The method of performing the fence in the ground

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used during the construction of subsurface soil structures for various purposes, namely to the way of carrying out the fence in the ground. The new method is that the enclosing elements that make up the fence, perform in depth different stiffness EJ, where E is the modulus of deformation of the enclosing element, J is the moment of inertia of the cross-section enclosing element, each enclosing element has at least two sections of different hardness, one of whom perform within range on the fence during operation the maximum bending moment on the length equal to (4-20)d, where d is the largest cross-sectional dimension of the enclosing element with a stiffness corresponding to the value of maximum bending moment, the stiffness of each of the following section enclosing element take the corresponding value of the bending moment on the boundary of the adjacent area with greater rigidity, while the length of each plot with less rigidity accept not exceeding (10-50)d. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of construction and can battisputali walls, berthing and other structures, building foundations, basements, walls, embankments, etc.

There is a method of erecting a wall in the soil, including the piling into the ground vertical elements of reinforced concrete piles, drilling between wells that are lower perforated pipe with nozzles directed toward the adjacent piles, and the flow through the nozzle under high pressure water to soil erosion between the wells and the piles and the exposure of the surface of the piles with simultaneous filling of the cavity formed between the piles cement, hardening of which is formed a wall between the piles [1]

The disadvantages of this method are the large volume of works, as well as a significant wastage of materials due to the implementation of elements of constant stiffness, excessive in areas where the conditions of work design it is not required.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is the execution method of the fence in the ground, including the creation of at least one of a number of filler elements [2]

The disadvantage of this method is the high consumption of materials caused by slisko the maximum.

The present invention is to increase efficiency by providing opportunities for optimizing the parameters of the enclosing elements, namely stiffness along their length, thereby ensuring the required bearing capacity to avoid wastage of materials with a total reduction of labour cost on production work, and also to reduce the cost of construction due to reduced consumption of materials and labor.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of performing the fence in the ground, including the creation of at least one of a number of filler elements, they perform in depth different stiffness EJ, where E is the modulus of deformation of the enclosing element, J the moment of the cross-section enclosing element, each enclosing element has at least two sections of different hardness, one of whom perform within range on the fence during operation the maximum bending moment on the length equal to (4-20)d, where d is the largest dimension of the cross-section enclosing element with a stiffness the corresponding value of the maximum bending moment and stiffness of each of the following section enclosing element take appropriate what estatu accept not exceeding (10-50)d. While plots with different stiffness can be formed by changing the cross-sectional area of the enclosing element or by changing the modulus of deformation of the cross-section enclosing element. Enclosing elements can run vertically or deviation from the vertical by an angle not exceeding 8o. When running fence in the loose soil between the non-load-bearing elements as the excavation of the pit set zabirki.

The technical result provided by the above set of characteristics is that there is the possibility of execution of the enclosing elements with optimal consumption and the optimal distribution of the material along the length of the enclosing elements in accordance with the operating conditions of the fence during operation, while maintaining the required reliability and durability of the structure and reduced labor costs at the site, and reduces construction time.

In Fig. 1 shows the fence in terms of Fig.2 section a-a in Fig.1 and plot points; Fig.3 cross-section B-B in Fig.2; Fig.4 section b-b of Fig.2; Fig.5 section G-G in Fig.2.

The method works as education 1, moreover, the depth of each of the enclosing element have different stiffness EJ, where E is the modulus of deformation of the enclosing element, J the moment of inertia of the cross-section enclosing element. Each enclosing element has at least two sections 2 and 3, one of which, for example, 3 phase, perform within range on the fence during operation the maximum bending moment on the length equal to (4-20)d, where d is the largest dimension of the cross-section enclosing element 1, with a maximum stiffness corresponding to the magnitude of this maximum torque. The rigidity of section 2 shall take appropriate value of the bending moment M on the boundary 3 with greater rigidity, while the length of each plot with less rigidity, in particular section 2, take not exceeding (10-50)d.

Enclosing elements 1 with varying stiffness along the length can be performed directly in the ground printed method, including bored, lots of action, big-largest points well below the enclosing element is formed by dipping into the ground by any known method, in particular by driving or nadavlivanie, pre-made trunk, to areas of the body that the elements 4, increasing the moment of inertia of the cross section, such as corners, or strips, or elements of another profile. Enclosing elements can run vertically or deviation from the vertical by an angle not exceeding 8o. When running fence in the loose soil between the enclosing elements 1 as the excavation of the trench 5 can set zabirki 6, for example, from boards.

An example of the method.

The construction has been necessary to perform fencing excavation depth of 3-4 m in sandy soils. For fences of pit from the vertical enclosing elements was proposed to use available materials: metal tee N 20, area, strip, and lumber boards. Fencing experimental plots of the pit depth of 3 m with a total length of 100 m was designed from the enclosing metal elements with a pitch of 1.2 m and zbirkami of boards between them above the bottom of the pit. The stability of the vertical metal elements was provided with cavities them in the soil below the bottom of the pit 3 m at the depth of the bending moments of the forces of active and passive pressure on them mutually balanced: above this depth VERTIC is echnosti was determined by dependency

< / BR>
where voltage allowed in the material of the vertical metal element from the effects of bending moments M;

J the moment of inertia of the cross section;

r distance from center of gravity of the vertical section of the metal element to its extreme point in the plane of bending moment M

Bending moments of the forces earth pressure on the fence was changed along the length of the elements as follows:

from the ground surface to the bottom of the pit on the top three metres of the length of the elements from 0 to 4.5 sci;

for the next two metres from 4.5 to 14.4 sci;

on the last sixth meters from 14.4 sci to 0.

The required moment of inertia of the cross section vertical enclosing element with the tolerable voltage of its material 2850 kg/cm2equal:

< / BR>
Vertical metal elements made of I-beams N 20, corner 75 x 75 and stripes 50 x 10 mm (steel according to GOST 27772-88 with permissible voltage 2850 kg/cm2). The upper 2.5 m and the bottom 0.5 m of vertical enclosing element is made of I-beams N 20 weight 21 kg/m moment of inertia J 1840 cm4and rigidity EJ=21061,84103=3,68109kgf cm2=368 sci2and on the median segment with a length of 3 m to the shelves of the I-beams were p is ACCA middle section was 31,81 kg/m, the moment of inertia of its cross section J 9176 cm4but the stiffness EJ=18,35109cgsm2= 1835 sci2and provided the perception of the bending moment equal to M sJ:r= 28509176:15=1743440 gxsm=17,4 sci. The other section (upper and lower) parts by mass of 21 kg/m took a moment M sJ:r=28501840:10 524400 cgsm=5,2 sci.

Based on these values of the torques of the active pressure, perceived metallic elements, a step along the fence was taken to 17,4 14,4 1.2 m, the total number of 1 + 100 1,2 84 pcs.

The consumption of metal on them was 84331,81+84321=7921+5229=13150 kg= 13,2 so

If the fence was made of metal elements of constant stiffness, for example, from tee No. 20, they should be set in increments of 5.2: 14.4V 0.4 m, the number would be 1 + 100 0,4 251 pieces and weight 251621 31626 kg 31,6 so

Thus, the application for protection of elements of variable rigidity with the ratio of the parameters established experimentally and confirmed the above calculation, you can reduce metal consumption by almost three times.

Thus, when performing fencing claimed process with compliance identified as a result of numerous experiments, soothes is icenii the required bearing capacity while reducing labor costs.

1. The method of performing the fence in the ground, including the creation of at least one of a number of filler elements, characterized in that the enclosing elements perform in depth different stiffness EI, where E is the modulus of deformation of the enclosing element, I the moment of inertia of the cross-section enclosing element, each enclosing element has at least two sections of different hardness, one of whom perform within range on the fence during operation the maximum bending moment on the length equal to (4 of 20) d, where d is the largest dimension of the cross-section enclosing element with a stiffness corresponding to the value of maximum bending moment, the stiffness of each of the following section enclosing element take the corresponding value of the bending moment on the boundary of the adjacent area with greater rigidity, while the length of each plot with less rigidity accept not exceeding (10 50) d.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the areas with different stiffness form by changing the cross-sectional area of the enclosing element.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the areas with different stiffness form by change is m, what enclosing elements are vertically or deviation from the vertical by an angle not exceeding 8o.

5. The method according to PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that when the fence in the loose soil between the non-load-bearing elements as the excavation of the pit set zabirki.

 

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SUBSTANCE: method involves transporting pipeline tunnel sections by water to pipeline laying site; submerging thereof; placing pipeline tunnel sections on underwater piers with the use of flexible ties; sealing pipeline tunnel sections. Tunnel sections have nearly zero floatability. Pipeline tunnel sections are submerged and put on piers by flexible ties. Then pipeline tunnel sections are pushed in docking unit of previous submerged section with the use of submarine and sealed from inside and outside along with connection of inner service lines. After finishing pipeline tunnel sections assemblage entry and exit tunnels are secured to pipeline tunnel. System for underwater pipeline tunnel sections assembling includes underwater pipeline tunnel mounted on underwater piers and formed of separate sections having design lengths. Pipeline tunnel sections are divided into two chambers by horizontal partition. Transport path is arranged in upper chamber. Lower section is divided into several cavities by air-tight partitions for laying inner pipelines. Underwater pipeline tunnel sections are formed of two thick-walled shells of steel plates or titanium alloy. Longitudinal partitions are mounted between shells and secured along perimeter thereof. Longitudinal partitions serve as pipelines and stiffening ribs. Pipeline tunnel sections are laid on underwater permanent and temporary piers. Upper pier parts have bases of semicircular or parabolic shape. Pier part dimensions exceed that of pipeline tunnel sections.

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