The soil of the vegetable mixture for cultural lawns and how to create them
(57) Abstract:The use relates to agriculture, namely soil and plant compounds and to methods of establishing cultural lawns, used in sports, arts, conservation and other purposes. Essence: soil vegetable mixture for cultural lawns, including sandy loam or loamy soil or black soil, peat and sand, additionally includes a stony material, preferably marble chips with size fractions 3 to 10 mm, while the above-mentioned components are taken in the following ratio, wt. %: sandy loam or loamy soil or humus 60 - 80, peat, 25 - 20, stony material 2,5 - 10 sand - rest. In the method of creating a cultural lawn, including the preparation of components of the soil of the vegetable mixture, mixing, laying equal mixture layer, leveling, compacting, watering and self-control, seeding demobrowser herbs in soil-vegetable layer, loamy sand, or loamy soil or humus, peat or sand, previously sieved through sieves with meshes of up to 12 mm Laying of the mixture to the drainage system or the underlying soil is produced in dry weather. The mixture vykladyvanie gradients of soil and drainage systems, happen even earlier wooden roller, stand lined mixture under steam for 3 to 4 weeks for shrinkage with daily watering, in the absence of rain. When soil pH <6 produce liming, and at pH>7 in the soil and consequently peat, ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate. When soil salinity over the 0.1 - 0.2% of the weight of the soil produce gypsuming an estimated 7 to 8 t/ha of soil. Mixing of the soil of the vegetable mixture into a homogeneous mass is carried out on the ground with a hard surface such as asphalt. Watering is carried out in a mode that excludes soil erosion vegetable mixture. After laying the soil of the vegetable mixture lawn protect against premature unplanned mechanical impact. After watering and settling of soil re-plan. A week before seeding demobrowser herbs on the surface of the soil and vegetation layer make fertilizer. For 1 - 3 days prior to seeding carry out weeding. After sowing the seeds produce half a morning and evening watering. After germination of seeds produce their reseeding. 2 C. and 10 C.p. f-crystals. The invention relates to agriculture, namely soil-vegetation mixtures and method of establishing cultural lawns IP the summer cultural lawn, you need to prepare the soil before planting the seed. Usually recommended for planting grass to use sandy loam or loamy soil or soil with the addition of peat and sand (private households N 2, 1986, S. 75).However, these recommendations are fair when creating a landscaping lawn when the soil vegetable mixture to prepare intended for lawn natural soil, adding there peat and sand, depending on the state and properties of sandy loam or loamy soils.In addition, when creating a landscape, ornamental lawns typically used in the single-species crops herbs that, on the one hand, reduce demands on the soil of the vegetable mixture, and on the other, does not provide the guarantees grass, with a high performance.The task of the invention consists in the selection of the generic composition of the soil of the vegetable mixture for cultural lawns of all types, including sports, designed to withstand large loads, as well as in the development of the method of their creation. The invention must meet the following requirements for cultural turf: the formation of the terrestrial part of the uniform dense tra, ostoja of weave fibrous root system, roots and bases of the shoots.The specific use of cultural turf, especially sports, cause increased demands on soil conditions and, consequently, to the soil of the vegetable mixture.The main property of the soil is fertile, that is, its ability to meet the needs of plants for nutrients and water.Lawn plants depend on water content in the soil during the whole period of life, since the swelling and germination in the soil of their seeds. Consequently, the most favorable soil, well water absorbing and retaining water. Such soils are structured soil with capillary and acapillary porosity. Capillaries are very thin gaps between soil particles absorb moisture melt snow, rain, and groundwater. Acapillary, larger air-filled cavities. When surplus water surplus starts to get into acapillary emptiness and drain down. Thus, the structural soil maintain a good permeability and better absorb water during precipitation and artificial irrigation. In them enough space and water, and air. Volume Killarney porosity poorly absorbs water, contain little air, quickly lose moisture due to evaporation. After rains or irrigation on the surface of these soils crust is formed, preventing the renewal of air in the soil.The structure of the soil is due to its mechanical (grain) composition, size of its particles and the presence of humus.It should not be used for laying turf soil plant mix, which is dominated by sand, clay or dust particles. Otherwise, over time, this will lead to soil compaction, poor water and air permeability.Soil vegetable mixture provided in the invention, allows for decades to maintain optimal soil structure in soddy surfaces, which leads to a significant reduction of maintenance costs cultural lawns.The specified task in terms of the composition of the soil of the vegetable mixture is solved in that in the soil of the vegetable mixture for growing lawns containing sandy loam or loamy soil or black soil, peat and sand, in addition enter rocky material with a grain size of 3 to 10 mm, such as marble chips, but these components take the following with material 2,5 10
Sand the Rest
The soil of the vegetable mixture for growing lawns is prepared as follows.All work on the preparation of the soil of the vegetable mixture should be initiated during the preparatory phase of the construction of the lawn. On a separate site, preferably with an asphalt coating, proseat through screens with cells up to 12 mm in advance brought on this stretch of humus and peat. This is necessary in order to create the desired structure of the soil and vegetation layer, to remove the coarse, resistant to crushing clods, stones, extraneous inclusions.When preparing the soil of the vegetable mixture, in the absence of opportunities to use the soil, you can apply and sandy or light loamy soil.The proposed plant soil mixture consists of two main components: small particles of material, which is like a skeleton of the vegetable mixture (stony material, such as crushed marble, sand) and soil (humus and peat). Humus and peat necessary, as the most important sources of humus, i.e. soil organic matter formed in it during the decomposition of plant and animal residues) in the mixture. Cernos the information of the soil of the vegetable mixture, its components should be subjected agrochemical analysis on the content of humus, their acid and degree of salinity. The optimum content of humus in the soil, prepare the mixture for 5 to 8%
Soil acidity (PH) should be within the range 6 to 7. At PH less than 6 produce liming at PH above 7 in the soil and consequently peat, ammonium sulfate, etc. This is necessary because soil acidification reduces the content of humus and calcium, affects the strength of the soil structure. Affects the structure and increase acidity: small lumps of soil crumble, forming dust. Soil salinity of water-soluble salts should not exceed 0.1 - 0.2% of soil weight. With a large salt content must be gypsuming (7 of 8 t/ha of soil).Taking the above into account, when preparing the soil of the vegetable mixture is best used lowland meadow peat. It is formed in the lowlands as a result of decomposition of organic matter under conditions of excessive moisture and lack of oxygen. Water flowing down from lofty places, brings soluble nutrients in the upper soil layers and nutrients generated in such conditions, the peat.In addition, nisin the th mixture requirements.The black soil zone of steppes better suited as a component of soil-vegetable mixture. Most commonly used ordinary Chernozem humus 5 6% or the black soil containing humus 6 8% of These chernozems have a good structure, nutrient-rich, often have a slight acidity, which does not harm perennial plants sown on cultural turf. Humus steppe soil has a high qualities. It is not acidic, well cements soil particles, creating a solid lumpy structure due to the lime content in the mother rock in addition, artificial watering of lawns, providing any necessary plant moisture, creates perfect conditions for producing these good black grass. The value of the fraction of marble chips 3-10 mm Sand is better to use coarse-grained river or washed down the mountain with the main fraction 2 mmAfter the topsoil and peat sieved and crushed marble and sand imported, all these components are uniformly mixed together into a homogeneous mixture of solid, better asphalt ground using a tractor with a blade in the following proportions in wt.Sandy loam or su is this task part of the way to create cultural lawn is solved by after preparation of the mixture delivered to the construction site and laid out in the construction of sports turf on the underlying soil or drainage system from the middle of the lawn to the edge with exact preservation of all gradients of the Foundation soil and drainage. The thickness of the layer of the mixture across the lawn must be strictly identical in the construction of sports turf can range from 3 to 50 mm Three to four weeks will last shrinkage of the soil.All work on laying on the field of soil-vegetable mixture will be done only in dry weather, in order to avoid further costs on the alignment surface.After the mixture is filled and planned, its surface is dry in front of a wooden roller weighing up to 100 kg with a diameter of drum rink in the range from 80 cm to 120 cm, with the length of the drum rink in the range from 130 cm to 150, seeAfter laying the soil of the vegetable mixture to accelerate the shrinkage of the soil needs (if no rain) daily for 3 to 4 weeks to carry out artificial lawn, keeping it under steam. Watering should provide the sports turf humidity of the upper layer of soil to a depth of from one to three centimeters.the surface of the lawn dense and high pressure water jets, to prevent erosion of the soil.After uploading the soil of the vegetable mixture the entire area of the lawn is enclosed to exclude the possibility of walking on the lawn by unauthorized persons or vehicles.A few days after copious irrigation, the soil will give sufficient shrinkage. In case of any irregularities, address them immediately by re-plan.A week before seeding on the surface of the soil plant seed layer demobrowser grasses in the soil making fertilizer. The fertilizer depends on the needs of the plants for nutrients and security of their soil and vegetation layer of the lawn. The need of the vegetation layer in different chemical elements are defined by the annual, regular, at the same time of year, agrochemical analysis of soil of the lawn. Knowing the agrochemical characteristics of the soil, it is possible to calculate what quantity of mineral fertilizers should be made in each case.Practice shows that organic fertilizers should be inserted in the soil-vegetation layer lawns very carefully. When the fertilizer in the soil-vegetation layer is Ino affect the mechanical composition of the soil, difficult operation sports turf, making them entails and other undesirable consequences.For the 1st 3 days prior to seeding on the surface of the soil plant seed layer demobrowser herbs are weeding the emerged seedling weeds. Weeding is better to perform manually removing weeds from the soil necessarily together with their root system using a special soda knives strictly vertical movement of the hand.After seeding the lawn and fixing a light krablibien, the surface of the lawn rolled down a wooden roller, which smoothes and compacts the soil. When the rains produce two evening (after sunset) and the morning (before sunrise) artificial watering of the lawn.After the first germination of seeds on the entire surface of the lawn, if necessary, conduct reseeding in thinned areas of grass.In a further lawn care is carried out in the usual manner. 1. The soil of the vegetable mixture for cultural lawns, including sandy loam, or loamy soil, or topsoil, peat and sand, characterized in that it further includes a stony material, preferably of mrams.Sandy loam, or loamy soil, or topsoil 60 80
Peat 20 5
Stony material 2,5 10
Sand the Rest
2. A method of creating a cultural lawns, including the preparation of components of the soil of the vegetable mixture, mixing, placing the mixture in an even layer, leveling, compacting, watering and self-control, seeding demobrowser herbs in soil-vegetation layer, wherein loamy sand, or loamy soil, or topsoil, and peat pre-sieved through sieves with meshes of up to 12 mm, placing the mixture on the drainage system or the underlying soil is produced in dry weather, the mixture is spread a layer thickness of 3 to 50 cm, depending on the purpose of the cultural turf from the middle of the lawn to the edge preserving gradient of the underlying soil or drainage system, surface filled and planned mixture rolled down a wooden roller weighing up to 100 kg with a diameter of drum rink 80 12 cm, with the length of the drum rink 130 150 cm, exercise restraint lined mixture under steam for 3 to 4 weeks for shrinkage with daily watering, in the absence of rain.3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that when the density of the soil pH < 6 produce liming, is the, when the salinity of more than 0.1 to 0.2% of the weight of the soil produce gypsuming an estimated 7 to 8 t/ha of soil.5. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the stirring of the soil of the vegetable mixture into a homogeneous mass is carried out on the ground with a hard surface such as asphalt.6. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the irrigation is carried out in a mode that excludes soil erosion vegetable mixture.7. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the laying of the soil of the vegetable mixture, lawn protect against premature unplanned mechanical impact.8. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that after watering and settling of soil re-plan.9. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that one week before seeding demobrowser herbs on the surface of the soil and vegetation layer make fertilizer.10. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that for the 1st 3 days prior to seeding are weeding.11. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that after seeding produce two morning and evening watering.12. The method according to p. 2, wherein the post-emergent seeds if necessary, make reseeding.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing and feed production, may be used for growing of spring rape in fodder crop as postcut forage crop.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing soil and seeds; sowing; providing care for young crops; harvesting. Seed sowing is carried out during period of mass development of cruciferous weeds and die-off of first generation of wintered cruciferous fleas Phyllotreta spp. Spring rape is grown in postcut forage crop. Before seed sowing, soil is cultivated by rotavation or two-three-staged disking by means of harrows to 8-10 cm depth immediately after harvesting of preceding crop. Seed sowing is performed during 2-3 days after harvesting of said crop. Spring rape is cultivated in single-course complete fodder crop rotation mode. Winter wheat is used as preceding crop. Early ripening rape seeds with growing period of up to 100 days are commonly used. In the Middle Urals zone, rape seeds are sown in June, 15 to 30.
EFFECT: increased yield of spring rape grown for forage in risky agriculture regions at intensive utilization of plowed field in fodder crop rotation mode without use of pesticides.
4 cl, 6 tbl