A method of obtaining a polymer and installation for its implementation
(57) Abstract:Usage: in the chemical industry, in particular in the field of polymer chemistry. The inventive reactor, connected to the means for creating a low pressure through a supersonic nozzle of the plasma torch and input devices monomer gas at a supersonic velocity of the injected plasma flows and Monomeric gas, respectively. These flows are directed into the cavity of the reactor towards each other with the formation of the interaction of shock waves that activates included in the polymerization reaction of the particles of substances such as ions, radicals, etc., the Plasma will receive the torch from a mixture of monomer and inert gases. Additionally, in the reaction zone of the polymerization through the device, the introduction of various chemical additives, which provides for the production of polymer with different physico-chemical properties. In this case the formation of the polymer is conducted in the volume of the cavity of the reactor with the use of the substrate, and without the latter. The polymer rebuff on the reactor plates. In the device for producing polymer input device monomer gas of the reactor and the outlet pipe of the plasma torch is made in the form of supersonic nozzles, RA. plasmatron has a mixer connected to the pipe entering the monomer gas. The connection of the input of inert gas connected to the specified mixer. The reactor is made from at least one input device chemical additives. Installation is also provided with plates for separation of the polymer is placed in the cavity of the reactor with the orientation of their surfaces to meet the resulting stream from the collision of the above counter-flows and/or parallel to the axis of the plasma flow to the zone of interaction of these opposing streams. At least a portion of the plates for separation of the polymer is made of metal and has a device for connecting a voltage source. 2 S. and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il. The invention relates to the field of polymer chemistry, in particular to obtain the latest plasma method, and can be used to create polymers with different properties.A method of obtaining polymers with glow discharge, namely, that in the area of low pressure serves monomer and create a charge when this occurs, the collapse of the monomer with the formation of ions, radicals and, to a lesser extent, with the formation of neutral atoms. Polymerization occurs either on elec is alimera because of the small volume of incoming into the reaction zone of the monomer (1 cm2not more than 5 DM3and /or restrictions designated polymer formation area of the substrate, a low rate of polymer formation (less than 60 at high energy cost (over 104J/g).The closest analogue of the claimed method is a method of producing polymers, namely, that by using the plasma generator based on a cascade arc discharge creates a plasma torch in the area of low pressure, Inuktitut him monomer and induce a plasma torch on a substrate for formation of her thin polymer films 
As follows from the above description of the known method, when it is used to receive the polymer in the form of a thin film on a substrate, to obtain the same powder with a polymer coating, it is necessary injection of monomer to introduce the powder, such as metal, acting as a substrate. Moreover, in accordance with this method to obtain a polymer required to produce the energy consumption of the order of 104.105J per 1 g of the obtained polymer.The disadvantages of the above method include low polymer yield (the rate of its formation, and the number of finished product), inability to obtain tx2">A known device for producing a polymer containing a reactor device for creating a low pressure and input Monomeric gas and connected to the output of the plasma torch with a nozzle entering inert gas 
Known installation inherent low speed interaction of the monomer with the plasma compared to the rate of formation of the plasma, which leads to a low rate of formation of polymer at high energy cost (of the order of 104.105J to obtain 1 g of polymer), and the low utilization rate of the monomer (less than 10%). In addition, in this setting it is impossible to obtain pure polymer in powder form.The aim of the invention is to develop a method of obtaining a polymer and installation for its implementation, allowing to expand the composition of the obtained polymers, such as polymer powders (without substrate), and films, as well as increase the rate of formation of polymers and the increasing use of monomers.The above technical result is in accordance with the proposed method is achieved by the fact that the plasma creates a non-equilibrium (with superequilibrium concentrations of active particles (radicals, ions, mashabela) of a mixture of a trade is education in their interaction of shock waves, in this case, to obtain a polymer with the desired properties in the zone of interaction between the plasma and Monomeric gas is injected additives that modify the structure of the polymer, for example SO2, NO2, mercaptans and other  As is known, the polymerization of hydrocarbons, mercaptans are analogues of alcohols, from which they differ, that instead of the oxygen atom in the radical linked to the alkyl radical, they contain a sulfur atom.Easily giving the hydrogen atom in the interaction with the growing polymer radical, in which the latter becomes saturated polymer molecule), a molecule mercaptan becomes the initiator of a polymer chain.The polymer can be mounted on plates that are installed in the reactor for process intensification, these plates can be connected to the voltage source.In accordance with the proposed installation of the technical result is achieved by the fact that the plasma torch is made with a mixer and an additional pipe entering the monomer gas, the pipe entering the inert gas is connected to the above mixer, and an output section. The last and the input device monomer gas of the reactor is performed in the I in the cavity of the reactor opposing streams flowing out of the nozzles environments. This reactor can be provided with an input device additives and plates for separation of the polymer, is connected to the voltage source.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of a plant for producing polymer; Fig. 2 - comparative curves of polymer formation on the well-known 1 and II methods; Fig. 3 absorption spectra of the polymer obtained in the interaction of argon-methane plasma with blown CH4(about 30% of plasma), and Fig. 4 spectrograms of absorption of the polymers obtained by the reaction of a mixture of CH4-SO2-CH3SH c argon-methane plasma with different concentrations of the above mixture (5.10% compared to methane), and Fig. 5 spectrogram absorption of the polymers obtained by the reaction of argon-methane (1) and krypton-methane (2) plasmas with methane and additives: SO2and mercaptan (not more than 5% compared to methane);
in Fig. 6 absorption spectrum of the polymer film obtained on the basis of argon-methane plasma;
in Fig. 7 characteristics of heat resistance of the polymer obtained in the interaction of argon-methane plasma with methane and additives CH3SH (about 5% relative to methane).In Fig. 1 in schematic image shows thou shalt open shows) create in his oral low pressure. When this reactor is made with the input device 3 Monomeric gas in its cavity, which is a supersonic nozzle type, and the plasma torch has a mixer (the drawing is not marked) two pipes 4 and 5, respectively, to enter inert and Monomeric gases, and also to the output section 6 in the form of a supersonic nozzle connected to the reactor. The location in the cavity of the reactor 1 nozzle device 3 enter monomer gas and the output section 6 of the plasma torch is so leaving them flows environments would be directed towards or at an angle to each other with the formation in the interaction of shock waves.The reactor may be provided with a device 7 input additives, and its cavity can be placed in the plate 8 for separation of the polymer and the surface of the wafer, it is advisable to Orient towards the resulting stream is obtained when the collision of plasma coming out of the plasma torch 2, and the monomer gas which is blown through the supersonic nozzle device 3 of the reactor 2. Plate 8 can be placed in the cavity of the reactor 1 to the area of occurrence of shock waves with the orientation of their surfaces parallel to the axis of the plasma flow. These plates 8 may be the implementation of the rd connection thereto of a voltage source (not shown). Most preferred is the placement device 7 input additives to ensure delivery of the latest in the plasma flow.Obtaining a polymer in accordance with the proposed method is carried out in the above setting as follows.In the plasma torch 2 through the pipe 4 introducing the inert gas through the pipe 5 - monomer gas, which can be used, for example, argon or krypton, and methane, respectively. In the plasma torch 2 get nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma, which through a supersonic nozzle outlet area 6 is blown into the cavity of the reactor 1, through a supersonic nozzle device 3 enter monomer gas.As a result of interaction of these supersonic flows in the cavity of the reactor 1 are formed of a shock wave, which contribute to the activation comprising the polymerization reaction of the particles, such as ions, radicals, etc., by increasing their density and electronic excitation. In Fig. 2 shows comparative curves of polymer formation on the basis of CH4on the surface of the substrate. In the zone of interaction of plasma jets with additional blown Monomeric gas intensive course of reactions of polymerization and is built in the result of the above actions powdery polymer. For plasma used argon and methane in the number of, respectively, 80 and 20% of the feed rate of the gases was DM3/with deposited power was 6 kW. As the monomer gas was used methane, which was uduwela with weight consumption, 30% of the plasma flow.The polymerization process was intensified by the entry into the reactor through the feed system Monomeric advanced gas mixture of mercaptan and SO2(in the amount of 10% of the injected methane). The result was obtained polymer powder, comprising in its structure of sulfur-containing radicals and compounds (Fig. 4,5). Simultaneously with the formation of the powder in the reactor 1 were obtained polymer film on the wafers (substrates) 8 (Fig. 6).The data of experimental studies confirm the possibility of the establishment of the proposed way of polymers of various types, both in composition and state (powder, film).Studies have shown that solid-phase reaction products are polymers on the basis of hydrocarbons with different physicochemical properties.In the IR spectra was observed signals valence (3000.2800 cm-1) and deformation (C in the samples of the detected signals SO2, S=S and other groups.The analysis of the obtained polymers showed the presence of ethylene, methylmethacrylate and ethylacrylate groups.According to EPR spectroscopy in the obtained samples of the polymers of this type the number of paramagnetic centers was 1017.1018one gram of a substance with low energy consumption and 1020.1021one gram of a substance at higher energy (currents in the plasma torch ranged from 300 to 600 A).With increasing contribution of energy and the percentage of methane was observed changing the properties of the resulting polymers.In the IR spectra of these polymers was observed blurred broad absorption band of the valence and deformation vibrations of CH2CH3groups with low intensity, which indicates a high degree of polyisoprene hydrocarbon chains.Wide line signals in the EPR spectra of these samples are typical for polymers with conjugated bonds containing heteroatoms, electron-donor and electron-acceptor groups in the conjugated, with the resulting polymers have high thermal stability (Fig. 7).Comparison of nested energy per unit of consumption from my technical level about 10 times ( S. 266, Fig.9.26, 9.27).A wide range of structures of the resulting polymers can be used in various fields of national economy, for example, as coatings, fillers and biostimulants, it should be noted the high speed polymers (several times higher than in the known methods). 1. A method of obtaining a polymer by reacting the monomer gas with low temperature plasma, wherein the plasma creates a non-equilibrium mixture of inert and Monomeric gases with superequilibrium concentrations of ions, excited radicals and atoms, the plasma and Monomeric gas is fed into the reactor at a supersonic speed with education from the collision of their flows with shock waves.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the plasma and/or Monomeric gas serves chemical additive.3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the polymer rebuff on the reactor plate.4. Device for producing a polymer containing connected to the means of creating a low-pressure reactor input device monomer gas and connected to the reactor its weekend section of the plasma torch with a nozzle entering the inert gas, ExC is e supersonic or sonic nozzles, positioned relative to each other with the formation of the cavity of the reactor opposing streams coming from these environments, the plasma torch has a mixer connected to the pipe input Monomeric gas pipe entry of inert gas connected to the specified mixer.5. Installation according to p. 4, characterized in that the reactor is made from at least one input device chemical additives.6. Installation on PP.4 and 5, characterized in that it is provided with plates for separation of the polymer is placed in the cavity of the reactor with the orientation of their surfaces to meet the resulting flow from the collision of the opposing flows and/or parallel to the axis of the plasma flow to the zone of interaction of counter flows.7. Installation according to p. 6, characterized in that at least part of the wafers for the deposition of polymer made of quartz material.8. Installation on PP.6 and 7, characterized in that at least part of the plates for separation of the polymer is made of metal and has a device for connecting a voltage source.
FIELD: inorganic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing chlorine dioxide from chlorate ions and hydrogen peroxide in small scales. Chlorate ions, sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide are fed into reactor as aqueous solutions wherein they are mixed. Chlorate ions are reduced to chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide-containing product flow is formed in reactor. Flowing water is fed into ejector fitted by jet by spiral or helically. The product flow from reactor passes into ejector and mixed with water and chlorine dioxide diluted solution is formed. Invention provides preparing chlorine dioxide aqueous solution of high concentration and high output.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
18 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of polyethylene in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of polyethylene in the tubular reactors with the curing chambers or without them. The method provides, that the chain-radical initiator with cold ethylene or without it is fed into the flowing liquid medium containing ethylene with a comonomer. Conduct swirling of two being mixed streams at an angle or by means of the provided swirling component - in the cross section of the stream. In the zone of the area of introduction of the chain-radical initiator there is a narrowing of the cross-section, in which through a eccentrically located optimized outlet hole of the finger-shaped feeding component in the swirled stream introduce the chain-radical initiator.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a reliable introduction of the initiator in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.
20 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: oil processing industry; mixing devices of the reactors of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to mixing devices of the reactors of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking and may be used in oil processing industry. The mixing device of the reactor of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking contains the central collector of the granulated catalytic agent with the annular diaphragm and the peripheral pipelines for discharge of the catalytic agent, the internal injector for feeding of the two-phase gas-raw mixture (GRM) and the mixing chamber. Additionally the mixing device contains: the assembly of the preliminary mixing of the liquid and steam stages, consisting of the central fairing and three or more guiding vanes mounted at an angle of 45-60° to the axis of the fairing; the assembly of dispersion of the GRM, which is mounted in front of the injector and representing the cylindrical pipe with the holes in its wall for the steam supply arranged at an angle, which corresponds to the angle of the spin of the stream of the GRM coming out from the assembly of the preliminary mixing. The injector has the diffuser and the fairing with the through vertical hole. The invention increases conversion of the raw material in the reactor of the catalytic cracking and reduces formation on the catalytic agent of the coke high the high contents of hydrogen causing the thermal destruction of the catalytic agent in the regenerator.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion of the raw materials in the reactor of the catalytic cracking, reduced formation on the catalytic agent of the coke high the high contents of hydrogen causing the thermal destruction of the catalytic agent in the regenerator.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, oil shales, peat, paper, board, domestic and agricultural wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices intended for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, and also the shales, peat, paper, board, agricultural wastes and the domestic waste. The reaction chamber of the high-temperature reactor has the water-cooled body opened from both butts. In the internal volume of the body there is the chamber of the pyrolysis (4), the hardening chamber (5) and the sparger, which has been made with the capability of the water sputtering in the hardening chamber (5). The reaction chamber is supplied with the injectors (8) and the enveloping the body first toroidal collector (12) for the gas feeding and the second toroidal collector (15) for feeding of the reprocessing stock into the injectors (8). The body consists of two parts, the first of which is made in the form of the cone. The smaller diameter conical part (1) is adjoined with the cylindrical part (2), which diameter exceeds the greater diameter of the conic part (1). The sparger is made in the form of the parallel small pipes (3) orientated in the plane, which is perpendicular to the axis of the body, and dividing its volume into the pyrolysis chamber (4) and the hardening chamber (5). The small pipes (3) in their middle have the section salient towards the conical part (1). The small pipes have the holes (7) orientated towards the hardening chamber (50. The injectors (8) are evenly distributed along the circumference. Their outlet nozzles (9) are located in the pyrolysis chamber (4), and the inlet nozzles (10) are connected to the first toroidal collector (12). In the lateral wall of each injector (8) there is the channel (14) connected to the second collector (15). The outlet nozzles (9) of the injectors (8) can be located both in the conical part (1) of the body, and in its cylindrical part (2). The invention expands the technological capabilities of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities of the process.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: equipment for processing of bottoms, tars, bitumens, petroleum residues etc.
SUBSTANCE: reactor has unit 8 for ignition of gaseous mixture and built-up cooled casing consisting of working fluid generation chamber 5, pyrolysis chamber with unit 19 for feeding of crude material to be processed, and quenching chambers 7. Reactant supply and discharge branch pipes are attached to casing. Reactor is further provided with hot gas generator 4 whose outlet is connected to inlet of working fluid generation chamber 5. Hot gas generator 4 has internal combustion chamber 9 equipped with walls 10 coaxial to casing of hot gas generator 4. Combustion chamber 9 is communicating with unit 8 for ignition of gaseous mixture and is equipped with branch pipe 13 for feeding of combustion initiating gas. Collector 16 with radial openings 17 is established in inlet part of working fluid generation chamber 5. Collector 16 is communicating with branch pipe 18 for feeding of combustible. Unit 19 for feeding of crude material to be processed is positioned between working fluid generation chamber 5 and pyrolysis chamber 6. Unit 19 is made in the form of radial nozzles 20 fixed on reactor casing. Unit for feeding of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas positioned between pyrolysis chamber 6 and quenching chamber 7 is made in the form radial nozzles 22 fixed on reactor casing.
EFFECT: improved quality of resultant product and substantially increased time between servicing.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; devices for realization of the chemical reactions and the mass-exchange processes in the heterogeneous systems.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the apparatus for realization of the chemical reactions and the mass-exchange processes. The pulsation apparatus for treatment of the suspensions consists of the device for inlet of the disperse phase, which body is made in the form of the Venturi tube consisting of the cylinder-cone type convergent tube, the mounted in the body coaxially to it nozzle sealed by the tightening and ending by the branch-pipe used for the dispersion phase feeding. The body is supplied with the feeding branch-pipes, each of which is made in the form of the elbow fitting and is mounted with the capability of rotation around its axis. The apparatus contains also the tank with the branch-pipe connecting the tank with the circulation pump, to which the circulation pipeline used for the liquid continuous phase is connected. The tank is supplied with the branch-pipes and the circulation pipeline for the disperse phase. The regulating valves are intended for regulation of the ratio of the consumptions of the newly-fed liquid phase and the circulating liquid continuous phase, for regulation of the ratio of consumptions of the newly-fed and the circulating dispersion phase and for withdrawal of the spent dispersion phase. The nozzle has the capability of the axial relocation concerning the body. The invention allows to raise efficiency of the apparatus operation due to the increased degree of the dispersion of the dispersion phase and the coefficients of the mass transfer, provision of the more lengthy duration of the phases contact.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the apparatus operation, the increased degree of the dispersion of the dispersion phase and the coefficients of the mass transfer, provision of the more lengthy duration of the phases contact.
2 dwg, 2 ex