The method of determining the profile of the blades hydraulic turbines turbodrills

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the oil and gas industry, such as hydraulic actuators for rotary drilling. The invention is: to reduce the energy loss of the flow of drilling fluid and increase the efficiency of the turbo-drill due to the exclusion of secondary vortices in the interscapular channel turbine arrays defining the profiles of the blades of the turbine turbodrills, based on the use of a given line of input edges of a given profile in the middle section, the defined width of the lattice, is carried out in this section z and describe parametrically

< / BR>
where R(, Z) is the radius of curvature of the profile is the solution of the differential level

,

where V(z) - input speed; - kinematic viscosity; is the angle of rotation of the thread; 1- the angle of the input stream; x1(z), y1(z) - coordinates of the input flange; x, y, z rectangular coordinate system, the x-axis is directed perpendicular to the front grille, the y axis is along the front lines of the lattice, the z - height of the blade.

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry, namely to the hydraulic actuators for rotary drilling, placed in the borehole, and more specifically to the turbodrills.


The turbodrill is a multi-stage hydraulic turbine driven by the flow of drilling fluid from the mud pump. Each stage of the turbine consists of two blade systems: a stationary stator and a rotating rotor.

In the stator, the fluid flow is formed to operate in the rotor; fluid flows mainly along the axis of the turbine and around it.

Known turbine blades, in which the grating profile height blades designed according to the following laws [1, 2]

the constancy of the axial velocity along the radius WITH1(r) const.

the constancy of the exit angle of the fluid flow out of the guide vanes of the stator1n(r) = const.

the constancy of the values of Gnrmconst; where Cn- tangential projection of the velocity of the fluid in the blade system; m - factor activity; when m 1 is constant circulation.

With all these ways to change the flow direction along the radius in the channels there are so-called secondary flow.

Secondary flow in the channel, on the one hand, lead to the redistribution of pressure to improve the tor is rgii flow and reduce the efficiency of the turbo-drill.

The cause of secondary currents in channel turbine arrays (applied in practice turbodrills) is that sleek turbulent flow of a viscous fluid lattice is bounded on the ends by walls on which the boundary layers are thicker. Caused by a repeat thread in mesopotam channel centrifugal force to balance which must have increased the pressure on the concave surface of the blade above the pressure on the convex surface of the blade (back), creating a pressure gradient across the interscapular channel. Near the end walls of the flow velocity is reduced, so that the magnitude of the required pressure gradient is reduced. As a result, the pressure on the concave surface of the blade near the walls will be less than the pressure on this surface in the middle section of the blade, which is the reason for occurrence on the concave surface of the blade secondary flow towards the wall. On the convex surface of the blade secondary current is directed from the wall. These currents are superimposed on the main flow in the channel formed by the spiral motion, the so-called vortex pair.

The concept of secondary flow entered N. E. Zhukovsky [3] used HP P is the bot U. R. of Horton [6] theory of secondary currents in the flow of residual liquid developed, B. Squire and K. G. winter [7] U. P. Horton [8]

Secondary energy losses near the ends of the blades in the region of a boundary layer on the walls of the annular channel have been investigated in the work of Howell [9]

Secondary loss of energy for the turbine lattice with relatively short blades, streamlined viscous fluid comprise half or more of the total losses in the lattice [10]

Therefore, to improve the efficiency of the mud motor, turbine lattice which has a relatively short blade, the required grating with such design parameters, which significantly reduced the secondary loss of energy.

There are many ways of dealing with secondary currents. One of them is running on the end surfaces of the flow part of the gratings across their width special grooves near the back of the blades [11] Instead of the grooves also make projections and edges [12] These elements are partially prevent a vortex pair, however, completely eliminate the secondary current, they are not capable. In addition, they themselves are the sources of additional losses.

As a prototype the selected method of limiting secondary flows and pressures along the radius. The method is based on the use of inclined blades of the concavity to the axis of the turbomachine [10] By varying parameters such as the angle of the blades in the circumferential direction, the axial dimension of the crown and twist of the thread is achieved minimum value of the secondary currents.

The disadvantage of the prototype is not taking into account the viscous characteristics, environment, and the inability to use this profile inclined blades in lattices of some rotors of turbines, such as high-speed rotary drills.

The essence of the invention is to reduce the energy loss of the flow of drilling fluid and increase the efficiency of a turbodrill by eliminating the occurrence of secondary vortices in the interscapular channel turbine arrays.

This objective is achieved in that the profile of the blade in the cross-section z is described parametrically

< / BR>
where R (alpha, z) the radius of curvature of the profile. Is determined by the solution of the differential equation

< / BR>
where V(z) input flow rate;

kinematic viscosity;

a rotation angle of the stream;

a1the entrance angle of the stream;

x1(z), y1(z) the coordinates of the input edges;

x, y, z rectangular coordinate system;

the x-axis napina height of the scapula.

Known profiles of the blades having a different shape according to the height of the blade. However, in the known constructions, the law of variation of the spin along the radius does not ensure elimination of secondary currents, along with the change in the shape of the profile you want even change the angle of the blades in the circumferential direction, is achieved by moving around the circumference of the individual profiles (cross sections) of the scapula. The use of blades with tangential tilt or saber blades with a large slope in the lattices of impellers some turbomachines are not allowed on condition of providing sufficient strength. Profiling by the proposed method allows to obtain a radially disposed blade, satisfying the condition of absence of secondary currents. Therefore, the proposed method has a new quality. Thus, the proposed method meets the criterion of "novelty."

The comparison of the proposed solutions not only prototype, but also with other technical solutions in this area are not allowed to reveal the features distinguishing the claimed solution to the prototype that allows to conclude that the criterion of "inventive step".

When determining the surface shape of a thin blade, obte the second viscosity, the following assumptions are made:

1. Each line of flow of the main flow in the interscapular channel is located on a plane parallel to the walls, is a shifted in the direction of the grating pitch line of intersection of this plane with the surface of the scapula.

2. The flow velocity at the entrance of the channel has a direction defined by the angle of entry; known longitudinal component of the vorticity and velocity are determined by the distance from the wall.

3. Line the front edge of the blade, the width of the grating and the exit angle of the main stream set.

To determine the curvature of the profile of the Navier-Stokes equations will receive

< / BR>
The curvature, which satisfies equation (1) contains two arbitrary functions A() and B():

< / BR>
The radius of curvature is included in the parametric equations profile

< / BR>
For example, the solution of the differential equation (1), if the blade in the middle section has a parabolic profile.

The condition of parabolicity middle section of the blade is performed when A V2(l), where l polyvista blades.

At the same time the profile of the middle section is defined by a parabola

< / BR>
where b(l) width of the grid in the middle section.

When(Z) ___ 0, f(Z) ___ , C(Z) ___ tg2< / BR>
profile according to [7] degenerates into a straight line , set at an angle2to the stream.

In General, the profile of the blade in the middle section can be also approximated by a spline. In the case of solutions of the equation (1) is expressed as a number, which in this description because of the bulkiness and complexity is not given.

Sources of information:

1. Suslov PP Turbine drilling. M. Nedra, 1968.

2. Kasyanov C. M. Hydraulic machines and compressors. Textbook for high schools, 2nd ed. revised and enlarged additional Meters of the Subsurface. 1981.

3. Zhukovsky N. That is About the movement of water at a bend in the river, so IV, lecture notes, 1973, S. 193-233.

4. The Prandtl L. Hydromechanics. The SLUDGE. M. 1951.

5. Stepanov, Y. Hydrodynamics lattices of turbomachines. Fizmatgiz. 1962.

6. Houston U. R. the Application of theory of secondary currents for the challenges of internal aerodynamics, Mechanics, M. 1968, No. 5 (III).

7. Squfze H. B. Wfnter R. G. The Secondary flow in a cascade of airfoile in a non-unifrom starea m. J. Alronavt. Soi. 18, 271-277, 1951.

8. Hawtorne W. R. Secondary ciraflation in flnud flow. Proc. Rou. Soc. A 206, 374-387, 1951.

9. Howell A. R. Flnud dynnamies of axfal-flow compressors. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 153, 441-452, 1945.

10. Shvarov Century, To form the blades of the turbomachine, preventing the formation of secondary tx2">

12. Tonkov A. M. Tikhomirov A. B. flow Control in thermal turbines. HP Engineering. 1979.

The method of determining the profile of the blades hydraulic turbines turbodrills, based on the use of a given line of input edges of a given profile in the middle section, the defined width of the grating, characterized in that the profile of the blade in the cross-section Z is described parametrically

< / BR>
where the radius of curvature R1z) profile is the solution of the differential equations

< / BR>
where V(z) input speed;

- kinematic viscosity;

- the angle of rotation of the stream;

1- the angle of the input stream;

X1(Z), Y1(Z) the coordinates of the input edges;

X, Y, Z rectangular coordinate system: the X-axis is directed perpendicular to the front grille, the Z-axis along the front lines of the lattice, the Y-axis height of the blade.

 

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