The coastal site of loading and unloading goods and the method of its construction

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in hydrotechnical structures, namely, when linking the coastal site of loading and unloading cargoes, mainly liquid, such as oil or liquefied natural gas, and/or bulk, as well as in the construction of such a loading and unloading site. The essence of the invention: in the construction of the coastal site of loading and unloading cargo ships in the waters of place at a distance from one another greater than the width of the vessel, at least two berths for vessels, with each pier, perform in the form of a floating container or sump length equal Dina vessel, whereby the containers or tanks have in parallel to one another with formation between the shipping channel and perpendicular to the prevailing direction of the wind and/or currents, mainly, the direction of the ice drift. The navigable channel is performed with the opposite entrance and exit, which install retractable fence from the oil spill. Each berth opposite its quay wall can be made with a sloping embankment, having in the plan a streamlined shape. Floating containers or tanks and embankments can be La and equipment. 2 C. and 17 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to hydraulic structures and concerns of the coastal site of loading and unloading cargoes, mainly liquid, such as oil or liquefied natural gas, and/or bulk, as well as the method of construction of such a loading and unloading site.

The famous coastal site of loading and unloading cargoes, mainly liquid, such as oil or liquefied natural gas, and/or bulk containing placed in the waters of the at least two berths for vessels that are installed at a distance from one another greater than the width of the vessel (SU, copyright certificate, 1 022 714, CL E 02 B 3/06, 1992).

In known and used so far nodes loading and unloading such tanker joins the site of loading or anchors, if it allows the depth of the water. The problem with such productions at anchor or prichalivaya arise when changes in water currents, in particular, the direction of the ice drift. Added to this is the fact that in the presence of ice tanker can't safely turn around.

The technical effect of the present invention is to create a loading and unloading site (arr alicelove process of loading, in particular, during the coming tides during loading and unloading, in particular, from the floating ice. In addition, the technical effect of the present invention is to create a method of construction of the coastal site of loading and unloading cargo.

The technical effect of the claimed invention is achieved due to the fact that in the coastal site of loading and unloading cargoes, mainly liquid, such as oil or liquefied natural gas, and/or bulk containing placed in the waters of the two berths for vessels that are installed at a distance from one another greater than the width of the vessel, each berth is made in the form of a floating container or sump, whereby the containers or tanks are parallel to one another to form between them a navigable channel. On the bottom can fall any floating tanks, made in the form of steel pontoons, if necessary, with appropriate weighting, and be secured by means of piles or similar elements, and thanks to the relative positioning of the floating containers or tanks at a distance from one another, providing a passage in the shipping channel between them in one vessel, oil tanker may is bleny at a distance from one another, providing a passage in the shipping channel between two vessels, in this case it is possible to carry out simultaneous unloading or loading two adjacent vessels. Floating containers or tanks and formed between the navigation channel perpendicular to the prevailing direction of the wind and/or currents, mainly, the direction of the ice drift. Because of this, this is an opportunity to calm the loading and unloading of ships. Another defense vessels can be achieved due to the fact that each boat pier has a length, which corresponds to the length of the oil vessel. Thus, the oil tanker during loading or unloading secured relative to the water flow through the floating containers or tanks or near one of them.

For the case when on the side of the entrance to the shipping channel is formed pack ice, through which the ship can't go or can't bypass it, the shipping channel can have the opposite input and output, one of which is located in the area downwind of site loading and unloading of ships, so there permanently ice Argonauts or cracked using located in front of the entrance or exit channel icebreaking bukura oil spill, input and output channel can be equipped with sliding rails from the oil spill. Thanks to the mobility and the possibility to initiate barriers to entry and exit of vessels can be created free passages, which do not interfere with navigation.

Each berth can be provided located at the side opposite its moorage wall sloping sand and/or gravel and/or gravel and/or shingle embankment, having in the plan a semicircular or semi-oval, or other streamlined shape. This coastal embankment protects navigable canal from the floating ice, which is put aside. When layering the pack-ice the streamlined shape of the mound, at base, is preserved, i.e., layering there is pack ice acts as an additional reinforcement. Depending on the desired size and functions created site loading and unloading ships on the embankments performed bearing area for the power plant, pumping stations and/or refinery.

In order to provide storage or temporary storage of cargo, mainly oil in a safe tanks without additional cost, floating containers or tanks vypolnyayut to be made in the form of steel or concrete pontoons, mainly, used tankers or vessels without deck superstructures and machine parts.

In addition, in order to avoid mutual displacements of pontoons node supplied with a common base plate, on which are placed the floating containers or tanks and embankments, to form a single, unified site, it is better, if the fixing support plate is carried out by means of piles or similar elements. Floating containers or tanks can be equipped with jetting units, nozzles which are located on facing the water surfaces of the walls of the containers or tanks.

In addition, this technical effect is achieved due to the fact that when the method of construction of the coastal site of loading and unloading cargoes, mainly liquid, such as oil or liquefied natural gas, and/or bulk, including accommodation in the waters at a distance from one another greater than the width of the vessel two vessel berths, each pier, perform in the form of a floating container or tank of length equal to the length of the vessel, containers or tanks have in parallel to one another with formation between the shipping channel and perpendic is particularly the advantages of this method are that the floating containers or tanks can be quickly installed in any position, and after the installation to be used as a mooring or storage tanks submersible or unloading cargo. Floating containers or tanks with ballast can be placed on the bottom of the sea or anchored. Preferably the navigable channel to perform input and output on opposite sides. Input and output channel install retractable fence from the oil spill, in which case it spills prevent the release of oil from the site of loading and unloading.

Each berth opposite its quay wall, comply with sloping sand and/or gravel and/or gravel and/or shingle embankment, having in the plan a semicircular or semi-oval, or other streamlined shape. On the embankments can perform a basic platform for power plants, pumping stations and/or refinery. Floating containers or tanks and embankments placed on a common base plate.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, where:

in Fig. 1 shows usersgroups vessels when the load of the pack-ice, transverse incision;

in Fig. 4 is the same, top view;

in Fig. 5 site loading and unloading ships at the sediment floating ice, the cross-section;

in Fig. 6 is the same, top view.

This site loading and unloading of vessels consists mainly of two adjacent to each other near the floating containers 1, which are parallel to each other and generally perpendicular to the main water flow (see Fig. 4, the double arrow 2). Floating containers 1 are facing each other, the sides above the water surface 3 is made in the form of the quay, which has a length that allows you to moor oil vessels 4. The distance 5 between the rows of floating containers 1 is selected in accordance with the width of the vessel 4 or slightly larger of the two widths of the vessel 4, so that at the same time it was possible to load or unload two of the vessel 4. Created using a series of floating containers 1 a coastal port on the inlet side and the outlet side provided with a mobile retractable rails 6 from the oil spill that oil spill prevent its spread. On the opposite wall side series of floating containers 1 are gravel mound 7, which, together with the series config node otherwise, gravel embankment 7 are deposited on the bottom of the reservoir. Gravel embankment 7 above and below the water surface are respectively oval sleek partial profiles 9 and 10, which are in the form of a wedge extending over or in tidal current and, in particular, act as protection from floating ice.

Presented on Fig. 1 and 2, the loading and unloading of vessels may be, for example, the total width, i.e. the length of the base plate 8 from 400 to 420 m, and the distance between rows of floating containers 1 is set to 80 m Length number of floating containers 1 should be slightly greater than the length of the oil vessel 4, i.e., approximately 200 m

Fig. 4 shows the situation when a modified wind direction 11 in which, for example, floating ice moves in front of the entrance node of the loading and unloading of vessels, which can feel as well as pack-ice 12, locking the entrance. In this case, the tanker remains opposite the entrance to the free approach, because the opposite side is located on the leeward side. Fig. 3 and 4 also show already accumulated ice pack 13 on gravel embankment 7 and caused to another floating ice 14. Consequently Sachrang ice as cutting off a wedge.

Fig. 6 shows the loading and unloading of ships at the moment when the tanker vessel 4 by means of a tug 15 and 16 is drawn into the navigable channel 17. In connection with the location of the navigable channel 17 and oval execution of mound 7, which continues through the pack or floating ice 13 and 14, the floating ice 18 aside by loading and unloading ships. Regarding the shipping channel 17 site loading and unloading of vessels made in substantially mirror-symmetric.

The site loading and unloading of vessels made in accordance with the invention, in particular, for the Arctic regions, for example, when oil using icebreaking tankers is taken from the site of loading and unloading the ships, which is removed from the coast about 40 km, where the loaded oil tanker vessel 4, i.e., the oil flows from the floating containers 1 in oil tankers 4 before it is pumped into the tanker. In these Arctic areas suitable are two passes to overcome also the pack-ice of the situation, as shown in Fig. 4. For example, in water depths of 25 m using the floating containers 1 oil storage capacity can reach more than 200 000 tonnes.

Performed on the opposite quay wall sides of the floating containers 1 or pits, gravel and/or sand walls 7 can also be used as a production area, which can be provided by production system with the possibility that these production units had a connection to waterways for transport vessels.

1. The coastal site of loading and unloading cargoes, mainly liquid, such as oil or liquefied natural gas, and/or bulk containing placed in the waters of the at least two berths for vessels that are installed at a distance from one another greater than the width of the vessel, characterized in that each berth indoors was held in the form of a floating container or sump, whereby the containers or tanks are located parallel that of the floating containers or tanks installed at a distance from one another, providing a passage in the shipping channel between one vessel.

3. Site under item 1, characterized in that the floating containers or tanks installed at a distance from one another, providing a passage in the shipping channel between the two ships.

4. The node according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 3, characterized in that the floating containers or tanks and formed between the navigation channel are perpendicular to prevailing wind direction and/or flow, mainly the direction of the ice drift.

5. The node according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 4, characterized in that each pier made of length at least corresponding to the length of the oil vessel.

6. The node according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 5, characterized in that the navigation channel has the opposite entrance and exit.

7. The node according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 6, characterized in that the input and output channel with a retractable enclosures from an oil spill.

8. The node according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 7, characterized in that each berth is equipped located on the side opposite its moorage wall sloping sand and/or gravel and/or gravel and/or shingle embankment, having in the plan a semicircular or semi-oval, or what I allocation of personnel power plant, pumping stations and/or refinery.

10. Site on PP. 1 to 9, characterized in that the floating containers or tanks made with cavities for storage of cargo, mainly oil.

11. Site under item 10, characterized in that the floating containers or tanks made in the form of steel or Zhelezobeton pontoons, mostly from second-hand tankers or vessels without deck superstructures and machine parts.

12. Site on PP. 8 and 9, characterized in that it has a common base plate, on which is placed a floating containers or pits and mounds.

13. The node according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 12, characterized in that the floating containers or tanks equipped with jetting devices, nozzles which are located on facing the water surfaces of the walls of the containers or tanks.

14. The method of construction of the coastal site of loading and unloading cargoes, mainly liquid, such as oil or liquefied natural gas, and/or bulk, including accommodation in the waters at a distance from one another greater than the width of the vessel, at least two berths for vessels, wherein each pier vipustniki have in parallel to one another with formation between the shipping channel and perpendicular to the prevailing direction of the wind and/or currents, mainly the direction of the ice drift.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the navigation channel to perform input and output on opposite sides.

16. The method according to PP. 14 and 15, characterized in that the input and output channel install retractable fence from the oil spill.

17. The method according to any of paragraphs. 14 to 16, characterized in that each pier side, opposite the quay wall, comply with sloping sand and/or gravel and/or gravel and/or shingle embankment, having in the plan a semicircular or semi-oval, or other streamlined shape.

18. The method according to p. 17, characterized in that on the embankments performed a platform for placement of personnel, plant, pumping stations and/or refinery.

19. The method according to PP. 17 and 18, characterized in that the floating containers or tanks and embankments placed on a common base plate.

 

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