Method of estimation of evaporation of mineral lubricating oils
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of study of lubricating oils and may find application in industries engaged in the warehousing and storage of oil products, particularly mineral lubricating oils in assessing their evaporation. The purpose of the invention is to increase the reliability of the estimation of evaporation of mineral lubricating oils by increasing the amount of the evaporated oil when heated in laboratory conditions without chemical change in the oil. This is achieved by the fact that in the tested oil is added as a scavenger N,N-dimethylformamide, at a ratio of 1:(1,9-2,1); evaporation is conducted at a temperature of 1541oC (below the temperature of the beginning of decomposition of the heat-sensitive additives) under vacuum for 2 h table 3. The invention relates to the field of study of lubricating oils and may find application in industries engaged in the warehousing and storage of oil products, particularly mineral lubricating oils in assessing their evaporation.In air cushion tanks filled with oil, there are always pairs of the latter. If certain organizational and technical is CLASS="ptx2">The structure of the loss of oil from evaporation in reservoirs refinery is characterized, for example, the following data: loss from ventilation 60-65% of the "big breaths" and "reverse out" 32-34% of the "small breaths," 3-6% [1 - Transport and storage of petroleum products and hydrocarbon, CNITA Neftekhim, M. 1978, N 5]
In the vapor phase content of light fractions of oil higher than in the volume. Loss of light fractions of the oil during storage leads to increase in viscosity and changes in other indicators of the quality of the oil. For reliability estimation of evaporation it is necessary to develop a way that excludes, for example, the oxidation taking place in the oil during storage, and also allows you to get the most number of evaporated oil and eliminates thermal decomposition framework and functional additives.To estimate the evaporation of lubricating oils was developed by a group of methods. These methods are based on the determination of the loss of oil after heating them to a certain temperature.Methods vary according to the heating temperature, the pressure (sparse, atmospheric, high); some methods include blowing air or inert gas.So, the simplest of means of the different engines. Method for the determination of evaporation in cups] providing heating to 175oC; evaporation occurs in static conditions. To him the close method for the determination of evaporation and thin film oxidation of essential oils for aircraft GTE (Rogers A. R. J. Pharm. 1963, v. 2. N 15, p. 101-105). To this group "static" methods include a method of Golde, English method CEC-L-40-T-87, American method ASTM d 2887 and method for determining the evaporation time of the oil (GOST 7934.1-74. Oils and greases time. Method for the determination of evaporation). These methods are only suitable for the evaluation of light (distillate) oil and do not consider group composition mixed and residual oils.In contrast to the above methods in the standard American method ASTM d 972 in addition to heating produce blowdown evaporation chamber with dry air. In addition to the long duration of trials (22 h 5 min) one of the drawbacks of this method is the relatively high temperature gradient experiment (service 99 stops 150oC), which does not allow to differentiate between evaporation modern and promising oil.In a number of methods to promote the evaporation process applied vacuum.In various methods, the residual pressure changes otted ASTM d 2715 and method VNII NP using installation PFP BB).To determine the evaporation of oils (and any other products) are used methods of thermography and the use of various laboratory equipment, including derivatograph.The closest technical solution of the present invention is used as a prototype method of determining loss of oil from evaporation in dynamic conditions (GOST 10306-75. The lubricating oil. Method for the determination of evaporation losses in dynamic conditions), namely, that on the evaporator, which is pre-filled with 100 g butter, put on the coil and let it naturally air supplied into the oil. The air creates the bubbling oil, contributing to the evaporation of the oil, and the oxygen accelerates the oxidation. Heating oil is up to 250oC, time trials until 5 o'clock the Loss of oil is determined by the difference between its samples before and after the test.The method has some limitations in the accurate assessment of the evaporation of oils during storage to the main of which are the following: the scavenger oil from the sample in the evaporation process is air, oxygen which promotes the oxidation of the oil, making it difficult to assess its evaporation; the method is applicable for a limited number of oils due to the high the present invention is to increase the reliability of the estimation of evaporation of mineral lubricating oils.This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known method of estimating evaporation of lubricating oils by the loss of oil after heating the sample to a predetermined temperature with the simultaneous use of scavenger oil from the sample volume according to the present invention as a scavenger oil take N,N-dimethylformamide at a mass ratio to the oil sample 1:(1,9-2,1), and the heating is carried out until complete evaporation of the scavenger.The essence of the method consists in the following. Studies have shown that the lubricating oils of various grades of viscosity it is difficult to reliably assess and differentiate them by evaporation due to the small evaporation losses in the absence of chemical reactions when the temperature control in the laboratory. When added to the oil as a scavenger N,N-dimethylformamide amount of evaporated oil increases significantly, while maintaining its chemical composition (table. 2).N, N-dimethylformamide is known as a neutral solvent, which is miscible with water in any ratio, has a high dielectric constant, and therefore it has found wide application in gas-liquid chromatography, when conducting atomic-adsorption studies, elektricheska permeability 26,6
Vapor pressure, mm RT.article 3,7
Heat of vaporization (at TKip.), cal/g 137,8
Relative density 0,9445
The evaporation temperature,oC +153
N, N-dimethylformamide oil does not interact and do not dissolve.This suggested the possibility of its use as a scavenger oil in assessing its evaporation.In the proposed method of estimation of evaporation of oils, the oil is mixed with N, N-dimethylformamide in the form of an emulsion in a ratio of 1:(1.9 to 2.1), and evaporated under vacuum at a temperature of 1541oC (onset temperature of decomposition is most sensitive to high temperature additive DF-11 - dialkyl-dithiophosphate zinc +156oC) within 2 hours During this time the entire scavenger and part of the oil evaporates. For the test result accept the difference in sample mass of oil before and after evaporation.Test was used to install the VA 624 Germany, consisting of a heating device; steel evaporating crucible with screw-on lid and a gas outlet tube, a block temperature control heating, vacuum pump, buffer tank and V-shaped manometer.In the crucible of zastanowie 7-8 mm of water.article.To determine the optimal ratio of oil and scavenger in the sample were prepared samples (table. 1), which were tested under conditions selected from oils of different classes viscosity (8, 10, 16 and 20 cSt).The contents of N, N-dimethylformamide in the oil sample has established the following: 0; 1,0; 1,8; 1,9; 2,0; 2,1; 2,2; 3,0.From table. 2 shows that the number of evaporated oil when tested without the scavenger (samples 1-1, 2-1, 3-1, 4-1) is significantly lower than when it is added to the oil sample. And the best result was obtained in a ratio of 1:(1,9-2,1) (samples 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 2-4, 2-5, 2-6, 3-4, 3-5, 3-6, 4-4, 4-5, 4-6).Studies have been carried out changing the chemical composition of the samples 1-5, 2-5, 3-5, 4-5, where the ratio of oil and scavenger 1:2, respectively (table. 3).From table. 3 shows that the chemical composition of the oils after evaporation using as a scavenger oil N, N-dimethylformamide was not changed (change of alkaline and acid numbers within measurement error).Comparative analysis of the present invention with the method of the prototype shows that the claimed method differs in that, first, as a scavenger oil by evaporation is used, the liquid N,N-dimethylformamide, and not the air; AI; thirdly, the evaporation temperature of the scavenger below the temperature of thermal decomposition of additives to oils, which excludes changes in the chemical composition of the oil by evaporation (table. 2).Thus, the claimed method in accordance with p. 1 item 4 of the Law meets the criteria of patentability of the invention. This method is new, because the authors are not known sources as the patent and scientific and technical information (in addition to the above description analogs and prototypes), which would be represented by a set of distinctive features set forth in the claims.The claimed method involves an inventive step, because the use of N,N-dimethylformamide as a scavenger oil by evaporation involves the use of completely different from those used currently in the industry of the properties of this fluid.The method is implemented for 2 h, was tested and confirmed its effectiveness.The method is industrially applicable, because involves the use of instruments and reagents available in sufficient quantities in the industry, and is recommended for wide application in the national economy, which uses mineral lubricating oil.
FIELD: any industries where motor oils are used.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains shaped insert with oxidizer feed axial channel. Ring passage space for cooling agent is found inside shaped insert, and outer surface of middle stage is provided with corrugations. It provides cooling of oil vapors settled on corrugations at heating and dripping down in form of condensate into high temperature oxidation zone. Oil sample meter is provided in lower part of cylindrical head made in form of branch pipe by means of which metered delivery of oil to surface of aluminum weighing bottle is carried out. Oil is applied in layers, each being 150±5 mcm thick, each layer is oxidized, 240±5 s, by delivering oxidizer at rate of 50 l/h directly to surface of oil layer in aluminum weighing bottle. Taken as information index is mass "m" on deposits formed on aluminum weighing bottle. At mass of ratios greater than or equal to 0.0170 g (m≥0.0170g) oil is considered as group "В" oil, and ratio 0.0130g≤m<0.0170g oil is considered as group "Г" and at m<0.0130g, oil is considered as group "Д".
EFFECT: improved accuracy and reduced time taken for determining service group of motor oil under investigation owing to provision of conditions of testing close to real conditions of operation of oil in engine.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: express-methods for determining presence and quality of dispersing-stabilizing properties, dispersing agent type for lubricating oils and determining engine oils among other oil types.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining dispersing-stabilizing properties of lubricating oils is performed by inserting into oil and dispersing therein of dirt agent and reaching calm state, while liquid dirt agent is injected into oil, which does not form a solution with oil, and after dispersion, emulsion is maintained in calm state, on basis of alternation of information parameters like loss of transparence and coloring of emulsion in colors from dark yellow to light yellow, quality estimate of presence of dispersion-stabilizing properties is determined with detection of engine oils, and on basis of alternation of information parameters like in form of intensiveness of coloring of emulsion in colors ranging from dark yellow to light yellow, time when dirt agent starts precipitating and/or time when emulsion starts dividing on distinct layers or absence of same, volume of precipitated dirt agent and/or height of column of layered emulsion during certain time limit or absence of same, volume of dirt agent inserted into oil, for which precipitation of dirt agent starts or layering of emulsion, and also - possible combination of same, quality estimate of workability level of dispersing-stabilizing admixture of lubricating oil is determined, as well as dispersant type.
EFFECT: decreased time consumption, increased information capacity of determination.
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use as a means of metrologically supporting measurement techniques in determination of total alkaline number of motor oils and lubricating materials. This means is represented by composition containing 75-84% liquid hydrocarbons, 0.05-6% water-soluble alkali component, and 15-20% aliphatic alcohol. Use of standard specimen allows performing reliable estimation of quality of motor oils and lubricating materials by accessible acid-base titration technique requiring no special instrumentation equipment.
EFFECT: simplified analytical procedure.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating, mixing, aerating and degassing of lubricant in the device for investigating the lubricants. The aerating of the lubricants is provided by their flowing through the opening of alternative cross-section where pressure drop is generated. The degassing is provided by the use of the degassing unit where, under the action of centrifugal forces, the dissolved gas is removed from the lubricant. The processes are controlled by video surveying of generation, change of sizes, shape, and concentration of gas bubbles in the lubricant as well as by readings of temperature and pressure gauges. The device comprises oil tank for temperature control with mechanical mixer, heater, and temperature gauge and pipeline with valve. The device is additionally provided with pump, throttling valve, and degassing unit. The safety valve, pump, and throttling valve are connected in series through pipeline sections. The pipeline sections provided with throttling valve and degassing unit are made of a heat-resistant transparent material and provided with temperature and pressure gauges and digital video cameras connected with the computer.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technology for diagnosing status of motor oil, possible use for determining quality of motor oil during operation and its fitness for further use.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method for determining content of liquid in motor oil, motor oil is heated up and by intensiveness of characteristic air bubbles, presence of liquid is evaluated, while firstly a template made of wire in form of mesh is applied to crucible of Cleveland machine, heated up with heating speed 6°C per 1 min up to 100°C, in range of temperatures 120-140°C heating is decreased down to 2°C per 1 minute, then position of cells in contour, formed by air bubbles in template, is visually memorized, further, contour is transferred over a squared paper, by squares, value of area of contour surface is calculated by its value, percentage of liquid is determined using standard depending on base for motor oil.
EFFECT: increased precision of detection of presence of cooling liquid in oils and its percentage.
3 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing a mixture of oil to be tested with a standard oil, in mass%, 90:10, 50:50, and 10:90, sampling each mixture, allowing the samples to stand at a high temperature of 125±2°C for 24 hours, cooling the samples down to the room temperature with subsequent allowing the samples to stand at a low temperature for 8 hours, allowing the samples to stand at the room temperature for 240 hours, and performing the visual assessment of physical condition of the samples after each stage.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
3 ex, 7 tbl
FIELD: car industry; aircraft industry; other industries; methods of determination of the dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working oils.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the express method of determination of dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working oils. The method of determination of the dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working lubricating oils is realized by application on the filtering paper of the drip of the tested oil. After expiration of the preset time determine dimensions of the concentric zones the received chromatogram, and in compliance of their ratio judge about the functionability of the additive compound with the help of the formula. For each type of the oils (diesel, petrol or others) at first determine the temperature at which the additive compound demonstrates its maximum activity, and then this thermal regime use for obtaining of the chromatogram from the first drip descending from the drip-former on the filtering paper in the stationary and field conditions. The composition of the mechanical impurities in the test oil is determined in compliance with the core of the chromatogram using the magnifier of the image by separation of the really present in the oil of the different types of the pollutants and, thus, generalizing the outcomes of the evaluations of each type of the impurities present in the oil determine the composition of the impurities and the total pollution of the lubricating oil. The invention allows to receive the high accuracy of the evaluation both in the field and stationary conditions of the real activity of the disperse-stabilizing additive, and also - of the composition and concentration of the mechanical impurities in- the working lubricating oils-.
EFFECT: the invention allows to receive the high accuracy of the evaluation both in the field and stationary conditions of the real activity of the disperse-stabilizing additive, and also - on the composition and concentration of the mechanical impurities in- the working lubricating oils-.
2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for predicting tribotechnical properties of lubricating materials for drill bit supports at the stage of laboratory testing.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for testing lubricating materials, destruction activation energy of metallic surface before and after application of lubricating material is estimated and difference ΔG of produced activation energy values is determined. Tests of lubricating materials are conducted in range of temperatures matching operational temperatures. Type and the degree to which lubricating materials influence the metallic surface are determined respectively on basis of sign and modulus of value ΔG: ΔG<0 indicates softening effect, ΔG>0 indicates reinforcing effect, and ΔG=0 indicates neutral effect of lubricating material under examination on the metallic surface.
EFFECT: possible estimation of influence of boundary layers of lubricating material in strength properties of metallic surfaces.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in invention, parameter "total impurity" is defined by change of running oil optical density with regard to fresh oil against three spectral ranges by polychromatic optical radiation transmission through oil and recording of transmitted through oil radiation intensity in three spectral ranges - red, green and blue. In addition, diagnostic parameter "chemical destruction" of oil is used to monitor oil performance. Instrument includes optical source, flow-through cell, optical radiation receiver and signal processing unit. Besides, source contains polychromatic radiation source and receiver includes photo sensor, which records optical radiation intensity simultaneously in three spectral ranges.
EFFECT: invention improves self-descriptiveness and reliability of on-line oil performance monitoring.
6 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology for determination of temperature resistance of lubricant oils. In method for determination of lubricant oil temperature resistance, oil sample is taken, divided into equal portions, each of them is heated at atmospheric pressure without air access with condensation of vapors and condensate drain, besides for each subsequent part of oil sample, test temperature is increased by a permanent value, afterwards light flux absorption ratio Ka is determined, graphical dependences on temperature are built, and temperature resistance is detected, moreover, after testing sample is weighed, value of evaporated mass G is identified as difference of oil sample mass before and after test, evaporation ratio KG as ratio of evaporated oil sample to remained mass, coefficient of conversion energy Ec as sum of light flux absorption coefficients Ka and evaporation KG, then graphical dependences of energy conversion ratio Ec on test temperature are built, and temperature resistance of tested lubricant oil is determined by temperatures of destruction process beginning and completion.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of determination.
1 tbl, 1 dwg