The method of determination of the parameter characterizing the interaction in the system of wheel - rail, when the vehicle along a curved section of track
(57) Abstract:Use: for determination of the parameter characterizing the interaction in the system of wheel-rail when the vehicle along a curved section of track. The inventive determine the length of the base of the truck, the rotation angles of the front and rear axles and frame the effort, which determine the interaction parameter system wheel-rail, which is used as the value of the power factor, proportional to the flange wear of tires wheelset. 2 Il. The invention relates to railway transport, in particular to the control and recording devices to determine the status of the rolling stock and track, and is intended for use in scientific studies of processes of interaction of way and rolling stock, as well as estimates of expected flange wear of tyres wheelsets and rails in curves.There is a method of determining a parameter characterizing the interaction in the system of wheel-rail when the vehicle along a curved section of track, namely, that determine the length of the base vehicle, half the length of the base of the truck and corners turning parts, all specifications the rail.The disadvantage of this method is that the installed electric sensors provide electrical signals pulses are compared with a predefined gradation output aligned electron-amplitude selector, i.e., the received signals are compared with signals received at the installation path. Therefore, after comparing the signals obtained electrical signals reflecting the real force of the rolling stock on the railway path, not a relative or simulated.In addition, the electrical signals received from sensors depending on the signal level of the electron-amplitude selector, served in a corresponding electromagnetic otsechki, retaining only your targets on paper. This system filtering of the signal and divide it up into strong and weak reflects the primitive processing of pulses, which eventually registers to extend the paper signals that reflect only changes in electrical impulses unsprung or sprung part of the crew, after the amplifier with unjustified and unnecessary expansions of the signal.The known method also reflects the interaction of the crew on the way, vsego, technology process and recording of electrical signals with amplification and comparison with predetermined values of the pulses. It should be noted the lack of reliability associated with the use of electron-amplitude selector, which is not able to ensure the stable operation of the device. About the lack of accuracy of measurement by the fact that no mention of the position of the crew in the curve of the railroad tracks. Although, as is known, the motion of the crew in the curve sections of railway track dynamic interaction increase dramatically, and with increasing speed, their actions are amplified. Among other things, described the prototype reflects the way the registration of the power factors of dynamic interaction between the crew and the path, not the wear factor system wheel-rail, although it should be noted that the power factors are components of the wear factor.The purpose of the invention improve the accuracy of the continuous determination of the wear of the rolling stock and the path curves in the plots.The objective is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method, measure the length of the base vehicle, half the length of the base of the truck and the angles of the front and rear axles, frame force, prierowsee interaction in wheel-rail, use the value of the power factor, proportional to the flange wear of tires wheelset, which is determined by the ratio of:
< / BR>where T is the magnitude of the friction force of the wheels on the rails;
L the length of the base of the vehicle;
and half the base length of the truck;
's half the distance between the circles Catania;
Cthe angle of rotation of the rear truck;
pthe angle of the front truck;
To the coefficient linking dimension.In Fig. 1 shows the parameters used to calculate the factor of Fig.2 the device to implement the method.Thus in Fig.1 mark:
W the center of rotation of the truck;
H1the longitudinal component of the friction of one wheel of the 1st pair of wheels on the rails;
H2the longitudinal component of the friction of one wheel of the second pair of wheels on the rails;
V1the transverse component of the friction of one wheel of the first pair of wheels on the rails;
V2the transverse component of the friction of one wheel of the second pair of wheels on the rails;
T the resultant of the frictional force of the wheels on the rails;
2A base truck;
THE1guiding force of the first wheel;
2">The method has the mathematical justification.Consider the basic formula of wear, which reflects the following dependence.f = MC,
where the power factor, proportional to the flange wear of tires wheelset;
The guiding force (reaction rail);
a corner of crowding;
To the coefficient linking dimension (g/kN/rad).Perform an analytical calculation of the guides efforts.Given the ratio (Fig.1) the transverse component of the friction forces V1to the resultant of forces of friction of the wheels on the rails T and the ratio of the pole distance X to the half length 2S, from the similarity of triangles will make a proportion:
< / BR>< / BR>From which we find the value of the transversal components of the friction forces for the first and second wheel pairs.< / BR>With regard to frame efforts INparising from the action of centrifugal forces and reactions rail, get:
< / BR>It is known that the rotation angles of the front and rear axle relative to the vehicle is determined by the formula:
< / BR>tgnn, tg33since the rotation angles do not exceed 5ovalues and identical for different installations of the crew in the curve,
and half of the base truck;
Xnthe pole distance of the first carriage;
X3the pole distance of the rear truck;
R is the radius of the curve.Considering the position of the crew in the curve at the maximum transfer is assumed that the pole distance front and rear bogies are equal, i.e., X3XnH. Find X from the formula (7)
< / BR>From the formula (8) determine the value:
< / BR>Substituting (9) into (10) and simplifying, we get
< / BR>From the expression (11) find the radius of the circular curve
< / BR>Find pole distance to the rear of the truck
< / BR>where the total gap taking into account the broadening of the gauge.Substituting the expression (12) in (9), we get:
< / BR>Given a formula to determine the lateral forces arising between wheel and rail,
< / BR>where guides efforts when moving crew curve;
T the frictional force of the wheels on the rails;
's half the distance between the circles riding wheelset.Supplying the expression (14) in (15), we obtain the values guiding efforts for the first and second wheelset
< / BR>From the expression (13) find the value of the total gap taking into account the broadening of the line.< / BR>Substituting expression is=a(3-n);(20)< / BR>The angle of crowding is determined by the formula /8/
< / BR>Substituting the expression (13) in (21), we get:
< / BR>Using (20) in the expression (22), we find:
< / BR>Substituting the expression (12) in (23), we get:
< / BR>According to formulas (16), (17) and (24) to obtain the values of the constituent power factor, proportional to the wear and tear, which depends on the magnitude of the rotation angles trucks , base vehicle L, half of the base of the bogie and frame efforts INphalf the distance between the circles S Catania and the resultant friction forces So Given the condition that the motion of the crew of the second wheel pair may take different positions, produced a mathematical calculation only for the rolling wheel pair, i.e., to determine directing efforts AT1.F = MC (25)
A block diagram of a device that implements the method includes:
1 contactless sensor frame of effort;
2 non-contact angle sensor front truck;
3 non-contact angle sensor rear truck;
4, the signal processing unit guides the efforts that occur between the outer rail and a pair of wheels;
5, the signal processing unit of the node abeginner CLASS="ptx2">The sensor frame of effort 1 is mounted on the frame of the truck and using a rod connected to the panel Jack wheel pair, generates an electrical signal proportional to the pressure of the bogie frame on the axle equipment wheelset. The sensors of the rotation angles of the front truck 2 (nand rear of the trolley 3 (3) relative to the axis of the frame of the vehicle, is placed directly on the frames of trucks and by means of kinematic connection connect to the frame of the vehicle, the sensors implement an electrical signal proportional to the rotation angle of the trucks.Electrical signals proportional to the rotation angle of the front truckn, the angle of rotation of the rear truck3/ and frame efforts INpshall be received by the signal processing unit guides the efforts of the 4 acting on the wheel pair. An electrical signal reflecting the magnitude of directing the efforts of THE1supplied to the signal processing unit of the wear factor 6, in addition, block 6 receives electrical signals from the block 5, which implements the angle of crowding ridge brace of the pair of wheels on the rail in function of the rotation angles trucks vnand3. Unit 6 multiplies the magnitude of the electrical signals AT1and taking into account the coefficient linking shedding apparatus 7, and is characteristic of a dynamic interaction between rolling stock and the way Express the magnitude of the wear factor wheelset of the vehicle and the rails. The method of determination of the parameter characterizing the interaction in wheel rail, when the vehicle along a curved section of track, namely, that determine the length of the base vehicle, half the length of the base of the truck and the rotation angles of the front and rear bogies, which calculates the parameter characterizing the interaction in wheel
rail, characterized in that the measuring frame force, determine the magnitude of the friction force of the wheels on the rails and the distance between the circles skating wheels, and as the parameter characterizing the interaction in wheel rail, use the value of the power factor, proportional to the flange wear of tires wheelset, which is determined by the ratio
< / BR>where T is the magnitude of the friction force of the wheels on the rails;
L the length of the base of the vehicle;
a half length base truck;
's half the distance between the circles Catania;
C- the angle of rotation of the rear truck;
p- the angle of rotation of the front truck;
To the coefficient linking dimension.
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of diagnosing condition of railway and street car tracks. Proposed device contains detectors designed for measuring deviation of gauge and position of track by level of sags, humps and cavities connected with contact members. Device contains also vertical parallel, inner and outer posts, rollers made for interaction with side working inner surfaces of side track, rollers made for interaction with upper working surfaces of rail track, jambs some ends of which are connected with roller races and others, with corresponding posts. One of detectors is made in form of dial indicator, being arranged on one of inner posts and coupled with roller-type contact elements made for interaction with side working inner surfaces of track. Rod of said indicator is in contact with upper end of other inner post. Springs are placed between inner post. Springs are placed between inner posts in upper and lower parts, mounted on upper surface of two pairs of bosses fitted on one axle. Holes are made in inner posts. Axle with bushing is placed in inner posts. Bracket is connected by one end to bushing, and other end of bracket serves for fastening to floor of test car. Second detector is made in form of metric rule secured to inner post, and two pointers secured on upper end faces of outer posts. Two pairs of slots are made on outer posts. Slots are arranged on one axis and they accommodate pins installed for movement. Pins are provided with stops from outer and inner parts of posts.
EFFECT: improved reliability of device, reduced cost, possibility of reading results of measuring directly from detectors.
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises base that can move over the surface of the rail, unit of electroacoustic converters with pressing mechanism for permitting rising and lowering, mechanism for clamping the head of the rail pivotally connected with the base, two additional units of electroacoustic converters with pressing mechanisms, and units of electroacoustic converters connected with the mechanism of clamping the head of the rail.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods of nondestructive check. In ultrasonic method of cracks detection in walls of bolt openings of railway rails, which are non-testable from rolling surface, according to the first version, in controlled rail with the help of direct transmit-receive piezoelectric converter located near opening so that electroacoustic screen lies on conventional line passing through centre of opening, perpendicularly to surface of rail web, pulse ultrasonic radiations are emitted, echo-signals reflected from opposite surface of web are received, converter is displaced along surface of rail web around opening, crack is detected based on disappearance or reduction of echo-signal. According to the second version, two inclined piezoelectric converters are used, which operate in separate mode of transmit-receive, located near opening so that acoustic axes of converters pass along tangent to opening walls and are directed towards each other so that signal reflected from opposite surface of web, arrives to receiver, ultrasonic vibrations are emitted, echo-signals reflected from web surface are received, converters are displaced along surface of rail web around hole, crack is detected based on disappearance or reduction of echo-signal.
EFFECT: improved safety of traffic, higher credibility of cracks detection in walls of bolt openings.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: use: for an acoustic flaw detection of malfunctions of a rail track. Substance: consists in the fact that an acoustic signal is transmitted into rails, the reflected signal is accepted, and by time of distribution of acoustic signals to a place of malfunction and back they determine its coordinate, the reflected signal is accepted by piezoelectric converters installed on sliding bearings, located on a shaft of a wheel set, transfer and reception of acoustic signals is carried out alternately, thus as a power source of acoustic signals they use strikes of wheel sets on joints of the rail way, they stabilise impulses by the constant weight of the locomotive a working range of its speeds at a rolling angle α=0.001÷0.002°, they register at the same time frequency of following of the created shock impulses, background intensity and a frequency range of acoustic noise in an interval between the first and the second shock impulses and the reflected signals from at least 2 wheel sets, transforming the created shock impulses to squared impulses, define their duration between time periods of the back front and the forward front, decomposing rectangular impulses from the right and left track in a Fourier row and allocate the main harmonic of the right and left track, then they carry out further processing of the received data, defining malfunctions of a rail track.
EFFECT: possibility of detection of difficult defects in a rail track.
SUBSTANCE: according to the method for monitoring the rail track, an acoustic signal is transmitted to the rails, the reflected signal is received by acoustic sensors, and the signal is processed by the signal processing system. The track state is judged based on the analysis of the obtained data. A deformation wave is used as the acoustic signal source, occuring in the rail as the rolling stock moves. Reception of reflected signals is carried out continuously in the movement of the composition. Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers are used as acoustic sensors.
EFFECT: functionality is extended and the reliability of the rail track monitoring method is increased.
FIELD: railroad facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method of complex rail diagnostics relates to control and measuring devices for checking the condition of railway tracks and can be used for testing a railway track by a complex of non-destructive testing tools, including for detection of microcracks on the rail head running surface. Method comprises installing, in known relative positions, devices for: defectoscopy, measurement of unevenness and video surveillance of rails, moving the vehicle along the railway tracks, constant measuring the condition of the railway tracks by all devices and preserving the results obtained. When detecting sections of railway tracks with surface defects or irregularities, images of these sections of the railway track are fixed with illumination at different angles, most contrasting with respect to defects video frames are identified and the are used in a joint analysis to assess the degree of development of microcracks and other surface defects.
EFFECT: as a result, the reliability of detecting microcracks on the rail head surface increases significantly while reducing the amount of recorded information.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the implementation process of ultrasonic inspection of aluminothermite welded rail joints, at least two zones are defined for performing ultrasonic inspection, wherein one of at least two zones is selected on the weld (strengthening roller) of the welded joint from the side surface of the rail foot blade. The certain zones on the weld (strengthening roller) are ground with the formation of areas configured to provide an acoustic contact. An ultrasonic sensor is mounted on each area on the weld, connected to at least one ultrasonic flaw detector. The ultrasonic inspection of the welded joint by at least one flaw detector is performed by an echo-method or a delta-method. As a result, there is no "blind zone" in the foot area of the welded rail joint.
EFFECT: increasing the accuracy of the detection of defects in the weld in the area of the rail foot.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of grading of existing bed of railway in which cables and/or pipes are laid beyond the limits of rails, and to laser measuring device to read bed profile. According to proposed method, operator removes material of bed by sucking through definite steps along bed to form pits or cross trenches at each side of track, and using laser camera, checks profile near pit and position of buried cables or pipes and stores obtained information. Then, using information kept in memory, operator controls device for mechanical digging of material from both sides of track without risk of damage to buried cables or pipes and profile of graded bed. Laser measuring device is mounted on railway motor car with cross guide beam 12 and carriage with laser camera which can be moved along guide beam. Laser camera is pointed with its lens downwards to read distance from ground, being connected with computer to record position of bogie on rails and distance from camera to ground.
EFFECT: provision of safe, quick and cheap method of railway bed grading with use of laser measuring device.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, road works.
SUBSTANCE: the invention refers to area of a railway transportation and is intended for the supervisory control of a rail way. The method of supervisory control of a railway position consists in installation of device on a rail rut, measurement of the passed way, excess of rails, rail gage, registration of the obtained data and addition of values with distance between measuring elements. Installation of wheel pairs on a device frame on the one hand, is performed rigidly, and on the other hand, with possibility of swinging against a cross-section axis. A gauge is measured by installation of measuring elements on lateral surfaces of rails for measurement of distance to an inside face of rails against the frame. Measuring elements are fixed in whatever position. The wheel pairs are used in a control unit of position of a railway, one of which mounted rigidly on a device frame, and the other so that to swing against the cross-section axis fixed on a device frame. The lock elements and the additional detecting device of linear movement are included into the detecting device of measurement of a gauge. Detecting devices of measurement of a gauge are located on a frame from the interior of each rail and supplied with spring-actuated measuring elements capable of being fixed with the lock elements connected with detecting devices of measurement of a gauge.
EFFECT: increase in measurement accuracy, higher operation amenity, expansion of the cart functionality.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to repair or reconstruct using a digital track model, consisting in monitoring and diagnostics of actual condition of a repaired railway section by means of monitoring and measurement of position of objects in its infrastructure and their geometric dimensions done simultaneously with the help of software and hardware installed on a single mobile facility and synchronised by track coordinate and geographical coordinate. Measurement data is processed on the basis of space 3D coordinate representation of position and geometric parameters of railway section infrastructure objects. Produced data is compared with data of rated space 3D coordinate representation of position and geometric parameters of the same objects of infrastructure that are represented in the digital track model. Results of comparison with existing values of allowances and limitations to position of infrastructure objects and their geometry are analysed. Comparison results are provided to put infrastructure objects into a position close to the rated one.
EFFECT: improved quality, accuracy and efficiency of railway infrastructure repair management.
SUBSTANCE: method for maintenance of railway infrastructure using a digital railway model involves monitoring and diagnosing the condition of a railway section by monitoring and measuring the position of objects of its infrastructure and their geometric dimensions at different times using means of monitoring railway, overhead system, signalling, neutralising and blocking, synchronised on the linear coordinate of the railway and the geographical coordinate. Measurement data are processed based on a spatial three-dimensional coordinate presentation of the position and geometrical parameters of objects of the infrastructure. The obtained data are compared with data of the design spatial three-dimensional coordinate presentation of the position and geometrical parameters of the same objects of infrastructure presented in the digital model of the railway. Comparison results analysed with existing tolerance values and limitations to the position of objects and their geometry and comparison results are provided in order to bring the objects of the infrastructure to a position close to the design position, through communication channels in the railway operation service.
EFFECT: high reliability of using railway infrastructure.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automation and telemechanics on railway transport. In compliance with the results of diagnostics of track geographic coordinates of fault in high-precision coordinate system, recorded in memory of the mobile hardware and software of the device and is positioned the location of defect on previously recorded in memory of the mobile hardware-software map within Strip removal of tracks made in the form of a three-dimensional model in the same coordinate system. Repair crew is equipped with mobile hardware-software, with the help of built-in the program navigation provide repair team arrival at the place of works to eliminate faults, exact fault location using mobile device, software which enables to map binding fault path relative to the current location of mobile device and stationary objects of infrastructure with display on screen of the mobile device.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of finding hidden faults track.
1 cl, 1 dwg