The method of obtaining products of artificial stones and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of processing of building materials, including products made of artificial stone, obtained by chemical hardening the original lime-sand raw material mixtures at elevated temperatures. Method of treatment of lime-sand raw material mixtures is isothermal aging products-raw, which is carried out at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 300-400oC. this solution increases the rate of hardening of the raw mix, reduced waste of time, increase the efficiency and safety of the process of production of artificial stones. The solution provided by the fact that, according to the invention, the device is further provided with electric heating elements, mounted on the feed tires inside the body in the middle part, and a water shutter mounted in the lower part. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to the production of construction materials, including products made of artificial stone, obtained by chemical hardening the raw material mixtures at elevated temperatures.A method of obtaining that one my, and subsequent isothermal aging in an atmosphere of saturated steam in an autoclave for 6-8 hours at a pressure of 0.8 MPa and a temperature of 174oC 
In a known way during isothermal aging products, molded from the original mixture, is their chemical hardening due to the purchase of silica in the mixture at specified parameters of the chemical activity and interaction with lime to form calcium hydrosilicate - CaO S102nH2O.Known autoclave for steaming products from selectablechannel mixture comprising passing a cylindrical housing with sealed ends with spherical caps, traverse with gear trucks for loading and unloading of trolleys, winches, mounted on opposite ends of the chassis rails with underground bridges mounted on the bottom of the casing, a steam conduit, a relief valve, fitting with valve for the release of the saturated vapor bypass exhaust steam into another autoclave or the atmosphere.The disadvantages of the known method and device (autoclave) the following:
1. High energy consumption and technical complexity of the process, which requires the use of superheated steam.through the process of hardening of the mixture and unproductive time spent on lifting and dropping the pressure of the steam in the autoclave.3. The inability to economically increase the rate of hardening the mixture by raising the temperature, because it is associated with increased steam pressure in the autoclave, thus increasing material costs to ensure its strength and increase the risk of accidental destruction.The task of the invention is to increase the hardening rate of the raw mix, reducing non-productive time, improving the efficiency and safety of production of artificial stones.The task is solved in that in the method of producing products made of artificial stone, including isothermal aging in a humid environment products, molded from lime-sand raw mixture according to the invention isothermal aging products-raw spend in the water gas at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 300-400oC for 3-6 hours.The solution provides that in apparatus for producing products made of artificial stone, comprising a housing made, for example, in the form of a cylinder with caps on the ends, and mounted on the bottom of the chassis rails, such as rail to move freight PLA feed tire inside in the middle part, and water shutter mounted in the lower part.It is the installation of heaters and water lock in the body of the device according to the way to carry out isothermal aging products, molded from the original lime-sand mixture, the water gas and the temperature necessary and sufficient for the intensive process of hardening. This allows us to conclude that the claimed invention are connected by a single inventive concept.The method and apparatus illustrated by the drawings, where Fig. 1 presents a General view of the device (longitudinal section), and Fig. 2 a cross-section in Fig. 1.The device comprises a lock body 1, a lid 2, hinged at the ends, the bottom of which is mounted rails 3 to move the cargo platform 4 with articles 5 and is mounted in a water shutter 6. In the middle part of the body on the insulators 7 fixed the feed bars 8, which are mounted heaters 9 made, for example, in the form of 4 stainless steel tubes, connected in parallel with each other.In the present invention uses the property of lighter gases (in this case water vapor) is e gases components of air: nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Because of this inside the enclosure is maintained atmospheric pressure and is isothermal aging products-raw in the water gas water vapor, which are involved in chemical reactions hardening of the raw mix.This excludes waste energy and time on the receipt and use under the saturated vapor pressure, increases the efficiency of the process, eliminated its accidents.Examples of the method
Example 1. Silicate brick raw was placed in a vessel equipped with a water slide and an electric source of heat, and heated at atmospheric pressure to a temperature of 400oC intensity 300oC per hour.Evaporating from bricks and water lock moisture, as lighter gas, displaces from the tank through a water trap nitrogen and oxygen in the air and forms a vapor-gas medium. In the raw mix of products in the water gas at a temperature of 400oC is activated chemical interaction between hydrate of calcium oxide and silica with the formation of primary cementing substances of calcium hydrosilicate and the process of setting and targeturi and then cooling them to a temperature of 20oC were investigated the mechanical properties of the brick.The limit of compressive strength is 20 MPa.Example 2. Analogously to example 1 was performed isothermal exposure of silicate brick at atmospheric pressure in the water gas at a temperature of 300oC. After isothermal aging products for 6 hours, the product was cooled and then investigated.The limit of compressive strength of not more than 15 MPa.The claimed method was implemented in pass-through autoclave, equipped according to the invention a water valve for withdrawal of gases and drain water condensate and 10 carbide heaters CANB (680) 540 GOST 16139-76 enshrined in parallel using the contact terminals 2 copper tires, mounted on insulators.Carbide heaters were connected to the mains through the furnace transformer ASU-80/05. The voltage supply to the tire support, respectively, 75 B and 2000 A. the temperature of heaters reaches 500-600oC, and the temperature of the vapor-gas medium in the upper part of the body 300-400oC.Heating products is carried out with cold (20oC) to a temperature of 400oC ayways cover with the discharge end of the body. Next platform with products roll on rails for ostivone pad to cool to ambient temperature. In the heating process and the subsequent exposure of the brick at atmospheric pressure at a temperature vapor-gas medium 300-400oC oxides of the raw mix to partially dissolve the more, the higher the holding temperature and acquiring astringent properties, accelerate the setting and hardening of the mixture and increase its strength.It was established experimentally that during heating and drying of the silicate raw mass at temperatures above 400oC duration of exposure to full curing of the product is not reduced and is 4 hours.When drying at a temperature of less than 300oC duration of exposure of the products to hardening increases over 6 hours.In both cases, increases energy consumption, which reduces the efficiency of the process.Using the proposed method and the design of the device when receiving products from lime-sand raw mix allows comparison with the existing intensify the process of setting and hardening products, to implement it in the water hasanaat the cost of steam and water economy, reduces energy consumption and thereby increases the efficiency and safety of production. 1. The method of obtaining products of artificial stones, including isothermal aging in a humid environment products, molded from lime-sand raw material mixtures, characterized in that the isothermal aging products-raw spend in the water gas at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 300 400oC for 3 to 6 o'clock2. Apparatus for producing products made of artificial stone, comprising a housing made, for example, in the form of a cylinder with caps on the ends, and mounted on the bottom of the chassis rails, such as rails to move cargo platforms with products, characterized in that the housing is further provided with electric heating elements, mounted on the feed tires inside the body in the middle part, and a water shutter mounted in the lower part.
FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: apparatus or processes for treating or working, namely curing, setting or hardening, the shaped articles.
SUBSTANCE: method for gypsum panel forming involves shaping the panel, hardening and hydrating thereof and drying the panel during panel rotation. Device to realize above method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased panel quality, decreased production and maintenance costs and improved operating conditions.
20 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for concreting cast-in-place and precast reinforced concrete structures along with concrete curing temperature regulation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying and compacting concrete mix under continuous concrete mix curing temperature control; heating central concrete layers with heating reinforcement when outer concrete layers are in elasto-plastic state. Heating reinforcement is spaced a distance "a" from surface. The heating is carried out simultaneously with surface heat-shielding. Distance "a" is determined as a=δeq(tav-ts)/(ts-ta), m, where δeq - thickness of conditional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to surface thermal resistance, Rs, m; tav - time-average concrete temperature calculated by estimated time of heating directly in heating area, deg; ts - time-average temperature at concrete surface calculated by estimated heating time, deg; δeq is determined as δeq=Rs·λ·F, m, where Rs is heat resistance of rigging with form Rr including thermal resistance Ra of heat transfer from rigging to ambient air, h·deg/kcal; Rs=Rr+Ra=(δr/( λr·F))+(1/(α·F)), h·deg/kcal, where δr is thickness of rigging, m; λr is rigging heat conductivity factor kcal/(m·h·deg), α is rigging surface heat-transfer coefficient kcal/(m2·h·deg), λ is concrete(reinforced concrete) heat conductivity kcal/(m·h·deg); F=1m2 - rigging surface area for thermal resistance calculation, m2. Amount of heat Q used to heat part of member to be heated having length (height) of 1.0 m and cross-sectional width of 1.0 m is determined from Q=(tav-ts)(m+(τ·λ·F/a), where m is constant equal to 60-180 kcal/deg and τ is calculated heating time, hours. The heating reinforcement is heating wires or pipes adapted for hot water circulation.
EFFECT: reduced temperature stresses and prevention of crack formation during structure concreting, as well as possibility to regulate curing temperature.
4 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg
FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing gypsum plates.
SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: first step includes molding plate; second step includes hardening by hydration process until hydrated article is produced with hydration extent within the range from 33% to 80%; third step includes continuing hydration process in at least one rotating drum by rotating plate around central axis; fourth step includes drying process. Intermediate cutting process may be provided between second and third steps, said cutting process may be effectuated in accordance with wire principle. Apparatus has linear zone for partial hardening and hydration, and at least one hydration drum comprising central axis around which multiplicity of branches are arranged. Each branch in drum may be divided into multiplicity of levers, with surface of said levers making from about 50% to about 99% the surface of respective branch. Drum may have from 10 to 150 branches, preferably from 40 to 120 branches. Hardening and hydration zone and drum may be arranged in two axes extending in parallel with one another.
EFFECT: improved quality of articles, improved maintenance and operating conditions.
12 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building industry; methods of production of the construction products at the building industry works.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building industry, in particular, to the method of production of the construction products at the building industry works and may be used for manufacture of the reinforced concrete, including the spatial structures with the heat-insulating layer. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products. The method of manufacture of double-layer reinforced concrete products includes the consecutive formation of the constructive and the heat-insulating layers of the reinforced concrete and its thermal treatment. The heat-insulating layer with the average density of 450-500 kg/m3 made out of the vermiculite-concrete mixture with flowability of 3-5 cm is molded by the vibrobeam with the simultaneous its reinforcement by the woven net in top level. After the structure achieves the plastic strength of 0.015-0.025 MPa, then begin the molding the constructive layer and conduct the thermal treatment by the method of the contact heating from the side of the heat-insulating layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products.
FIELD: construction, particularly devices for thermal treatment of reinforced structures during in-situ structure erection with the use of automatic temperature condition control means.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises form, heat-sensing means, heaters and computer. Heat-sensing means are placed in form. Heaters are laid on reinforcing cage of monolithic reinforced concrete structure and fixed thereto. Heat-sensing means are linked to automatic digital power regulator including indication and control unit and digital control unit connected with control computer by means of signal converter. To provide visual control automatic power regulator is provided with concrete temperature display panel, which indicates concrete temperature in each measurement point and volumetrically weighed average concrete temperature.
EFFECT: decreased power inputs and possibility to control thermal field transformation after heater switching-on or switching-off in correspondence with thermal limiters of valid regulation documents.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for strengthening treatment of concrete products includes exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field with specified value of its intensity and frequency at components used in composition of initial concrete mix, when exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field is provided for all components making concrete without exception after their combination into integral volume directly in the product item itself after realisation of initial mixture components curing operation. This exposure is realised in moulded product without its extraction from used curb. The item itself performs function of closing connecting link in magnetic circuit used for generation of field. Treatment is carried out at intensity of alternating magnetic field 1×104-3×106 a/m; range of its frequencies 20-70 Hz for 1.5-4.5 hours. Cycles of treatment are repeated twice: in 160-180 hours with a delay of 0.3-0.7 hr and in 480-500 hours with a delay of 0.1-0.2 hour. Device used to realise the method comprises circuit developing alternating magnetic field and electric windings-coils mounted on it and connected to external source of AC current supply. One of plates making magnetic conducting circuit has through slot, dimensions of which make it possible to install the concrete product itself in it together with curb used for its moulding, and its body when installed in circuit serves as closing connecting link that closes magnetic flow generated in it.
EFFECT: improved strength characteristics used to erect objects of concrete building structures.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex