Method for dimensional inspection of large-size products and a device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in measurement technology and, specifically, for dimensional inspection of large-size products, including hull, in particular, bogie frames railway rolling stock. The entity in part of the method lies in the fact that the product is controlled in the rectangular coordinate system formed from the five reference lines of sight in the form of laser beams, and two mutually perpendicular reference line is placed below the overall level of controlled products, and the other two above, the upper and lower levels of the reference laser beams adjacent parallel that gives you the ability to scan the product on all control surfaces, and the fifth reference line disposed vertically and forms the third coordinate. The invention in part of the device is that the device for implementing the method for dimensional inspection of large-size products equipped with an additional perpendicular distance lines 3, 4, placed in the second level relative to the measured object and adjacent to the first pair of remote lines 1, 2, which are parallel connected, and between levels adjustable cocacabana remote line 26, a hinge mounted on the support rack 21 with the possibility of vertical adjustment and control of the provisions enshrined in the remote line 26 to a pair of levels of horizon 27, and the remote line 26 posted by laser emitting a reference light beam, the carriage and rotating pentaprism forming the horizontal scanning plane. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used for size control of large-size objects in three-dimensional space in a rectangular coordinate system, mainly RAM trucks rolling stock such as locomotives, passenger cars and cranes, and other structures.

There is a method of optical inspection of theoretical contours of aircraft, namely, that close to the measured object set two mutually perpendicular coordinate line moving them two optical pipes, and installed two cathetometer from the reporting devices, two target characters with crosshairs, one of which with a plumb set on the object in the lower part, fixed position optical tubes on Col the contour of the wing and cathetometer translated in the nominal value of the vertical coordinate of this point and the reporting device cathetometer judge controlled coordinate point of the object, (see the description of the invention to author's certificate N 258627, CL 42b, 12/05, 1986).

The disadvantages of the described method can be attributed to the significant time costs associated with the adjustment of the level of the horizon on the optical tube when moving it in a vertical rack, respectively, and means for obtaining the coordinates of the point associated with the computing coordinates according to cathetometer.

A device for determining the linear position of the clamping elements stacker snap-in that contains walking distance line, optical devices, the center of the target mark and the device formed by the two connected articulated flat links with mirrored surfaces set at an angle relative to one another, (see the description of the invention to author's certificate N 292863, class B 64 F 5/00, 1969).

The disadvantages of the described device is substantially limited functional purpose and the high cost of measurement.

A device for determining the position in space of the clamping elements, containing the first, second and third coordinate line, the first and second of which are parallel to each other and perpendicularly designed for bonding with the object, two laser emitter arranged so that their axes parallel beams, and a pentaprism mounted on the third coordinate line can move along and rotation around an axis parallel to the line, and the fourth target sign kinematically connected with the third coordinate line and has the capability of rotation about an axis parallel to the third coordinate line and provides high accuracy reference coordinates (see the description of the invention to author's certificate N 1173183 class. G 01 B 11/26, 1982).

The disadvantages of the described device is the focus on narrowly specialized task, the relatively high intensity of the reference coordinates, the need for installation tools for checking the distance between the target mark (fourth) and hole sign for connection with the third line.

Closest to the proposed solution, is a method and device for control of geometrical parameters of large-sized products, the description in the book E. T. Wagner and other "lasers and optical metaly control in aircraft. M. engineering, 1977, S. 11 13 containing two mutually perpendicular horizontal distance of the line, being the line of sight along the horizontal axes, and the vertical axis formed by the guide of cathetometer.

The disadvantages of the described solution can be attributed to the fact that rectangular coordinate system formed by the two optical lines of sight in the horizontal plane and in a vertical mechanical guide cathetometer. The complexity of obtaining coordinates by using the optical system is significantly higher than using a laser, and at each vertical movement of the optical tube on the rack cathetometer requires additional configuration on the horizon.

The aim of the invention is the expansion of technological capabilities of the methods and device of the measuring system under the control of the geometric dimensions of large-sized products General machinery, providing the possibility of controlling not only the frame of spatial structures, but complex body parts.

Due to the fact that all the described methods and devices for the measurement of large objects was created primarily for use in aircraft manufacture (for example, when mounting the stacker snap), where the cost of measurement is significantly higher and the number of points for which neobhodimui the above described devices and methods are a significant complexity of obtaining the coordinates of a point in space. One of such reasons is the fact that the guides of the coordinate ruler should always be mounted next to the berth snap-in and snap into the coordinate system of the product, in this regard, obtaining coordinates of a point in space is associated with a large number of settings and adjustments.

Dimensions control products General machinery requires the creation of cheaper and more mobile method of obtaining the coordinates of a point in space, which cover a wide range of controlled products.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the method for dimensional inspection of large-size products, there are four mutually perpendicular coordinate line with mounted emitters forming the backbone direction and moving the rotary devices pentaprism turning the reference laser beam 90oin the measurement zone, and two coordinate line is placed above the measured object mounted on oneveryone reference sites, and the other two below the bottom of the controlled point of an object that allows you to cover all the test surface, while the vertical coordinate of wipout along the vertical axis.

To achieve the technical result device containing two mutually perpendicular coordinate line with mounted emitters forming the backbone direction and moving the rotary devices pentaprism turning the reference laser beam 90oin the area of measurement and cathetometer, supplemented by another two coordinate reference lines running the same drivers and carriages with rotary devices that perform similar functions, in addition, the third (vertical) coordinate is provided by a special device that allows to form the vertical position of the laser beam and using a similar moving the carriage and the pentaprism to direct in the area of horizontal scanning of the laser beam, and the vertical displacement of the beam is performed in the reference coordinates.

In Fig. 1 shows the device, General view; Fig. 2 is a front view; Fig. 3 vertical coordinates; Fig. 4 cross section a-a (top hinge), and Fig. 5 section b-B (host to two levels of horizon); Fig. 6 section b-b (node adjust the vertical coordinates).

the haul locomotives, contains ruler guides 1, 2, 3, 4 (Fig. 1) are mounted mutually perpendicular pairs in the upper position, the line 1, 2 (over the top dimensional object level) and the lower position, line 3, and 4 (lower overall level object). At one end of each of the lines are respectively the laser emitters 5, 6 and 7, 8 forming the coordinate reference axis in the form of laser orthogonal narrow directional beams based on the target marks 9, 10, 11, 12 located on opposite sides of the ruler guides.

On guide bars 1, 2, 3, 4 with the possibility of longitudinal movement installed movable carriage 13, 14, 15, 16 pentaprism 17, 18, 19, 20, mounted to rotate respectively with respect to the axes of the laser beams and deflecting them on the 90oin the area of the measurement object.

On a separate pedestal 21 by hinge 22 (Fig. 3, 4) are fixed coordinate vertical guide line 23 installed in the upper part of the radiator 24 (Fig. 3) moving the carriage 25 with installed rotatably by the pentaprism 26, and in the lower part of the guide line 23 node is installed with two levels of horizon 27 (figs. the th the mixing unit 28 (Fig. 6) having two mutually orthogonal adjusting screw 29, 30. Rotating pentaprism 26 forms in the measuring space of the beam with the possibility of sector rotation within the control zone relative to the axis of the coordinate vertical guide line 23, which gives the opportunity to form a horizontal measuring plane.

To determine the deviation of the controlled surfaces of the object measured from the horizontal plane is stagenames 31 (Fig. 2) moving vertically the target mark and a magnetic base that provides easy attachment to the object to be installed at the top or bottom, in this case, the frame 32 of the locomotive bogie.

The frame 32 of the locomotive bogie mounted on the supporting stand 33, provided with adjusting screws 34, moving the frame vertically, and adjusting screws 35 to move the frame horizontally, that gives the opportunity to put the bogie frame in both the horizontal and vertical position. At the measuring frame are also quick-release devices 36, 37 with the target marks 38, by which it is possible to determine the position of the structural elements of the frame.

The proposed method razmerov the adjustment screws 34 posts 33 set the frame 32 of the locomotive bogie. The laser beams of the emitters 5, 6, 7, 8, embed in the target marks 9, 10, 11, 12, respectively. On ruler guides 1, 2, 3, 4 set movable carriage 13, 14, 15, 16 pentaprism 17, 18, 19, 20. Next to the installed cart frame 32 on the support rack 21 is placed coordinate the ruler guide 23.

Measurements are performed as follows.

A vertical guide line 23, mounted on the support rack 21, aligned to the vertical position using the adjusting screws 29, 30 (Fig. 6), determining the vertical position using a level horizon 27. Thus, the horizontal scanning beam pentaprism 26, the carriage 25 forms a horizontal plane. The bogie frame 32 to align the horizontal position, alternately setting stagenames 31 (Fig. 2) with the target mark in the area of the adjusting screws 34 and summing the center of the target mark stagenames to the laser beam from the vertical ruler guide 23.

Then the coordinate system of the frame of the truck combined with the coordinate system of the device. The pentaprism 20 on the movable carriage 10 for supporting the guide line 4 is moved to a middle position of the measuring space. The laser beam napravlyayut the longitudinal axis of the frame 32 of the truck in the axis of the beam. After embedding the frame 32 of the truck in a rectangular coordinate system is set at the measuring elements mounted device 37 with the target marks. Next, embed the reference laser beam emerging from pentaprism 19 in the target mark 37, fix the position of the mobile carriage along the guide line and translate the pentaprism to another structural member, the second locking position of the movable carriage, determine the dimension between structural elements. Method of reference values move the carriage can be performed in various ways, such as stepper holes on the line; the measurement on the ruler on the guide; using soluble or inductive displacement sensors, as well as for more accurate measurements possible with the use of interferometers.

Further, all measurements on coordinate axes X and Y perform similarly described.

Measurements on the Z-axis is performed by using the vertical ruler guide 23 and stagenames 31 from moving vertically the target sign. The pentaprism 26 vertical guide line 23 down to the measured object so that the horizontal scanning of the laser beam was located from the measured object at a distance, dostovesky 32, combine the target mark stagenames 31 with the horizontal scanning of the laser beam, then move stagenames 31 on the following controlled surface, combine the target mark stagenames 31 and from the initial position to judge the value of the change in geometry. For the measurements, for example in the lower zone of the bogie frame, horizontal scanning of the laser beam is transferred to the desired position, and the control is repeated.

Thus, all parameters on coordinate axes X, Y and Z can be controlled by the proposed complex.

The placement of two pairs of mutually orthogonal reference lines in the upper and lower levels and placement of the measurement object on adjustable supports (Fig. 2) allow spatial control of geometrical parameters of objects, covering the whole range of controlled sizes.

The proposed solution significantly expands the technological capabilities of the system, increases the accuracy of the measurement is a generic measurement tool for a wide range of products, which due to the large weight and size it is impossible to transport and control the traditional coordinates of the GTC.

In accordance with the proposed solution made mockup of the device. The test results confirmed the high efficiency and reliability of the proposed solutions.

1. Method for dimensional inspection of large, predominantly hull, products, including formed near the product, the rectangular coordinate system of the reference lines of sight associated with the base of the target marks, two on one line, the product installed on poles and in coordination with the coordinate system of the device, and by moving along and rotatable relative to the reference line-of-sight angle 90oturn on the controlled product and the intersection of lines of sight on the target sign installed on the product, assess the coordinate point in the measurement space, characterized in that the rectangular coordinate system near the product formed from five reference lines of sight, in the form of laser beams, and two mutually perpendicular reference line is placed below the overall level of controlled products, and the other two above, with the upper and lower levels of the reference laser beams adjacent parallel, which gives a chance to view the reports third coordinate.

2. The device for implementing the method for dimensional inspection of large-size products under item 1, containing laser diodes mounted on the remote ends of lines, basic trust marks for embedding laser beam moving distance lines the carriage and mounted for rotation relative to the axes of the laser beams by pentaprism turning the reference laser beam 90oin the area of measurement products, characterized in that it is provided with an additional perpendicular distance lines placed in the second level relative to the measured object and adjacent to the first pair of remote lines parallel aligned, and between levels, regulated point support, hosted a controlled product, while the vertical coordinate is made in the form of a vertically situated ruler, a hinge mounted on the support rack with the possibility of vertical adjustment and control provisions fixed on the distant line of the pair of levels of the horizon, and the remote line posted by the laser emitter of the reference light beam, the carriage and rotating pentaprism, forming horizontal scanned

 

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