The method of performing the fence in the ground
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used during the construction of subsurface soil structures: fences, ditches, walls, mooring and other structures, building foundations, basements, walls, embankments, etc., the Essence: how to complete the fence in the ground, including the creation in the ground in two rows enclosing elements and combining enclosing elements of different rows of at least one tier horizontal elements, the distance between rows enclosing elements in the light at the level of the surface of the site is equal to (0,5-5,0)d, where d is the largest cross-sectional dimension of the enclosing element, and the horizontal elements are in the form of beams with the stiffness of the cross-section enclosing element, component 0,5-5,0 stiffness of the cross-section enclosing element, and the beams are located between the rows of enclosing elements and merged with them. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used during the construction of subsurface soil structures: fences Kok embankments, etc.A known method of construction of the fence in the ground, including the piling into the ground vertical elements of reinforced concrete piles, drilling between wells that are lower perforated tubes with nozzles directed toward the adjacent piles and the flow through the nozzle under high pressure water to soil erosion between the wells and the piles and the exposure of the surface of the piles with simultaneous filling of the cavity formed between the piles cement, hardening of which is formed a wall between the piles 
The disadvantage of this method is the large volume of work and wastage of materials due to the stiffness constant, unnecessary in areas where such rigidity is not required under the terms of fencing.Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is the execution method of the fence in the ground, including the creation in the ground in two rows enclosing elements and the installation of at least one tier horizontal elements 
The disadvantage of this method is also wastage of materials due to the fact that the rigidity of the fence is low, because it is determined by the location of the horizontal which is increasing the efficiency by increasing the spatial rigidity of the fence.The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of performing the fence in the ground, including the creation in the ground in two rows enclosing elements and combining enclosing elements of different rows of at least one tier horizontal elements, the distance between rows enclosing elements in the light at the level of the surface of the site is equal to (0,5-5,0)d, where d is the largest cross-sectional dimension of the enclosing element, and the horizontal elements are in the form of beams with the rigidity of the cross section component 0,5-5,0 stiffness of the cross-section enclosing element, and the beams are located between the rows of enclosing elements and merged with them. When performing a fence in the loose soil between the enclosing elements can perform zabirki as excavation. Horizontal elements can be placed at a distance from the top of the enclosing element, not greater 25d, where d is the largest cross-sectional dimension of the enclosing element, and each subsequent tier of horizontal elements is separated from an upper layer at a distance not exceeding 20d.Enclosing elements can be positioned vertically or inclined to form between rstly signs, is that is possible to improve the spatial rigidity, which will eliminate the waste of materials while ensuring the required bearing capacity of the fence.In Fig. 1 shows a perspective view of a fragment of the fence, erected declared by the method of Fig.2 is a plan; Fig. 3 section a-a in Fig. 1, an embodiment of enclosing elements vertical; Fig. 4 section a-a in Fig. 1, an embodiment of enclosing elements inclined.The method is as follows.Perform two series of enclosing elements 1, the distance between the rows which are equal to (0,5-5,0)d, where d is the largest dimension of the cross-section enclosing element 1. Between the rows of enclosing elements 1 carry out the extraction of soil 2 and then install at least one tier horizontal elements 3 in the form of beams, the stiffness of the cross section of which is 0.5 to 5.0 stiffness enclosing elements 1. The horizontal elements 3 in the form of beams combine with the enclosing elements 1 different series in a single structure. After installation of horizontal elements 3 will develop a trench 4 in space, exhaust the elements 3 in the form of beams.When running fence in loose ground as the development of the pit 4 between the enclosing elements 1 perform zabirko, for example, from boards. Horizontal elements 3 in the form of beams set at a distance from the top of the enclosing elements 1, not more 25d, where d is the largest dimension of the cross-section enclosing element 1, and each subsequent tier horizontal elements 3 in the form of beams is separated from an upper layer at a distance not exceeding 20d. Enclosing elements 1 can be arranged vertically or obliquely to form between the rows of angle not exceeding 12o.Example. Construction in Moscow, Ostozhenka street there was a necessity of performing vertical fences of pit depth of 3-4 m in sandy soils.For fences of pit builders proposed was to use available materials: steel (beams, channels, angles, strips, boards). Fencing experimental plots of the pit depth of 4 m with a total length of 250 m was performed according to the proposed invention, two rows of enclosing elements of the I-beam N 20 length of 10 m, which was set in the ground with step elements 0.7 m along the perimeter of each of the and elements established zabirki from boards. After you have fixed by zbirkami from boards with a thickness of 30 mm upper 2.5 m of the fence, between two rows of enclosing elements set the horizontal element of the beam from the beam N 30, privaris his shelves to shelves enclosing elements. As the subsequent excavation of the pit below the horizontal element has fulfilled the fastening zbirkami of boards of a thickness of 40 mm bottom portion of the fence depth of 1.5 m Depth enclosing elements 10 meters ensured their stability, because at a depth of about 6 m below the pit bottom the moment of forces active earth pressure was balanced by the moment of forces of passive resistance (resistance) of the soil. Above the point where these moments were balanced strength enclosing elements was determined by the predominant influence of bending moments of the forces active pressure above the torques passive pressure.These aspects influenced the enclosing elements from the bottom up as follows (1 POG.m perimeter fencing) from the ground surface to a depth of 4 m, i.e., to the bottom of the pit, the time was increased from 0 to 10.6 sci, at a depth of 4-5 m from 10.6 to 20.8 sci, at a depth of 5-8 m from 20.8 to 42,4 sci, at a depth of 8-10 m time decreased from 42,4 sci to 0.When maximum impact is the bottom of the pit), material enclosing elements of the I-beam N 20, made of steel according to GOST 27772-88 with permissible voltage 2850 kg/cm2with modulus of elasticity E 2106kgf/cm2, characterized by the moment of inertia J 1840 cm4and rigidity EJ 21061,841033,68106103cgsm20,368 sci2. This material is capable of withstanding the allowable stress s from the bending moment M equal to sJ:y 28501840:10 529400 cgsm25,294 sci, where y 10 cm distance from the axis of the cross section of the beam to its edges.When running fence in the usual way in one row for each linear foot of perimeter fencing would be required to install fencing elements of 8 pieces that are practically unreal. The consumption of metal would be (1 + 250)81021,0 421680 kg 421 soWhen performing a fence around the proposed method in two rows of enclosing elements with the distance between adjacent rows in the light of 0.3 m, the moment of inertia of a pair of adjacent elements (both series) is) is 37,180 cm4and their stiffness EJ 2106) is 37,180 74360106cgsm27436 sci2< / BR>A pair of enclosing elements specified stiffness provides the perception of the bending moment M equal to
M sJ:y 285037180:35 3027500 cgsm 30,275 sci.When vozraste pair of the proposed elements of adjacent rows to perceive the moment equal 30,275 sci required step was 30,275 42,4 0,71 m Thus, when the step elements of each row of 0.7 m, the length of the fence 250 m, the length of each element of the I-beam N 20 10 m, the total length of the horizontal element of the I-beam N 30 250 meters, weight 1 peg. m I-beam N 20 21,0 kg, and the mass of 1 peg.m I-beam N 30 32,9 kg total metal consumption to run the fence was
(1+250)1021,00+25032,9 52170+8220 60930 kg 61 t
Thus, the execution of the fencing of two rows of fencing items from tee No. 20 and the horizontal element of the I-beam N 30 reduced metal consumption by 360 tons, compared with the performance of the fence from one of a number of tee N 20. 1. The method of performing the fence in the ground, including the creation in the ground in two rows enclosing elements and the installation of at least one tier horizontal elements, characterized in that the distance between the rows of enclosing elements in the light at the level of the surface of the site is equal to (0,5 5,0)d, where d is the largest cross-sectional dimension of the enclosing element, and the horizontal elements are in the form of beams with the rigidity of the cross section component 0,5 5,0 stiffness of the cross-section of the enclosing element, and a beam raspologeni running fence in the loose soil between the enclosing elements perform zabirko as excavation.3. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that the horizontal elements installed at a distance from the top of the enclosing element, not greater 25d, where d is the largest cross-sectional dimension of the enclosing element, and each subsequent tier of horizontal elements is separated from an upper layer at a distance not exceeding 20d.4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the enclosing elements have upright or inclined to form between the rows of angle not exceeding 12o.
FIELD: building, particularly for bordering or stiffening the sides of foundation pits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving vertical piles in ground along pit perimeter for depth exceeding pit bottom level; excavating ground up to reaching pit bottom level to open bordering member surfaces facing inwards; securing horizontal distribution beams to above surfaces to create framing belt; installing spaced cross-pieces along pit perimeter; leaning the first cross-piece ends against distribution beams and securing the second ends thereof into pit bottom ground; removing cross-pieces after reinforced concrete pit bottom forming. Ground is excavated to form inner initial pit and then stepped trench is dug out under the protection of thixotropic mix along the initial pit perimeter in direction transversal to bordering formed by piles. Lower trench step is located below pit bottom level and the second cross-piece ends are secured to above step which is then concreted under the protection of thixotropic mix. After hardening support shoe of cross-pieces trench is filled with previously excavated ground and ground is excavated of the pit up to reacting pit bottom level.
EFFECT: possibility to consolidate pit just after the initial pit and framing belt forming.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly foundation pits rammed by free-fall method.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises cylindrical part connected to section of circular truncated mouth cone. The section has base provided with base having flat ring extending transversely to longitudinal device axis. Cone section is parallel to base and faces free end of cylindrical part.
EFFECT: prevention of ground protrusion in pit and taper formation during pit ramming, provision of free ram removal from pit bottom and ram retraction in guiding shaft for following ramming cycle performing.
SUBSTANCE: bracing of boards of a foundation ditch includes protecting and load-carrying wall structure connected with a fastening belt, executed on the top of protecting and a load-carrying structure. The fastening belt is executed in the form of the salient aside reinforced flange from a foundation ditch, located in an dimple of the fore shaft with possibility of rigid connection of a prefabricated reinforcement cage of a flange with the top exposed part of a prefabricated reinforcement cage of a wall structure and joints concreting this connection for increase in flexural rigidness.
EFFECT: increase in flexural rigidness of an upper part of bracing in a vertical plane for a full exception of horizontal moving of a load-carrying wall and a ground towards a foundation ditch.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in method to excavate foundation pit when doing emergency works at subsurface structures including reinforcement of gap slopes, expanding, reinforcing and hardening material is injected into gap in unstable zone until complete filling of gap, and reinforced area is shaped in unstable zone by curing until full hardening of specified material, then soil is cut in layers, and a layer of expanded, reinforcing and hardened material is cut down to subsurface structure.
EFFECT: simplified technology of foundation pit slopes reinforcement and reduced time for its performance.
2 cl, 1 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to reinforce foundation pit and trench boards includes arrangement of a rigid L-shaped structure made as a vertical retaining wall with a collar protruding towards the foundation pit fixed along the wall top, soil working in the foundation pit, installation of anchors and their tensioning. At first anchors are installed on the collar and tensioned, besides, anchors are installed in direction parallel to wall reinforcement, and value of anchors tension is maintained at the calculated level, reinforcement movement start is recorded, afterwards soil is worked in the foundation pit (trench).
EFFECT: neutralisation of impact from compressed pressure and putting reinforcement in operation before soil working in foundation pit, exclusion or minimisation of horizontal displacements of the wall, increased bearing capacity of soil massif.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction, namely to sheet pilings or retaining walls erected at the sites with free-flow current of ground water, in particular for the creation of sheet piling in foundation pits during conduction of repair works at major pipelines. Method for erecting the sheet piling when conducting works at major pipeline includes the assembly of the guide frame and lock in place of erection of sheet piling by driving the racks, installation of the guide frame on them and driving of sheet piles of fencing with their closure in plan. Repair foundation pit is excavated preliminary and major pipeline is opened on top to the depth not less than 0.6 m from the bottom forming tube of major pipeline to the bottom of foundation pit, besides the foundation pit is excavated along the length exceeding the length of the cut section of major pipeline to not less than 2 m. Repair foundation pit is bordered with the compacted clay along the exterior perimeter. Four racks are mounted in the corners of repair foundation pit with section protruding over the curve of repair foundation pit to not less than 15 cm, retaining fingers are inserted into the holes of racks and then I-beams of guide frame are mounted on racks, after that the sheet piles with formation along the perimeter of guide frame from I-beams of sheet piling are suppressed into the soil along the I-beams between the walls of repair foundation pit and I-beam. Part of sheet piles leaves not less than 15 cm over the curve of the repair foundation pit.
EFFECT: technical result consists in the increase of productivity when erecting and disassembling the sheet piling, reduction of material consumption of sheet piling, simplification of structure.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of the walls excavation shoring, in which prior to the soil excavation in the pit the leader setup in the level of the pit bottom of the backfill or buried membrane is carried out, which is becoming the rigid spacer, provides the minimum depth of the pit wall fixing.
EFFECT: increase of the reliability and durability of the whole facility in accordance with regulatory requirements, reduction in consumption of materials and labour intensity of underground part structure construction by reducing the depth of the excavation shoring walls bottom embedding.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the construction of underground structures such as "wall in the soil", namely for arranging a fore shaft used while executing a monolithic trench "wall in the soil". The prefabricated reinforced concrete fore shaft consists of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements of the L-shaped section, connected by means of embedded metal plates. The fore shaft elements are connected by means of at least two keys engaged by toothings, the keys being reinforced. On the upper edges of the prefabricated fore shaft in the same plane with the concrete surface, metal embedding angles are mounted, which are anchored in the concrete.
EFFECT: increasing the stiffness, bearing capacity and reliability of the interface nodes of the prefabricated fore shaft elements, reducing the labour costs, improving the structure installation quality, ensuring its durability and maintainability, which guarantees frequent use of the fore shaft structure and significantly reducing its cost.
9 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction or repair of oil and gas pipelines and other engineering communications, in particular for reinforcement of walls in trenches of pits dug in ground during performance of repair or installation of pipelines of main and field oil and gas pipelines under conditions of looseness and floatage of grounds, also under conditions when possibility is not available to dig trenches by stockpile method. Fencing of working zone for performance of repair works of deepened sections of gas line consists of two walls and frame assembled from 2 spacers and 5 rods. Metal-plastic walls consist of frame welded from aluminium profile, two linings of glass-cloth laminate and filler from foamed self-extinguishing polystyrene. Spacers and rods are arranged as integral from rolled aluminium.
EFFECT: reduced weight of structure elements, possibility of sectional assembly of fencing in site of works performance and possibility to perform assembly manually without application of weight-lifting mechanisms by team of 4 people.
5 cl, 2 dwg