.

The polymerization process was intensified by the entry into the reactor through the feed system Monomeric advanced gas mixture of mercaptan and SO2(in the amount of 10% of the injected methane). The result was obtained polymer powder, comprising in its structure of sulfur-containing radicals and compounds (Fig. 4,5). Simultaneously with the formation of the powder in the reactor 1 were obtained polymer film on the wafers (substrates) 8 (Fig. 6).

The data of experimental studies confirm the possibility of the establishment of the proposed way of polymers of various types, both in composition and state (powder, film).

Studies have shown that solid-phase reaction products are polymers on the basis of hydrocarbons with different physicochemical properties.

In the IR spectra was observed signals valence (3000.2800 cm-1) and deformation (C in the samples of the detected signals SO2, S=S and other groups.

The analysis of the obtained polymers showed the presence of ethylene, methylmethacrylate and ethylacrylate groups.

According to EPR spectroscopy in the obtained samples of the polymers of this type the number of paramagnetic centers was 1017.1018one gram of a substance with low energy consumption and 1020.1021one gram of a substance at higher energy (currents in the plasma torch ranged from 300 to 600 A).

With increasing contribution of energy and the percentage of methane was observed changing the properties of the resulting polymers.

In the IR spectra of these polymers was observed blurred broad absorption band of the valence and deformation vibrations of CH2CH3groups with low intensity, which indicates a high degree of polyisoprene hydrocarbon chains.

Wide line signals in the EPR spectra of these samples are typical for polymers with conjugated bonds containing heteroatoms, electron-donor and electron-acceptor groups in the conjugated, with the resulting polymers have high thermal stability (Fig. 7).

Comparison of nested energy per unit of consumption from my technical level about 10 times ([1] S. 266, Fig.9.26, 9.27).

A wide range of structures of the resulting polymers can be used in various fields of national economy, for example, as coatings, fillers and biostimulants, it should be noted the high speed polymers (several times higher than in the known methods).

1. A method of obtaining a polymer by reacting the monomer gas with low temperature plasma, wherein the plasma creates a non-equilibrium mixture of inert and Monomeric gases with superequilibrium concentrations of ions, excited radicals and atoms, the plasma and Monomeric gas is fed into the reactor at a supersonic speed with education from the collision of their flows with shock waves.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the plasma and/or Monomeric gas serves chemical additive.

3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the polymer rebuff on the reactor plate.

4. Device for producing a polymer containing connected to the means of creating a low-pressure reactor input device monomer gas and connected to the reactor its weekend section of the plasma torch with a nozzle entering the inert gas, ExC is e supersonic or sonic nozzles, positioned relative to each other with the formation of the cavity of the reactor opposing streams coming from these environments, the plasma torch has a mixer connected to the pipe input Monomeric gas pipe entry of inert gas connected to the specified mixer.

5. Installation according to p. 4, characterized in that the reactor is made from at least one input device chemical additives.

6. Installation on PP.4 and 5, characterized in that it is provided with plates for separation of the polymer is placed in the cavity of the reactor with the orientation of their surfaces to meet the resulting flow from the collision of the opposing flows and/or parallel to the axis of the plasma flow to the zone of interaction of counter flows.

7. Installation according to p. 6, characterized in that at least part of the wafers for the deposition of polymer made of quartz material.

8. Installation on PP.6 and 7, characterized in that at least part of the plates for separation of the polymer is made of metal and has a device for connecting a voltage source.

 

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