Underground hanging tunnel for construction in complex engineering-geological conditions

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for construction, reconstruction or reinforcement of underground tunnels for various purposes in areas with complex engineering-geological conditions. Underground hanging tunnel includes providing and fixing its design position of the suspension and the main bearing belt stretched over the surface of the earth or partial depth, is laid over the pylons, immersed in a safe bearing capacity of the ground and rising above ground on both sides of the tunnel, and end braces encarnita in ruined anchor foundations. Flexible or rigid suspension is distributed evenly along the length of the tunnel, penetrate the layer of soil above the tunnel and attached to the lower ends of the joists its lining using anchor devices, and the top - to the main bearing girdle of rope. The pylons are connected in pairs across the tunnel with the formation of portals, which are located at the calculated distance from one another along the tunnel in dangerous and unreliable on the carrying capacity plots of ground. 14 Il.

The present invention relates to the field of construction in areas with this, designed for transport purposes (rail, road, shipping, pedestrian and tunnels, subways), for laying collectors for various purposes, gaskets urban utility networks or placement of industrial enterprises.

Under "complex engineering-geological conditions" refers to conditions, including hydrological and geological structure of the array, lithological composition, status and physico-mechanical properties of soils, physical and geological processes and phenomena, adverse changes in hydrogeological conditions during the construction of constructions, which preclude the application of well-known traditional design solutions.

Known are underground and underwater tunnels that lay with shield technology (mechanical and hermetic sinking aggregates in combination with compressed air, hydraulic and dirt prigruzkoj, artificial strengthening of soils etc), large winding sections, drop underwater caissons-tunnels, underwater tunnels-bridges.

Close to this specific invention counterparts in the practice of domestic and global tannines, which in complex engineering-geological conditions could include the ability to:

reduce the deformation and stiffness of the lining in the plane of the cross-section of the tunnel and absorption of deformation along the axis of the tunnel;

laying new underground tunnel known methods of excavation in all soils, regardless of their carrying capacity, while there was no adverse effect on the stiffness and strength characteristics of the construction of various hydrological and geological characteristics of the array (especially soils that lie directly under the tunnel and above), constantly changing under the action of underground waters due to fluctuations of the horizon, changing the speed and direction of water flow, razbivaemsja soils, filtering, geomorphological changes in the underground layers over time, etc., or construction of underground tunnels in unexplored ground, i.e. in areas where not carried out engineering-geological surveys;

the repair works on reconstruction (restoration of the bearing capacity and performance) facilities in the event of an emergency due to loss massives huge financial cost and with minimal risk to perform these personnel;

further operation of the facilities without the huge operating costs required to maintain the design of hydrogeological conditions in the array (such as maintaining the frozen state), so as not to cause an emergency condition of the tunnel lining due to the occurrence of unacceptable deflections its trunk, education deformations in the structure of lining and loss of containment.

To achieve these goals is suggested by the fact that in complex engineering-geological conditions of the project the position of the tunnel is provided and fixed vertical rigid or flexible pendants and main bearing girdle of rope, end procrastination which sankarani using anchoring devices. Main bearing belt is hung above the ground surface or a partial depth into the ground between immersed on both sides of the tunnel and rises above the ground surface of the pylon. Rope suspension is distributed evenly along the length of the tunnel, penetrate the layer of soil above the tunnel and attached to the lower ends of the joists its lining using anchor devices, and the top to the main bearing girdle. The pylons are connected in pairs across the tunnel with education portals, kolosalnoi parts of the ground. Anchor device if necessary, increase the support towers at the edges and equipped with high-power jacks that enables the tension of the main carrier belt. Pylons, towering above the earth's surface, is immersed on both sides of the tunnel tunneling method "drop manhole (or other known means) to the fixing of indigenous soils having a design bearing capacity.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal and three transverse incision underground hanging tunnel, constructed in soft ground, which occupies a long stretch of tunnel, is equal to the distance between the portals and the main bearing girdle of rope, partially buried in the ground; Fig. 2 shows node 1 (see Fig. 1) vertical section of the pole, anchor devices, pendants and main bearing zone of the cables attached to the lining of the tunnel of Fig. 3 a vertical transverse section of the portal (a-a), above-ground parts; Fig. 4 a vertical transverse section of the portal (b-B), the underground part of the tunnel bore and the vertical suspension of Fig. 5 section two pylons and tunnel (1-1); anchor device (2-2) with the pass-through main bearing posobnogo carrying belt; in Fig. 7 longitudinal and two transverse section of the tunnel, built in the array, which suggests the presence of small lenses of weak soils (which allows you to perform all the pylons and two anchor ropes at a shallow depth in the direction from the lens), and Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section of the tunnel, a considerable length of which is laid in soft ground (the so-called "multi-span suspension system"), with deep foundations of the pylons; Fig. 9 a fragment of the vertical section of the construction site N 1 (option N 1, Fig. 8) construction of two tunnels that pass through the zone of tectonic fracture filled with weak soils; Fig. 10 site 2 (Fig. 9) mount hanger to the main bearing girdle of rope; Fig. 11 is a vertical section through one suspension, the chamber for installation of the clamping device and the tunnel of Fig. 12 a cross-section of tunnels 3-3 (Fig. 9) with a pair of vertical hangers fastened to the tunnels with special anchoring devices (option 1); Fig. 13 cross-cut tunnels 3* 3* (Fig. 9) with one vertical suspension, fixed to the tunnels using anchor devices that are installed in a special bearing metal rings of the tunnel lining (option 2); Fig. 14 fragments the ONU tectonic fault filled with weak soils (erosion for example).

Positions on the drawing (Fig. 1 14) mean:

1 underground hanging tunnel; 2 vertical rigid or flexible suspension; 3 anchor device (a special "clip"), through which the vertical suspension fixed to the structures of the tunnel lining; 4 - a device that connects the vertical suspension with the main bearing belt; 5 - main bearing belt constructions; 6 pole; 7 anchor fixing end delays belt 5 in the ground; 8 wells for the device and enhance anchoring devices; 9 struts connecting pylons; 10 is recessed chamber; 11 tension (tie) device for vertical suspension; 12 is a vertical steel casing pipes for drilling wells; 13 ring stiffness in the design of the tunnel lining with anchor device for attaching charms.

The present invention provides two variants of its use:

a) when laying new underground tunnel;

b) during reconstruction in order to restore health (strengthening) of an existing, but not in an emergency condition.

To perform the described device in the construction of a new underground tone is abyme soils (for example through erosion), what specific area (Fig. 1), first built the hanging system intended for transmission to the main carrying belt loads from the weight of the tunnel and the upper landing of ground layers, temporary operational and seismic loads through the support pylons on deep indigenous arrays. Tunnel 1 "suspended" (similar to beam stiffness in the design of suspension bridges) on the vertical suspensions 2 special anchorage devices 3 are attached with a certain calculation step to the supporting elements of the tunnel lining (Fig. 2) as we go forward tunnel tunnel shaft. Charms are fixed with the help of special devices 4 to the main bearing belt 5. For laying suspensions in the soil column above the lining of the tunnel drilled vertical wells with installing them in casing 12, which, after crossing the suspensions are filled waterproof material that protects the material suspensions from corrosion. Precision drilling should be high enough to fix the position of the suspensions in the reference points in the design of the tunnel lining. Not exclude the use of other known methods vertical penetrations through slotow 6 evaluation method in areas with complex or unexplored engineering-geological conditions, when you standpipe wells be immersed to a greater depth, it is recommended that the device is heading pointed knife with appropriate protection of their rolling metal. Dive illustration: " well, for example, precast concrete blocks-liners, it is proposed to produce without drainage, but in parallel with the excavation of the well, the grapple must be made of engineering-geological surveys, the results of which are necessary for determining the depth of the piers. When the knife version of the well reaches the soil bearing capacity which will correspond to the calculation, it is proposed that further immersion introduced him to several meters in depth and underwater concreting to perform the cushion (i.e., "lock-in" a knife in the ground). Then to increase the above-ground part of the same pylon blocks-tubing above the earth's surface to the design elevation.

Main bearing belt is hung between the pillars (Fig. 3 and 4), and its end delays are recorded in anchor devices 7 on the estimated depth (Fig. 5 and 6). The calculation of the anchoring devices, similar to the calculation of structures, suspension bridges, takes into account the loads acting on the "beam stiffness" (underground tunnelsystem, proposed first method "version of a well run dive wells 8 (Fig. 5 and 6). Between these wells being drilled wells and laying of the casing for anchoring the carrier belt and anchor device for lining the tunnel (if it is necessary for the calculation of anchor devices). The anchoring device is concreted in the recess of the developed tunneling method between the walls of the wells. Pylons 6 are connected by spacers 9 (Fig. 1, 3 and 4) in the upper part, forming portals. Bearing belt rests on the spacer in the middle part above the axis of underground tunnel. The tension in the main bearing zone (i.e., the amount of belt deflection at the free SAG, no load) is set in advance by the project, taking into account settlement (permanent and temporary) loads. Only after the creation of the hanging system continues laying of an underground tunnel in soft ground, simultaneously with which the fastening of the lining of the tunnel to the vertical suspensions, and the tension of the suspension is adjusted to uneven distribution of load from the tunnel on the main bearing girdle. After tunnel excavation on the area between the pylons, finally fixed all anchoring devices 3 and 4, after which the raw Les achievements in the zone and all suspensions settlement efforts excludes any impact of hydrogeological conditions, in which is laid the tunnel, its stiffness, strength, since the entire load is perceived hanging cable carrier system and through deep pylons passed on indigenous arrays.

If the underground tunnel is expected intersection of the minor length of the plot weak soils (Fig. 7), then you need pylons and anchoring devices to bury very deep (in accordance with the calculated data for each case), and if the plot is weak soils, on the contrary, is of great length, then a suspension system for an underground tunnel, you can perform multi-span (Fig. 8).

To perform the described device during reconstruction (gain) of the existing tunnel, which was in poor condition due to changes in hydrogeological conditions in which there was a tunnel, i.e., when it is necessary to take urgent measures to eliminate sagging on its sites and to eliminate the strain in the lining, a suspension system is the same. The only difference is that the tension that you want to create in the suspension cables and the main bearing zone, should be dotatoc their further development.

Unlike the prototype of the proposed invention makes it possible to eliminate: the need for costly, time-consuming and difficult work to carry out engineering-geological surveys; strengthening weak soils deep freezing methods; compliance during the entire period of operation of an underground tunnel mode frozen condition of the ground layers in the tunnel. The main advantage of the opportunity to restore the health of the tunnel, thereby save huge money.

Underground hanging tunnel for construction in complex engineering-geological conditions containing providing and fixing its design position cable suspension and main bearing girdle of cables having ends connected by an anchor in the ground by means of anchoring devices delays and stretched over the surface of the ground or with a partial depth into the ground between immersed on both sides of the tunnel, towering above the bottom surface of the pylon and cable suspension is distributed evenly along the length of the tunnel, penetrate the layer of soil above the tunnel and attached to the lower ends of the joists its lining using anchor the I education portals, located on calculated a distance from one another along the tunnel in dangerous and unreliable on the carrying capacity of sections of soil.

 

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EFFECT: increased locking reliability.

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EFFECT: increased locking reliability.

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Tunnel // 2250962

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