The method for checking alignment of shafts of rotating units

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in measurement technology. The essence of the invention: on one of the shafts 4 is fixed by the magnet parallel to the geometric axis of the console 1. Consider the console 1 as a continuation of the side surface of the shaft 4. The end of the console 1 - part end surface of the shaft 4. On the side surface of the second shaft 6 is fixed a magnet miniature television camera 2. The optical axis of the lens 3 is placed in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the geometrical axis of the shaft 6. The free end of the console 5 is placed in a field of view of a telephoto lens 3. Both shafts 4, 6 synchronously rotate in one direction to full turn. After a preset time increment of rotation of the spatial location of the free end 5 of the console 1 is fixed by the television camera 2. The presence of vertical and horizontal displacement of the end 5 console 1 indicates misalignment of shafts. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the measurement and can be used to control alignment of shafts of rotating assemblies, in particular for controlling the alignment of the turbine rotors.

The known method of checking alignment of shafts of rotating units, which consists in measuring recentralisation, on the cylindrical surface of each of the shafts exactly in the horizontal plane passing through the axis of the shafts, put a mark on the left and right of the coupling, the same two marks applied on the cylindrical surface of the shaft exactly in the vertical plane above and below, measure the linear displacement of shafts, to do this accurately along the axis of the shaft put a ruler on the cylindrical surface of one of the coupling halves consistently at the marked points, and each of these points vane probe measure the gap between the ruler and the cylindrical surface of the other coupling, measured by the coupling, on which line everywhere gives the gap in her tight contact with the other coupling half, then determine recentremente the ends of the shafts, which measure the distance between the edges of the ends in the vertical and horizontal planes of the same marked points. The results of measurements are compared between themselves and the results of comparison in judging the alignment of the rotors ( Milyutin A. C. Alignment of turbines and other rotating units of thermal power plants. M Energy, 1968, S. 18).

The disadvantage of this method is to reduce the reliability of the alignment control shafts due to the significant influence subyektivnoe pressure line, the measurement plate sipam). In addition, the reliability of testing results is reduced by the fact that the rotors remain stationary, and means of measurement are moving on the surface of the first rotor, which introduces error in the measurement caused by imperfection of the side surfaces of the two rotors. The need to use measuring instruments complicates the process and makes it uncomfortable to use, because it does not allow to use it in cramped spatial conditions and hard-to-reach places.

Closest to the present invention is a method of checking alignment of shafts of rotating units through the combination of a bracket, in accordance with which one of his shafts parallel to its geometric axis set the console bracket with dowel pins, one of the centering pins have over a side surface of the second shaft and the second centering pin feature perpendicular to the end surface of the second shaft with the formation of the gap, measured plate with a probe size of gaps for each of the pins, then synchronously rotate both shafts 180oand repeat the measurement gaps for each of the pins, then compare other rotating units of thermal power plants. M Energy, 1968, S. 36).

The disadvantage of this method is that it requires the manufacture of a combined bracket for each specific use of the method. Because the method requires adaptation to each particular occasion of its use, it is not uniform. In addition, the need to adapt the method to each particular occasion of its use, as well as the presence of large preparatory work for the use of the method (the manufacturer of the bracket, securing it to the shaft) and the need to use measurement tools to assess alignment, reduces the efficiency of the method and increases its complexity. The lack of unification of method and low efficiency cannot be used for operational control of the alignment of the shafts. In addition, the dimensions of the bracket does not allow to apply the method in cramped spatial conditions, as well as in hard to reach places, which imposes limitations on the conditions of use of the method, which also causes a lack of unification of the way. The presence in the way operations measurement measurement tool to assess the alignment of the shafts causes the dependence of the inspection results from subjektivnosti shafts rotating units in their implementation does not allow to achieve a technical result, consists in the unification process, the possibility of using the method for operational control, to simplify the method, reducing the labor intensity, improve the reliability of the method.

The invention "Method of checking alignment of shafts of rotating units and solves the problem of creating an appropriate way that it ensures the achievement of the technical result consists in the unification process, the possibility of using the method for operational control, to simplify the method, reduce the complexity, increase reliability of testing results.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that in the method for checking alignment of shafts of rotating units, in accordance with which the side surface of one of the shafts parallel to the geometric axis of the fixed console, the free end of the console have over a side surface of the second shaft, fix the initial spatial location of the free end of the console relative to the side and against the end surfaces of the second shaft, then synchronously rotate both shafts in the same direction at a given angle, fix each new spatial location the scientists inspection results and the results of comparison in judging the alignment of the shafts, this spatial arrangement of the free end of the console relative to the lateral and end surfaces of the second shaft is fixed with a miniature television camera, for which a TV camera is fixed on the side surface of the second shaft, thus have the optical axis of its lens in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the geometrical axis of the second shaft and the free end of the console is placed in a field of view of a telephoto lens, and a console and a TV camera is fixed on the lateral surfaces of the respective shafts magnets, while the angle of the synchronous rotation of the shafts change from zero to 2 with the specified increments.

The technical result is achieved in the following way. Since the console on one of the shafts is fixed strictly fixed, namely parallel to the geometric axis of the shaft, while the free end of the console have over a side surface of the second shaft, this allows you to see the console as a continuation of the side surface of the first shaft, and an end face of the console as part of the end surface of the first shaft. This in turn allows for spatial location of the free end of the console relative to the side and the end surface of otnositelno side surface of the second shaft ascertain the misalignment of the shafts of the displacement of the geometric axes of the shafts; if the horizontal displacement of the end of the console relative to tortoi surface of the second shaft notes misalignment eiz-for misalignment of the shafts on the ends.

Due to the fact that on the side surface of the second shaft fixed camera, and the optical axis of its lens is placed in the horizontal plane perpendicular to the geometrical axis of the second shaft and the free end of the console is placed in a field of view of a telephoto lens, it is possible by means of video cameras to record changes in the spatial location of the free end of the console that allows you to control the alignment of the shafts in a contactless manner. This reduces the complexity of the method and makes it easier, because it eliminates the necessity of using measuring devices. When this exception to the way operations measurement measurement tool reduces the impact on the control of the subjective factor and increases the reliability of the method. In addition, the use of cameras as a controlling device allows you to fully automate the results of the alignment control and thereby completely eliminate the subjective error, which also reduces trudem the x shaft magnets also the proposed method simplifies and reduces its complexity, as eliminates labor-intensive operations to be fixed on the shafts fixtures for alignment checks. Due to the fact that in the proposed method, as the controlling devices use the camera that allows you to control the alignment of the shafts in a non-contact method, the method does not require adaptation to each particular occasion of use, making a unified way. The commonality of the way, as well as: increased efficiency due to the possibility of contactless alignment control shafts, eliminating the need for the operation of measuring recentremente shafts measuring tool; easy mounting on shafts console and miniature television cameras; use of television video signals for computer processing all this together provides the possibility of using the proposed method for operational monitoring of the alignment of shafts of rotating machines. The use of miniature cameras, as well as ease of operation mounting on shafts console and miniature cameras (fixed magnet) allow to apply the method in a tight space and hard to reach places that reduces restrictions on the conditions of ispolzova in the proposed method increases due to the spatial location of the free end of the console relative to the side and the end faces of the second control shaft repeatedly: every time after synchronous rotation of the shafts at a given angle, which change from zero to 2 with the specified increments. This allows you to get the necessary amount of information to control the alignment, which increases the reliability of the method. The condition for the synchronous rotation of the shafts allows you to retain the original spatial arrangement of the shafts relative to each other during the whole execution time of a method that also provides the reliability of testing results.

Thus, the proposed method of alignment of shafts of rotating units in its implementation ensures the achievement of the technical result consists in the unification process, the possibility of using the method for operational control, to simplify the method, reduce the complexity, increase reliability of testing results.

The drawing shows the device that way, prepared to work.

The device for implementing the method includes the console 1 and the camera 2 with the telephoto lens 3. Console 1 one is the Cova surface of the second shaft 6 with the end surface 7. Camera 2 is fixed by means of a magnet (not shown) on the second shaft 6. The axis of the telephoto lens 3 is located in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the axis of the second shaft 6. The free end 5 of the console 1 is set in the field of view of a telephoto lens 3. For convenience, the control of changing the spatial location of the free end of the console it made his grid 8 on two mutually perpendicular axes. The output of the camera 2 is connected to the information processing unit 9.

The method is as follows. On one of the shafts parallel to the geometric axis of the fixed magnets console. The free end of the console have over a side surface of the second shaft. On the side surface of the second shaft is fixed magnets camera. The optical axis of its lens is placed in the horizontal plane perpendicular to the axis of the second shaft, with the free end of the console 1 must be in the field of view of a telephoto lens. Remember the original spatial arrangement of the free end of the console relative to the side surface of the second shaft and relative to its end surface. Then synchronously rotate both shafts in the same direction at a given angle. Fix the end surfaces of the second shaft. The angle of rotation of the shafts is changed from the predetermined increments from zero to 2 the results of monitoring are compared and the comparison result is judged on the alignment of the shafts.

The device implementing the method works as follows. In the simplest case, the data processing unit 9 may be a monitor. In this case, the camera 2 transmits to the monitor image of the grid 8. The operator using the control marks on the screen of the monitor remembers the initial spatial location of the image of the grid 8. After that both shafts 4, 6 synchronously rotate in one direction at a given angle (usually 90o). After stopping the shaft, the operator again locks the screen position of the image grid 8 relative to a reference label, selected initially. When there is displacement of the image of the grid relative to the initial position calculates the value of its offset vertically and horizontally. The presence of the vertical shift of the image grid reference marks on the screen indicates the presence of bias geometricheskih axes of the shafts 4, 6, and the magnitude of their displacement corresponds to the value verticalposition tick marks on the monitor screen indicates the presence of recentremente on the ends, and the value of their recentremente corresponds to the greatness of the horizontal shift of the image grid.

Then the shafts 4, 6 turn again 90osynchronously, in the same direction. After a complete stop of the shafts 4, 6, the operator again locks on the monitor the spatial position of the image masshtabnoi grid relative to the initially selected reference marks on the screen. In the case of shift of the image grid reference marks on the monitor screen, the operator again calculates the values of these shifts, and so on, until both shafts will not make a full rotation 360o. The results obtained analyze and make conclusions about the alignment of the shafts.

In the example, perform a full automation of the proposed method for checking alignment of shafts in the information processing unit 9 of the image grid, passed the camera comes, for example, in videoblaster (transducer signal into a digital code), which enters initial information into the personal computer. The computer, depending on the included program displays on the screen of your monitor not only the information about the misalignment of shafts in numbers, but optimal is which on the side surface of one of the shafts parallel to the geometric axis of the fixed console, the free end of the console have over a side surface of the second shaft, fix the initial spatial location of the free end of the console relative to the side and against the end surfaces of the second shaft, then synchronously rotate both shafts in the same direction at a given angle, each new record the spatial location of the free end of the console relative to the lateral and end surfaces of the second shaft, compare the inspection results and the results of comparison in judging the alignment of the shafts, characterized in that the spatial location of the free end of the console relative to the lateral and end surfaces of the second shaft is fixed with a miniature television camera, for which a TV camera is fixed on the side surface of the second shaft, when this feature optical axis of its lens in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the geometrical axis of the second shaft and the free end of the console is placed in a field of view of a telephoto lens, and a console and a TV camera is fixed on the lateral surfaces of the respective shafts magnets, while the angle of the synchronous rotation of the shafts change from zero to 2 from the back to the

 

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SUBSTANCE: in order to check component 10 such as nuclear fuel pellet of any diameter and length for perpendicularity and to obtain measurement results stable with time, this component is placed on supporting surface and distances separating diametrically opposite generating lines of component from read-our rod T, T' are measured at two different levels and in two measuring planes P, P' normal to one another by means of two pairs of laser micrometers A1, A2; B1, B2. Maximal deviation of component under check from perpendicularity is calculated on them.

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EFFECT: the invention simplifies the construction and increases accuracy and productivity of checking operations.

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