Method of rice cultivation
(57) Abstract:Usage: refers agriculture, in particular, to methods of rice cultivation. The inventive method of rice cultivation involves sowing seeds, the flooding of 25 - 30 cm and regulation of the water layer, thus sowing carried out randomly by the way, the layer of water 20 - 30 cm to support the emergence of seedlings 5 cm, after which the water dumped on 1 - 2 days, then the water layer increases up to 20 - 25, see table 2. The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of rice cultivation.There is a method of rice cultivation Technology of rice cultivation. Methodical instructions. M. Kolos, 1983, S. 62), which includes fall, spring and pre-sowing soil preparation, seeding the flooding layer of 0.1 0.12 m, the water discharge naklevyvaniya seeds, re-flooding of the layer of 0.12 0.15 m after the emergence of seedlings of rice for the first sheet, and then a seedling corn Buntings no more than two leaves, but in such a way that the layer of water above the height of seedling weeds not less than 0,05 0,07 m, the lower water layer to 0.05 m after gibelli weeds, with the emergence of Fig 8 sheet prior waxy water level increase in the receipt of 0.1 0.12 m, the water flow stops in cecba are a low percentage of field germination of seeds, the presence of weeds, reduction in yields, high energy and labor.There is a method of rice cultivation in the so-called shortened flooding (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation in the zone of the Azov marshes. Krasnodar, 1983. S. 39 40), including tillage, planting rice, Bay cheques water immediately after sowing, the water layer 0,05 0,07 m water discharge after naklevyvaniya seeds, processing of dried crops with herbicides and the subsequent flooding water 0,12 0,15 m after 48 h, the lower layer of water in the early phase of tillering up to 0.05 m, and at the end of tillering creating a water layer of 0.20 - 0.25 m, which is then reduced to 0.1 0.12 m and is maintained at this level until the early dough stage of grain with a subsequent reset.The main disadvantages of this method are the need of the use of herbicides; low seed germinability (40 50%) inhibition of rice, because the break in the flooding leads to massive amounts of weeds, which is rapidly overtaking in the growth of rice, high energy and labor.There is a method of rice cultivation  we adopted as the prototype, including pre-sowing soil treatment, planting rice in the furrow, sealed walls, for which their water supply to natural depletion of the water layer (lower) due to evaporation and filtration to a depth of 0.08 to 0.12 m so, to the upper part of the leaf rice was above the water, as the plant growth enhancing layer of water to 0.15 to 0.25 M. the disadvantages of the method are: low survival rate of plants, as under a layer of water 0,20 0,30 m (deadline 25 - 30 days), without a well-developed roots (lack of oxygen) and a large leaf surface, emerging from coleoptile and nutrients seed, rice POPs up and washed ashore, reduced productivity, high energy and labor.The objective of the invention yield increase due to a higher percentage of field germination, reduce energy and labor costs.For this planting carried out randomly by the way, cheques flood water 25 to 30 cm until the seedlings are 5 cm (8 to 10 days), after which the water dropping on the 1st 2 days. As lowering of the water layer increases the flow of oxygen to the plant, which helps to stimulate growth, strengthening the root system of flooding of rice, as well as the beginning of the sprouting corn Buntings. Then checks flooded with a layer of water 20 to 25 cm (7 to 9) up to the total loss of corn Buntings, then reduce the layer of water 5 to 10 cm to mass tillering, as plant growth layer of water is increased to 20 seeComparative analysis of the prototype m flooding the water layer 25 to 30 cm until the seedlings are 5 cm and the total water discharge for 1 2 days with subsequent flooding 20 25 see Thus, the proposed solution meets the criterion of "novelty."Comparative analysis with the known solution showed that receive discharges from those in 2 days after naklevyvaniya rice seeds known (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation in the zone of the Azov marshes. Krasnodar, 1983, S. 39 40), but it is used for treatment of crops with herbicides against corn Buntings. In the proposed method, the receiving water discharge from checks is used to saturate the soil with oxygen, stimulate growth and strengthen the root system of rice germination, corn Buntings, resulting in increased seedling density, increases productivity, reduces costs and allows to make a conclusion about conformity of the offered invention, the criterion of "inventive step".The method was tested in elite seed farm "Red" S=808 ha Control served as a way of sowing in the open furrow with a constant regime of flooding at S=61 hectaresMethod of rice cultivation involves the following sequential operations.1. After ploskoreznaja tillage to a depth of 14 cm PCN-3,6, packing, discomania, undertake sowing of rice planter NRC-0,5, allowing the OS is relevant for the rolling of heavy wheels.2. Cheques flood layer of water 20 to 25 cm 8 10 days until seedlings of rice 5 see3. Water discharge completely in 1 to 2 days.4. Cheques flood layer of water 20 to 25 cm 7 9.Records of seedling density on the test sections was carried out within the framework of size 0,h,5 m which were placed along the diagonal through 50 m Records showed that seedling density on crops under the proposed method was 600 plants per m2and the prototype method 400 plants per m2.Yield, respectively:
73,8 kg/ha and 59.5 kg/ha.The cost of 1 hectare: 917988 RUB 1171265 RUB Cleaning finished 10 days earlier.The main advantages of predlagaemogo method are:
the yield increase of 14.3 kg/ha due to the large density of rice plants is associated with a high percentage (70%) field germination of seeds;
reducing the cost of cultivation of rice on 153277 RUB/ha;
eradication of weeds;
the reduction of the vegetation period by 10 days. Method of rice cultivation, including planting seeds, the flooding of 25 to 30 cm and regulation of the water layer, characterized in that the planting carried out randomly by the way, the layer of water 20 20 25 3O see
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cultivating soil by forming ridges after germination of weedage and providing subsequent cultivation procedures by breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ridges; providing presowing soil treatment by embedding germinated weedage, stubble and other plant remains axially of ridges and simultaneously introducing microbiological humus-forming preparation; 20-40 days after introducing of humus-forming preparation (according to first version), breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ones and simultaneously sowing late crops; according to second version, providing sowing of farm crops simultaneously with embedding of germinated weedage and introducing of humus-forming preparation. Methods allow total of active soil temperatures during presowing period to be increased owing to composting effect.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of weedage control and improved soil fertility.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, amelioration method used for creating of fertile layer on low-humus sandy soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lime and organic fertilizer into humus-depleted soil, said organic fertilizer being introduced in the form of ground plant remains and/or other forms in an amount of up to 40% the volume of ridges by distributing said fertilizer in furrows between ridges; forming ridges in the course of presowing treatment; applying layer of colmatant providing total volume of at least 20% the volume of pores of formed fertile layer; forming ridges with following breaking of formerly created ridges; embedding organic fertilizer and simultaneously applying biologically active preparation; 30-40 days later, reapplying organic fertilizer; reforming ridges and simultaneously irrigating ground organic with biologically active preparation; sowing seeds of cultured crops.
EFFECT: reduced time for creating on humus-depleted sandy soil of fertile layer adapted for immediate agricultural application, reduced wind and water erosion and provision for forming of recreational zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing sorts of soya with different ripening time; simultaneously sowing sorts of soya of at least four different ripening time in adjacent rows, with early ripening sorts being combined with late ripening sorts; setting seeding norm for early ripening sorts of soya in the range of 600,000-650,000 pieces/hectare and for late ripening sorts of soya in the range of 400,000-450,000 pieces/hectare.
EFFECT: improved quality of seeds and reduced seed losses.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protection of wheat crops from complex of pests with reduced application of insecticides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming entomofauna of crop agrocenosis by accumulating pests on restricted territory for creating attracting strips of spring wheat of two sowing periods with break-off time between said periods of five to seven days around winter wheat strips; providing feed stock conveyor system for complex of pests; applying insecticides only on basic winter wheat strips and attracting strips of spring wheat strips, with basic spring wheat strips being excluded from treatment process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of sown wheat crops by accumulating of pests on restricted territory, reduced consumption of insecticides and provision for keeping grain yield and grain quality.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.
EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.
1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fertilizer irrigation of farm crops with sewage water or liquid fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting furrow by means of soil cutting tool; feeding water or liquid fertilizer into furrow and covering furrow. Uniform distribution of fertilizer applied to compound intersected relief is provided by forming web of height smaller than plowing depth by 0.4-0.7 time before supplying of water or liquid fertilizer into open furrow. Apparatus has frame with plow bodies equipped with tine having share and moldboard and fixed on frame. Web forming device mounted on frame behind outer plow body is made in the form of rotor with vertical shaft of rotation and blades for moving soil from ridges of adjacent plowed strips. Apparatus has drive. Rotor drive is kinematically connected and aligned with frame carrier wheel.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of liquid fertilizer applied into soil and equalized plant mass over the entire area of irrigated soil, increased soil fertility and improved ecology control by preventing environment from contamination.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical, confectionery, canned food, chemical, perfume, food-processing, tobacco industry and some special branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing and grinding licorice vegetative buds and accompanying plants in association of low-productivity licorice undergrowth by means of haying machines to produce cuttings; while mowing, uniformly distributing ground mass over surface of mown strip; providing marker lines and placing planting material in narrow strips at predetermined spacing, with high-quality cuttings of 4-5 years licorice rootages of 12-18 mm diameter and 18-25 cm length being used as planting material; mellowing strips and cutting inclined slits by means of tillage tool; during advancement of machine, moving planting material into inclined slits; simultaneously with planting of cuttings, providing grooves for receiving of mineral fertilizer in surface of inclined wall of slit by means of slitter tine equipped with tiered cutters made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds; placing nitrogenous fertilizer at norm of 0.2-0.6 kg/running meter in upper tier and phosphorous fertilizer at norm of 1.3-1.8 kg/running meter in middle tier; introducing into lower layer potash fertilizer at norm of 0.8-1.6 kg/running meter for development of plants at second and third years of life; after introducing of mineral fertilizer and placing of cuttings, compacting mellowed strips above inclined slits by means of ring-lug roller sections. Nozzle of pneumatic pipeline is arranged above each cutter. Each pneumatic pipeline is individually connected with seeding unit for withdrawal from fertilizer box of nitrogenous, phosphorous or potash fertilizer. Seeding units are kinematically connected with supporting wheel. Each pneumatic pipeline of tine-cutter is connected with pressure cavity of high-pressure fan equipped with hydraulic drive.
EFFECT: increased yield of green mass and provision for applying of mineral fertilizer to different soil depth.
3 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: growing of high-protein crops, in particular, red clover under clearly defined continental or similar conditions or in arid climatic zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing red clover (trifolium pratense L.) and cover crop at optimal time in spring; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing stubble breaking to 0.06-0.08 m depth and ameliorating mellowing to 0.6-0.8 m depth; applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer to provide for 3-4 year life of plants; plowing soil while turning layers by means of bottom-moldboard plows to 0.25-0.27 m depth while fully embedding stubble remains; after deep ameliorating tillage combined with turning of root layer, providing irrigation at the end of September - beginning of October at irrigation rate of 700-900 m3/hectare for keeping pre-irrigation soil moisture threshold; closing moisture feeding in early spring by means of heavy harrows in two tracks transverse to center ridges during moldboard plowing and simultaneously leveling field relief; providing cultivation to 0.05-0.08 m depth for killing cold-resistant weeds by means of A-hoes; providing presowing and postsowing compaction for increasing soil density in seeding layer at 0-10 cm depth; performing interlace sowing in early spring (0.30 m) of cover crop (oats, less commonly barley) at seeding rate of (3.0-3.5)·106 pieces of seeds per 1 hectare (continuous sowing at seeding rate of (8.5-9.5)·106 pieces per hectare to 0.03-0.04 m depth on light soil and 0.02-0.03 m depth on heavy soil for producing of 450-500 plants per 1 m2 at full germination phase, 250-300 plants at spring growing phase of second year of life, 200-220 plants per 1 m2 at spring growing phase of third year of life; providing mineral feeding by applying rated norms of phosphorous-potash fertilizer for stock plowing for three years of utilization of herbage, and applying differentiated doses of nitrous fertilizer for further mowing. Application of up to 100 kg/hectare of nitrogen during growing period at maximal dose of 35 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 60 t/hectare of green mass, and application of 130 kg of nitrogen per hectare during growing period at maximal dose of 45 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 80 t/hectare of green mass. Yield of 40 t/hectare of green mass is provided at irrigation norm of 850 m3/hectare with minimal period between irrigation procedures of 14-16 days, with total irrigation norm making 3,200-3,400 m3/hectare. Clover is mown at flowering phase. Time between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures is reduced to 1-3 days. Last mowing procedure is performed 25-30 days before air temperature reaches 00C.
EFFECT: improved quality of feed and predetermined productivity.
12 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, production of fogger in irrigated zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves periodically mowing biomass; irrigating and applying mineral fertilizer in spring at initial grass growing stage and for feeding after each mowing operation; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing pre-plowing irrigation at norm of 300-400 m3/hectare and ameliorating mellowing to 0.4-0.6 m depth; plowing to 0.25-0.27 m depth with turning of soil layer; mellowing top layer by means of cultivators to 0.08-0.012 m depth; leveling microrelief of irrigated field by means of levelers; providing interlace sowing of leguminous crops, such as lucerne and clover, and meadow grass crops, such as meadow fescue and orchard grass, at seeding norm of 4.8·106, 5.4·106, 5.5·106 and 8.1·106 pieces of seed per hectare, respectively, with grass mixtures being composed of two or four crops; keeping seeding depth in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.06 m; maintaining mineral feeding mode by applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer at norm rated for plowing for stock sufficient for 3-4 year usage of herbage; applying nitrous fertilizer in differentiated doses for mowing; applying 60 kg/hectare of nitrous fertilizer at growing period at maximal dose for first mowing of 40 kg/hectare to provide for guaranteed yield of up to 50 t/hectare of green mass; 80 kg/hectare at maximal dose for first mowing of 60 kg/hectare to provide for herbage yield of up to 70 t/hectare of green mass, and 100 kg/hectare at maximal dose of 70 kg/hectare for first mowing to provide for guaranteed yield of grass mixture of up to 90 t/hectare; keeping irrigation mode within the range of 60-80% norm of moisture. Green mass yield of from 50 to 90 t/hectare is provided with total irrigation norm of 2,550-3,250 m3/hectare to 3,600-4,050 m3/hectare. Interval between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures at growing period is reduced to 2-3 days. Agronomical care involves harrowing of last years crop fields, after mowing of grass for green feed, and in autumn - slitting field of young crop field of second and third years of life of plants to 0.4-0.6 m depth.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of utilization of irrigated lands, increased production of ecologically safe high-quality feeds, provision for keeping of soil fertility and improved economy of region.
10 cl, 12 dwg, 52 tbl