The method combined the manufacture of wheels of light alloys

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: industry, in particular manufacturing technology wheels, primarily for vehicles of light alloys. The inventive method is that the rim is made of a profile obtained by extrusion of the original piece. Extrusion preheated workpiece depending on the defined levels of homogeneity in the structure and physico-mechanical properties of the profile are in the absence of a resisting force of friction or the availability of regulated compressive stresses in the surface layers by selecting the mode of heating the billet and the container and the kinematic regime of movement of the container. The bending of the profile in the ring carry on roll forming machines. After welding the junction of the resulting rim is subjected to revision. The disk is made by casting or by stamping from bulk or sheet. The Assembly of the disk rim carried out by pressing with subsequent welding. 13 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of engineering, and in particular to methods of manufacturing wheels made of light alloys, and can be used for the production of wheels of vehicles. is AI: preparation and processing of the melt, castings, quality control, casting, thermo - mechanical processing wheel, galvanic treatment, coloring products, quality control and packaging.

The most promising method of manufacturing a wheel casting is casting under low pressure. This method provides the highest strength of the wheels, but it is time consuming. The quality of the casting depends on the technology of preparation of the melt. The melt before pouring carefully cleaned from the gas and nonmetallic inclusions by vacuum or processing dispersible gas stream (argon or dry nitrogen). Exception getting into the casting wheel of nonmetallic inclusions reach due to the coarse and fine purification of the melt through the filters of fiberglass and foam ceramics. For the detection of cavities and cracks especially in the wheels for tubeless tires used 100% x-ray control. However, the marriage of casting due to the porosity of the casting reaches 15% of the cost of the wheels, manufactured in the described manner exceeds the cost of making steel in 3 to 4 times.

A known method of manufacturing a wheel made of light alloys [2] enables to improve the quality of the wheels through the use of die forging in rasatala with the direction of the main load, this ensures an increase of the fatigue limit of the metal and the reliability of the wheel. Depending on the direction and amount of load possible optimization of the thickness of the rim and the disk, as reflected in a lower weight than a cast wheel. However, the utilization of metal at the same time is relatively low and does not exceed 0,4.

A known method of manufacturing a wheel made of light alloys [3] consists in the following. Surround the workpiece is pre-punched for two operations on a hydraulic press, and then produce the rolling profile of the rim. This way of producing wheels for cars and trucks despite their good quality and increased utilization of metal, unable to dislodge the method of manufacturing a wheel casting due to the repeated increase in the cost of their production.

There is also known a method of manufacturing a wheel made of light alloys from a strip of material [4]

The source material for the manufacture of rims is a tape in rolls or strip from which the straightening and cutting machine cut measuring the workpiece. Then the workpiece frizz ring on kruglogolovki machine and weld the junction method of contact-arc welding. Next ovocny machines, as a rule, four operations deformation and a single edit operation. In some cases, is profiled in a single operation, distribution and editing on presses or pressing machines.

The wheel disc is formed on presses from a round billet for several operations depending on the selected design. Then the disk and the rim weld argon-arc welding.

This method of manufacture wheels high performance, has low cost and is served by a small staff.

The disadvantage of this method should be considered due to its feature limitations design drives geometric forms in comparison with cast or stamped.

There is also known a method of manufacturing a rim of light alloys of extruded profiles [5]

Bending extruded profile having a ledge, rim carried out in a specialized unit. The ledge when bending is formed in the annular seat, designed for the installation disk. Then do the profile welding the junction. The Central part of the wheel disk, perform the cast or stamped. Mount the disk with the rim carried out by welding or with bolts and nuts, which can valerolactam types of wheels has a smaller mass is more strength, and the lack of cutting makes it less labor-intensive manufacturing.

However, the use of extruded profile makes the strict requirements for the quality of the structure, because traditional methods of extruding a thermally-hardened alloys of the type AlMgSiI characterized by the formation of crystalline bezel, characterized by low corrosion resistance and large residual stresses in the metal, which is undesirable for rim. The use of extruded profiles obtained by conventional methods requires additional operations to relieve residual stresses, for example by heat treatment or deformation when editing and calibration. The presence of crystalline headbands in the surface layer of the profile affects the reduction of the corrosion resistance, which requires additional expenses for protection of surfaces of the rims special coatings.

The objective of the invention is to provide such a method of manufacturing a wheel made of light alloys, which would be due to the rational use of the initial semi-finished products has greatly increased the productivity of the process of the Lee.

This problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of making wheels light alloy rim wheels receive from the profile obtained by the extrusion of the original piece, flexible it in the ring and welding the junction. Next is the manufacturer of the drive wheels, assembled with rim and their connection. Depending on the defined levels of homogeneity in the structure and physico-mechanical properties of the profile are made by extruding the pre-heated billet in the absence of a resisting force of friction or the availability of regulated compressive stresses in the surface layers by selecting the mode of heating the billet and the container and the kinematic regime of movement of the container and press the stamp. The bending of the profile in the ring carry on roll forming machines. After welding the junction of the resulting rim is subjected to revision. The disk is made by casting or by stamping from bulk or sheet, and the Assembly of the disk rim carried out by pressing with subsequent welding.

This gives the opportunity by eliminating the formation of crystalline bezel in the surface layers to obtain high-strength wheel with minimum weight, high corrosion is studiomanager profile with uniform structure with a specified minimum amount of crystalline bezel, defined by mating with the inner surface of the rim with regard to measuring the size of the profile in the process of bending and straightening, billet for extrusion choose a length less than two diameters of the workpiece and the container is heated respectively to (0.8 to 0.95) and (0,8 0,9) temperature upper boundary of the range of technological plasticity of the workpiece material. Extrusion are direct or inverse way with a speed equal to (0,3 0,5) maximum permissible values specified by the continuity of the profile. Moreover, when directly applied extrusion process lubrication.

This gives you the opportunity to obtain an extruded profile for the manufacture of a rim with a minimal amount of crystalline bezel, which reduces machining of the wheel to a minimum, and can further increase the strength of the wheel rim.

Obtaining extruded profile with a homogeneous structure in the absence of crystalline bezel from the inner surface of the rim, excluding the allowance under machining, carry forward or reverse extrusion without the use of technological lubricant in isothermal mode at a heating container and the speed equal (0,2 0,3) limit values, a dual-matrix with parallel channels facing the inner surface of the rim to the axis of the matrix.

This gives you the opportunity to obtain an extruded profile for the manufacture of the rim of the traditional ways on presses forward and reverse action with the exception of its subsequent mechanical processing, as on the inner surface of the rim in the extrusion process are not formed crystalline bezel, and tipping part is formed on the profile from the side, which in the following will be located under the bus, protecting it from corrosion.

The homogeneous structure of the extruded profile without crystalline bezel with the exception of stock for machining and a high level of strength and plastic properties provide heating of the billet and the container to (0,75 0,9) temperature upper boundary of the range of technological plasticity of the workpiece material, and extruding lead in terms of active force of friction with velocity equal to (0,3 - 0,6) maximum permissible values specified by the continuity of the profile, and the ratio of the speeds of the container or road the statistical properties of the extruded profile, that will allow in future to make it more flexible rim for a smaller number of technological operations and completely eliminate the machining of the rim.

The shape and dimensions of the cross-section of the extruded profile is set by the shape and size of the wheels on the outer contour and correct circuit depending on the need to strengthen the busiest places of the rim at the edges and at the junction of the rim to the disc with respect resizing profile in the process of bending and straightening. When establishing the shape and size of the profile take into account that the shape and dimensions of the outer contour of the rim must comply with the requirements of State standards, and the geometry of the external circuit is determined by the conditions of manufacture and operation of the wheels with regard to density, shrinkage and temperature changes during heating and cooling of the wheel material.

This gives the opportunity to optimize the mass of the wheel and increase the strength of its individual elements.

Bending extruded profile is carried out after the pre-bended form ends in a single operation without heating of the workpiece.

This enables to reduce the number of operations during bending and reduce sebastopoli with intermediate anneals, or in a heated condition.

This allows to improve the quality of the rim.

Bent rim extruded profile is subjected to etching, washing and drying, and then weld the junction, is made at an angle of 45 to 90 side edge of the extruded profile, with the profile of the rim is chosen equal to (0,97 0,99) perimeter of the finished rim.

This allows to improve the quality of the weld and the reliability of the design of the wheel.

Bent rim extrusion weld the junction contact-butt welding.

This provides increased strength of the weld rim.

Edit welded rim exercise stretching by hand or precipitation in split moulds or compression rubber, liquid or polyurethane.

It provides high-quality wheel in accordance with the requirements of the State standards.

Edit welded rim is carried out by heating the rim of the temperature of the upper interval of technological plasticity of the profile and using the split mandrel and subsequent cooling of the rim on the mandrel until the ambient temperature.

This improves process productivity and quality selchow the surface of the disk is subjected to machining, and then pressed the disk rim and welded with the latter on the inner surface of the rim.

This expands the range of wheels, their design and reduces the manufacturing cost.

The drive wheel is made by stamping from extruded billet with the simultaneous Assembly of the disk rim in the split dies and welding of the disk rim exercise pressure or TIG welding on the inner surface of the rim.

This further increases the utilization of metal.

The drive wheel is made from bar stock by punching in a split dies with simultaneous Assembly with the rim and the welding pressure in protective environments at temperatures of heat close to the upper limit technologically permissible temperature range, used rim, made from the inner side with the technological projections and grooves.

This can further increase the strength of the wheel and to provide conditions for the execution of welding pressure.

A method of manufacturing a wheel made of light alloys implemented as follows.

The method is illustrated in the drawing.

Solid billet 1, subject to extrusion to obtain PR is soprotivlenie. Temperature range heating the workpiece to be formed by extrusion, is selected depending on the type of alloy.

For example, heating billets of hard aluminum alloys is carried out until a temperature of about 320 480oC depending on the type of alloy, the type of process, requirements for physical and mechanical properties and rate of extrusion.

Heating billets before extrusion can reduce the energy consumption for the extrusion process. In addition, when the processing pressure of alloys exhibiting the press effect structural hardening) heating billets can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of the product.

After heating the workpiece 1 serves to press 3 (Fig. 1 by the arrow And push it into the cavity 4 of the sleeve of the container 5 press 3. To reduce energy costs in the process of extrusion profile before you strain the container 5 matrix 6 and press the stamp 7, it is advisable to pre-heat. The heating temperature depends on the material extruded billet and the set of physico-mechanical properties of the extruded profile. For example, during extrusion trudnozapominaemyj aluminum alloys it is approximately 320 420o

As a result of such kinematic conditions on the lateral surface of the workpiece having friction force directed towards the expiration of a metal that enables the creation of compressive stresses near the contact surface of the workpiece with the container. In such conditions there is an increase in the peripheral speed of flow of the metal in the workpiece and the slow axis of the layer. This significantly changes the nature of the flow of metal in the jaws of the part of the plastic zone and creates conditions for the alignment patterns on the volume of the extruded profile and enhance its corrosion resistance.

After extruding separate the finished extruded profile 9 from the press residue in the traditional way. Then the profile is subjected to heat treatment in the furnace 10, the edit on the sofa or roller straightening machine 11 and the cutting saw 12 on the workpiece 13 gauge length. When cutting is used as a waste of RA is in the intersection.

The length of the billet extruded profile is chosen equal 0,97 - 0,99 perimeter of the finished rim 14 that allows you to perform editing rim stretching.

Bending extruded profile rim 14 is carried out on roll forming machine 15 and the press in a special stamp. Then make preparation of the joint for welding with the aim of finishing the form and relative position of the ends of the bent rim to its working condition for its free setting on the welding machine.

The shape of the interface can be either a right angle 90oto the side edge of the extruded profile and sharp at least 45othat allows you to increase the length of the weld and at the same time to improve its performance characteristics.

Depending on the type of alloy rim before welding is etched at a special Assembly 16 in alkali or acid, and then washing and drying. Next, perform butt welding welding unit 17 by continuous fusion.

For welding of the profile of the junction of the rim it is advisable to use TIG or flash butt welding, providing for a number of alloys strength not less than 90% of the strength of solid extruded profile. 14 stretching through his hand, for example, on a machine 20 for expansion or split dies 21 and 22 presses the subsequent simultaneous pressing of the disc 23 in the rim 14 and the edit. In the result, remove the straight sections extruded profile near the interface and out-of-roundness of the rim.

The decrease in the angle of intersection of less than 45oit is impractical because of the complexity of the execution of such edges, the deterioration of the welding conditions and reduce the corrosion resistance of rims near sharp edges.

Reducing the length of the extruded profile under the rim to 0.97 0.99 perimeter of the finished rim stipulate conditions edits hollow products of elongation. When the length of the profile is less than 0.97 perimeter of the finished rim increases the likelihood of ovality and reduce plastic characteristics of a deformable material. If the length of the extruded profile more 0,99 perimeter of the finished rim is poor editing, not eliminate out-of-roundness.

The drive wheel 23 is made by stamping cast billets in closed dies with the formation of a given disk geometry and extrusion bispecific cavities offset jumpers outside the working side of the drive wheel (see arrow B). After stamping the disk p is th removal bispecific peredach surface of the disc with the rim 24 with simultaneous removal bispecific jumpers, and then produce etching in the unit 25.

Then carry out the injection of the disk 23 in the rim 14 of the wheel 26 unit 27, the etching in the unit 25, the welding 28 of the rim 14 with the disk 23, the control quality of the seam 29 and a joint final machining 30 just wheels, quality control 31, the coating 32, the final control on the stands 33 and the packing 34. As a variant, it is possible to manufacture a drive wheel 23 hot stamping of pre-obtained extruded profile when punching with the simultaneous Assembly of the disk and the rim in the wheel in the split dies 21 with their edit stretching and subsequent welding.

Stamping shaped workpiece (process sequence is shown by an arrow In the drawing) can significantly extend the range of the disc wheel with the use of combined design matrix. Taking advantage of the extrusion can create different profiles with different design. In this case, the design of the disk is determined only by the design of the combined matrices, their geometry and configuration of engraving dies. Such a technological solution allows you to bring the total harvest volume forgings disk, eliminating waste metal, idosi the deformed structure with a given level of physico-mechanical properties.

As a kind of technological production wheels light alloy disc wheels made from melt 35 low pressure casting 36. The technological process on the basis of casting requires the use of 100% x-ray control 37, delete profitable casting parts 38, 39 and heat treatment machining 40 seats disk. This method gives the possibility to extend the possibility of design through the use of shaped castings. However, subsequent deformation of casting alloys is difficult, which is taken into account during the pressing of the disk rim when not Pets large deformation of the disk. In this case, the rim 14 is subjected to pre-edit or specialized machine 15, or in a split die 21, and when the pressing of the disk rim Pets only small deformation.

As the production version of the wheel disk is made from bar stock by punching in a demountable tire with simultaneous Assembly with the rim and the welding pressure in non-oxidizing environments at temperatures of heat close to the upper limit technologically acceptable temperature range.

As the production version of the wheel disk is made from a strip of blank sheet by stamping a few t is a, increasing the utilization rate of the metal.

Thus, patent method of making wheels light alloy allows the most effective high quality wheels with enhanced physical and mechanical properties and weight, the lighter weight forged and cast wheels 20 and 40%, respectively.

By reducing the tensile stress of the material of the band matrix during extrusion profile rim patented method allows to obtain profiles with high corrosion resistance and regulated physical and mechanical properties that can significantly reduce the weight of the rim, to improve its performance characteristics that exceed the corresponding values for rims produced by known methods.

By choosing the optimum temperature-velocity and kinematic conditions during extrusion with active force of friction is possible to obtain high mechanical properties along the length and cross-section profile in the absence of structural heterogeneity, for example, in the form of crystalline bezel that is unattainable any other way of extrusion. With changing temperature and high-speed modes, we can expect annoy with a high level of strength properties depending on the requirements of the operating conditions of the wheel.

Due to the connection of joints extruded profile butt welding and the location of the joint at an angle to the side edge is more reliable wheels. The application of subsequent edits increases strength of the weld.

In addition, the proposed method through the use of combined matrices for harvesting extruded profile for stamping disc allows you to provide a variety of design disk and a quick transition from one wheel to another.

1. The method combined the manufacture of wheels made of light alloys, including the manufacture of the rim of the profile obtained by extrusion of the original piece, flexible it in the ring and welding the junction, the manufacturer of the disk, subsequent Assembly with rim and their connection, characterized in that, depending on specified levels of uniformity of structure and physico-mechanical properties of the profile are made by extruding the pre-heated billet in the absence of a resisting force of friction or the availability of regulated compressive stresses in the surface layers by selecting the mode of heating the billet and the container and the kinematic mode of motion is about the intersection of the resulting rim is subjected to editing, the disk is made by casting or by stamping from bulk or sheet, and the Assembly of the disk rim carried out by pressing with subsequent welding.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that to obtain an extruded profile with a homogeneous structure with a given minimum size coarse rim defined by mating with the inner surface of the rim to reflect changes in the size of the profile in the process of bending and straightening, billet for extrusion choose a length less than two diameters of the workpiece and the container is heated respectively to 0,8 0,8 0,9 0,95 and the temperature of the upper boundary of the range of technological plasticity of the workpiece material, the extrusion are direct or inverse way with a speed of 0.3 to 0.5 of the maximum allowable value, regulated by the continuity of the profile, and in direct extrusion apply technological lubricant.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the receiving extruded profile with a homogeneous structure in the absence of crystalline bezel from the inner surface of the rim, excluding the allowance under machining, carry forward or reverse extrude to 0.9 0.95 temperature upper boundary of the range of technological plasticity of the material of the workpiece at a speed equal to 0.2 to 0.3 limit values, a dual-matrix with parallel channels facing the inner surface of the rim to the axis of the matrix.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that to obtain an extruded profile with a homogeneous structure without crystalline bezel with the exception of the allowance under mechanical processing and enhanced physical and mechanical properties of the workpiece and the container is heated to 0,75 0,9 temperature upper boundary of the range of technological plasticity of the workpiece material, and extruding lead in terms of active force of friction with velocity equal to 0,3 0,6 maximum permissible values specified by the continuity of the profile, and the ratio of the speeds of the container and press stengele support in the range of 1.1 to 1.4.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the shape and dimensions of the cross-section of the extruded profile is set by the size and shape of the wheel rim on the outer contour and correct circuit depending on the need to strengthen the busiest places of the rim at the edges and at the junction of the rim to the disc with respect resizing profile in% the effect after pre-bended form ends in a single operation without heating of the workpiece.

7. The method according to PP. 1 and 5, characterized in that the bending extruded profile with low ductility resource carried out in several steps with intermediate annealing or hot state.

8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that a bent rim extruded profile is subjected to etching, washing and drying, and then weld the joint, angled 45 90oto the side edge of the profile, and the profile of the rim is selected with a perimeter equal to 0,97 0,99 perimeter of the finished rim.

9. The method according to PP.1 and 6, characterized in that the bent rim extrusion weld the junction contact-butt welding.

10. The method according to PP.1 and 6, characterized in that the edit welded rim exercise stretching by hand or precipitation in split moulds or compression rubber or polyurethane.

11. The method according to PP.1 and 6, characterized in that the edit welded rim is carried out by heating the rim of the temperature of the upper interval of technological plasticity of the profile and using the split mandrel and subsequent cooling of the rim on the mandrel until the ambient temperature.

12. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 4, osadochnoi the surface of the disk is subjected to machining, and then pressed the disk rim and welded with the latter on the inner surface of the rim.

13. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the drive wheel is made by stamping from extruded billet with the simultaneous Assembly of the disk rim in the split dies and welding of the disk rim exercise pressure or TIG welding on the inner surface of the rim.

14. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the drive wheel is made from bar stock by punching in a split dies with simultaneous Assembly with the rim and the welding pressure in protective environments at temperatures of heat close to the upper limit technologically permissible temperature range, used rim, made from the inner side with the technological projections and grooves.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to a cold sheet metal stamping and can be used for details disc type wheels, and other parts with holes, produced by the extraction or moulding

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to obtain large parts such as disks, rings, flanges, bandages, etc

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in various engineering industries in the manufacture of axisymmetric products, such as gears, wheels, disks and similar products

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular to the field of forming and rolling train wheels and tires from steel vacuum

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, in particular, to a technology of allocating railway wheels

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used in forging shops of metallurgical and machine-building plants in the manufacture of wheels and similar products

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used in forging shops of metallurgical and machine-building plants in the manufacture of automobile wheels and the like products

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, and more particularly to structures bonding device for manufacturing workpieces, particularly workpieces railway wheels

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the manufacture of parts like wheels with rim and two wheels and disk part with an axial hole

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in forging and stamping upon receiving cylindrical articles of different configurations, in particular rims of automobile wheels

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular to the formation of structure and properties of railway wheels in the process of heating and subsequent plastic deformation

FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly manufacture of wheel rims of transport vehicles, mainly of aluminum alloys.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial blank by pressing tube of hollow ingot and cutting prepared initial blank by measured-length piece blanks; then forming intermediate blank from measured length one; after heat treatment of intermediate blank, finishing it by calibrating in die sets used for intermediate blank forming.

EFFECT: lowered metal consumption due to reduced allowance for mechanical working, elimination of warping at working, enhanced efficiency of method.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metal processing by pressure, particularly to manufacturing of axisymmetric wheel tread base by cold transformation. Side wall of mainly cylindrical metal base with mainly constant wall thickness is expanded radially outwards by cobbing. Expanded side wall thickness is altered along longitudinal axis by rotation extrusion with pulling in axial direction and by side wall shaping. Device includes cobbing plant for radial outward expansion of side wall in cylindrical base, and rotation extrusion plant for expanded base shaping and pulling in axial direction.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensity, improved quality.

13 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming, particularly to making parts like hollow solids of revolution with stiffness varying in cross-section. Rolled normal grade carbon steel blank is cut to produce welded cylindrical shell. Made shell ends are machined and subjected to local heat-treatment. Variable-stiffness elements are forged to ring ribs at shell ends.

EFFECT: lower labour and material input.

6 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method the blank of hanger is made taking direction of rolled stock into account. Then blank is subject to thermal processing, both sides of blank are cleared from material and hanger is formed by means of double-sided shaped embossing. According to the first variant of the method, blank is subject to heat-cyclical processing prior to double-sided embossing. According to the second variant, double-sided shaped embossing is made in two steps and heat-cyclical processing is performed between those two steps.

EFFECT: prolonged life of hanger; increased service life of press tool.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for manufacturing automobile wheels and similar products.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preparing initial blank; forming of it intermediate semi-finished product in the form of cup having shaped bottom, wall and in zone of transition of wall to bottom - thickened portion defined at inner side of cup by surface of revolution, by annular protrusion on outer end of bottom and by flange on end of wall; making central protrusion on inner end of bottom; forming flange on wall by applying axial effort to its end for increasing thickness of wall having constant diametrical size at inner side; then finally shaping blank due to expanding annular protrusion on bottom of cup for forming other flange. Blank is finally shaped during two stages. At first stage height of central protrusion of bottom is increased due to radial motion of bottom material from its center and simultaneously thickness of said protrusion and diametrical size of bottom with flange are decreased, part of wall adjoined to bottom is thickened. At second stage sleeve is calibrated from inside for achieving final diametrical size of its cavity. Then bushings are subjected to heat treatment and mechanical working.

EFFECT: enhanced strength characteristics of reduced-cost wheels.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

Up!