The method of purification of gases
(57) Abstract:Usage: cleaning of the smoke flue and exhaust gases from sulfur oxides and nitrogen in conditions preventing the emission of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and sulfuric acid, and prevent accelerated wear of the equipment. The inventive gases irradiated by an electron beam and cooled to the temperature required for condensation of oxides. To gas supply in the area of purification is cooled to the condensation temperature of water. When this occurs the complete purification of gases without the formation of acid and consistent performance of all elements of the method. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to methods flue, flue and exhaust gases from sulfur oxides and nitrogen for flows with low speeds (TPP, TPP, etc), and high-speed flows (exhaust gases of engines running at the ground tests, and gas turbine engines, power plants and getcompression).Some known methods of purification of gas emissions is described in the article by A. P. Voronin, N. C.Lyakhova and other "prospects for the implementation process electrolicious purification technology gas emissions", published in the Journal of the all-Union chemical is on the absorption of toxic components calcite (CaCO3or a hydrate of calcium (Ca(OH)2) with the formation of sulfites and nitrates of calcium (page 72). However, this method is ineffective against suboxides nitrogen even for low emissions from the flue gases of thermal power plants. High speed as the exhaust gases of the engine just will not have time to interact with the sinks. To ensure this interaction requires additional bulky structures for braking gas or accumulation. Besides solid products cannot be recycled, they are unstable when stored.On pages 73-76 same source described radiation cleaning methods, they are based on the transformation of the NOxand SO3in free radicals by electron beam irradiation for the formation of radicals with subsequent binding of ammonia radicals. The technical implementation of these methods for purification of high-speed flows, such as exhaust gases of engines, require large expenditures and capital investments. In addition, there is a danger of leakage of ammonia into the atmosphere. As a result of pollution are replaced by others (the maximum allowable concentration of ammonia only 3 times lower than for NOx). Yes and tech January 1970 saw the publication of an invention entitled "Method of purification of gases which is issued by the USSR author's certificate N 412913 (m CL B 01 D 53/02, C 01 B 21/20). This invention most closely (the number of matching signs) to the proposed and selected as a prototype. A method according to and.with. N 412913 includes drying, additional oxidation of NO to NO2and the adsorption of CO2and NO2silica gel, cooling the gas to a temperature of crystallization of NO2. Cooling is produced by passing gas through the coolant industrial installation type regenerator (information from the description of the invention along.with. USSR N 695671).The disadvantage of this method is the need for periodic environment, equipment and motor for cleaning of coolant from the solid condensate, the replacement of the silica gel; low efficiency when cleaning the high flow rate of exhaust gases of the engine because of the small contact time of the gases with silica gel and the resulting incomplete additional oxidation or large dimensions of the coolant, in other words, the discrepancy between the performance of the elements of fashion to each other and the time of interaction of gas with them; large, productive energy loss caused by the release of the cooled clean gas into the atmosphere.November 5, 1979 published an invention is. 01 D 5/00, C 01 B 21/20). The method includes sputtering gas mixture and cooling to the temperature of condensation of nitrogen oxides. And cooling are passing the mixture through a coolant in the form of a layer of liquid with a specific gravity of 1.6 to 2.0 g/cm3at a temperature of +21oC to minus 42oC.The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of implementing and lowefficiency when cleaning the high flow rate. This is due to the difficulty of spraying high flow rate and low time of its interaction with the cooler.The closest set of features and achieved when using the result is an invention entitled "Method of purification of gases 
The method involves the irradiation of gases electron beam, followed by cooling to the temperature required for condensation of oxides, for which the gases are passed through chilled in advance regenerator, then they are already treated, is passed through an additional regenerator, cooling it, together with the additional flow from the refrigeration unit to the desired temperature, after reaching this temperature via the auxiliary regenerator miss untreated gases and purified before it is released is passed through the d is where the gas is cooled, form a zone of clearing.The disadvantage of this method is that it fails to treat gases from sulfur oxides. This is due to the fact that during the period of time during which the gas enters into the condensation zone, the oxide SO3combines with water and forms an acid. Acid partially damage the cooling system, contributing to its rapid deterioration, and emitted into the atmosphere.The objective of the invention is to provide a cleaning method for preventing the emission into the atmosphere not only NOx, but oxides of sulfur or sulfuric acid, and prevent accelerated wear of the equipment, which implements the method.The invention consists in that in the method of cleaning gases from nitrogen oxides and sulfur, including exposure to gases and cooling them to a temperature required for condensation of oxides according to the invention before filing a gas purification zone them cooled down to the condensation temperature of water (pre-cooling).In addition, to reduce waste of energy, purified gases before release into the atmosphere back into the cooling system (in the zone and before cleaning zone) without contact with untreated Gaza is that prior to the formation of acids in the bonding of the oxides with water the latter will be withdrawn from the cleaning process in the form of a solid or liquid condensate before entering gas purification zone.The drawing shows a diagram of an installation for implementing the method. The cleaned gases are supplied in the installation of the pipeline 1. The installation includes the regenerators 2 and 3 of the pre-cooling zone located in the vicinity of the pipeline 1 and connected through switches the direction of flow of gases 4 and 5 of the pipeline. Further, the regenerators 2 and 3 using switches current gas 7, 8, 9 and piping system 10 is connected with the other elements of the device forming area cleaning: camera exposure 11, is equipped with an electronic accelerator 12 for forming an electron beam, a refrigerating unit 13, a regenerator zone of the primary cooling 14 and 15. The pipes 16 and 17 are intended for production of purified gases into the atmosphere. Each regenerator 2, 3, 14, 15, represent a metal case filled with aluminum tape (nozzle).The method is implemented as follows (depicted in the position of the switches of the current of gases 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 18): the cleaned gases are fed through Truboprovod condensation of water, which drains into the lower part of the regenerator 2 and removed. Thus gases dehydrated. The degree of dehydration is determined by the desired final ratio of water concentration and oxide SO3which in turn is uniquely determined by the technical and environmental requirements for installation. Through this prevents water vapor in the cleaning zone. From regenerator 2 gases fed to the camera exposure 11, with the passage which is irradiated by an electron beam generated by an accelerator 12. The main part of the impurities in the exhaust gases contained in the form of NO and SO2. The electron beam irradiation of excitation processes, enabling the oxidation of NO to NO2and SO2to SO3. The speed of these processes is sufficient for when you enter the zone of main cooling oxides NO and SO2doukissis to NO2and SO3. Moreover, due to the absence of water vapor these processes occur without the formation of acids. Then the gases are fed into the regenerator 14, and the switches of the current gas 18, 8, 9 lock the regenerators 15 and 3 from the receipt of raw gases. The regenerator 14 in advance (before the receipt of his gas) is cooled to a temperature that provides crystallizes the NTU approach to the condenser end of the regenerator 14 to a temperature of education and cooling NO2and SO3in the form of crystals or liquid condensate. Design of regenerators 2 and 14 provide braking gases to such speeds that the crystals and the condensate does not float with the nozzles of the regenerators. The cleaned gases together with the flow of air from the refrigeration unit 13 serves in the regenerator 15 and 3, is cooled their jets, and heated to the temperature of the ambient air purified gases through the pipe 16 are released into the atmosphere. After gas cleaning installation is disconnected and removed from the regenerator 14 condensate oxides. Following the cleaning cycle start feeding raw gases through Truboprovod and switches the current of gases 4, 5 in the regenerator 3. All of the switches of the current of gases 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 18 a position opposite depicted.If you want to ensure the continuity of the process gas cleaning in a long time or for any reason water should translate into solid state with subsequent removal of the broken cleaning device, the device is equipped with one pair of regenerators 2, 14 3, 15, connecting them to the device similarly available. In this case, first, there are two pairs of regenerators. Then change the position of the switch current is.As can be seen from the description, the dehydration of gases with desired efficiency in conjunction with other operations helps to ensure complete cleaning of the gases, and it is the dehydration of gases ensures the prevention of acid generation and coordination of the performance of all elements of the method. 1. The method of purification of gases from nitrogen oxides and sulfur, including exposure to gases electron beam and cooling them before release into the atmosphere to the temperature required for condensation of oxides, characterized in that the gases before their submission to the purification zone is cooled to the condensation temperature of the water and separating the resulting condensate from the gases.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the purified gases before release into the atmosphere returned to the cooling system before cleaning zone without contact with untreated gases.
FIELD: heat-power engineering; cleaning flue gases from toxic admixtures.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes cooling of flue gases to temperature below dew point, condensation of water vapor, mixing of cooled flue gases with ozone-and-air mixture, oxidation and absorption of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides by condensate thus obtained and discharge of cleaned flue gases and condensate from zone of treatment. Flue gases and acid condensate are cleaned from carbon dioxide in perforated units of cassettes coated with layer of slaked lime [Ca(OH02] for forming calcium nitrite [Ca(NO3)], calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)]. Device proposed for realization of this method includes zone of treatment in form of box with heat-exchange and absorption-and-heat exchange sections located in this box in way of motion of flue gases. These sections are provided with air and flue gas inlet and outlet branch pipes where heat exchangers-air preheaters of 1st and 2nd stages, horizontal and vertical perforated cassettes units made from rough corrosion-resistant material coated with layer of slaked lime [Ca(OH2)], mixing chamber with perforated distributing tube and air duct with ozonizer are located.
EFFECT: enhanced ecological and economical efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: emission gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to cleaning emission gases associated with manufacture of fired building materials to remove injurious impurities. Method according to invention consists in that reductive conditions are created within rotary furnace zone wherein temperature of emission gases is between 850 and 1400°C using burning-out of carbon-containing waste and maintaining air excess factor α = 1.05...1.1, whereas in furnace zone, emission gas temperature is below 800°C, air excess factor α is elevated to 1.2 by feeding hot air.
EFFECT: enabled conversion of nitrogen and sulfur into nitrogen and sulfur and additional removal of CO and simultaneous reclamation of coal production waste.
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of neutralization and a utilization of the aggressive chemical compounds.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of neutralization and a utilization of the aggressive chemical compounds, in particular, the saturated with the anhydrides acid-containing compounds and wastes. The neutralization is applied to the smoke mixture containing the sulfuric anhydride and chlorosulfonic acid, or the oxidizing agent of the rocket propellant based on of the nitric acid containing a dimer of the nitrogen dioxide. For neutralization use the hydrolyzed dispersible aluminosilicates based of the natural clays selected from: hydromicaceous Cambrian clay, montmorillonite clay, kaolinite clay or on the basis of their mixtures. At that the hydrolyzed dispersible aluminosilicates, which are taken at least in equal shares with an aggressive chemical compound, are prepared at the following ratio of components (in mass shares): a dry substance - 1.0-2.5, water - 1.0. The invention allows to neutralize the aggressive wastes and to produce the useful product with the sorption activity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures neutralization of the aggressive wastes and production of the useful product with the sorption activity.
3 cl, 2 ex, 6 tbl
FIELD: complex cleaning of various industrial gaseous emissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method may used for complete entrapping of toxic gases, such as NOx, SO2 and CO from flue gases of fuel burning units and gaseous emissions from production units. Proposed method includes pumping of gas flow to be cleaned through reservoir filled with reaction fluid followed by settling, separation of reaction products in form of sediment and their utilization. Used as reaction fluid is trifluoroacetic acid saturated with oxygen. In the course of cleaning, composition of cleaned gases is monitored continuously. In case of penetration of contaminants, flow of gases being cleaned is directed to second reservoir filled with new portion of trifluoroacetic acid saturated with oxygen. Used trifluoroacetic acid is regenerated by saturating it with oxygen and is directed to re-cycle.
EFFECT: efficiency close to 100%.
FIELD: catalyst for improved hydrolysis of carbon oxysulfide (COS) and hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in gaseous mixtures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of TiO2-based composition as catalyst for COS and/or HCN in gaseous mixture releasing from apparatus for joint energy production, wherein said composition contains H2, CO, H2S and H2O in amounts of 10-40 %; 15-70 %; 200 ppm-3 % and 0.5-25 %, respectively. Moreover abovementioned composition contains at leas 1 mass.%, preferably at least 5 % at least one alkali-earth metal sulfate selected form calcium, barium. Strontium, and magnesium.
EFFECT: high conversion ratio of COS and HCN, irresponsiveness to presence of NH3, decreased production of CO2 and CH4.
8 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: nozzle comprises housing (1) with docking units (2). The first stage of cleaning is made of vertical perforates members (3). Each of the members is composed of vertical perforated wall with bottom (4) and vertical perforated detachable side lid (5). Perforated member (3) is made of corrosion-resisting material and is filled with particles of disintegrated slake lime. The second stage of cleaning is made of perforated members (8) filled with activated coal. Perforated members (3) and (8) are mounted inside gas passages (10) that are separated from air passages (11) with vertical baffles. Near the bottom the air passages are connected with sucking slots (12) thus forming a plate heat exchanger. Inclined chutes (13) underlie the heat exchanger and are connected with drain pipeline (15) through valve (16).
EFFECT: reduced sizes and simplified structure.
SUBSTANCE: processing blasting air and flue gases occurs in the device, which includes a heat exchange and absorptive-heat exchange sections. Water vapour condenses during the cooling of flue gases lower than the dew-point. The cooled flue gases are mixed up with the ozone-air mixture. Oxides of nitrogen and sulfur (NOx and SOx) are oxidized to NO2 and SO3 and absorb the obtained condensate in the plate-type heat exchanger 1st step 27. In the lower block of gas cleaning 28 filled with a crumb of slaked lime, neutralizes NO and NO2. In the upper block of the gas cleaning 29 filled with a crumb of activated coal, adsorbs carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. After the heat exchanger of the 2nd step 11 heated air in the block of regeneration 5 is desorbed from the activated coal CO and the unburned fuel. Enriched gases heated air is directed to the furnace of a boiler.
EFFECT: declared invention provides an increase ecological and economic efficiency of process of cleaning of flue gases.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method for cleaning of exhaust gases of gas-turbine plant (GTP) includes installation of thermocatalytic neutraliser (TCN) in gas flue of GTP with developed catalytic surface in the form of panels, total area of surfaces of which, located cocurrently to direction of exhaust gases motion, exceeds area of cross section of GTP gas flue, at that TCN is installed in vertical gas flue of GTP, and required total volume of TCN panels is defined using the following expression: vk=Be.g.·τ, where: vk - required total volume of TCN panels, m3; B e.g. - volume flow rate of exhaust gases, m3/s; τ - required time for contact of exhaust gases with developed catalytic surface of TCN based on necessary extent of GTP exhaust gases cleaning, s. Device is suggested for cleaning of gas-turbine plant (GTP) exhaust gases, which includes thermocatalytic neutralizer (TCN), which is arranged with the possibility of installation in GTP gas flue along direction of exhaust gases motion and which represents casing open on top and bottom, inside of which panels of TCN catalytic units are installed as inclined in respect to vertical axis of casing and gas flue of GTP and are serially connected between each other, converging in adjacent top and bottom ends. Panels are made on the basis of highly porous cell materials, at that panels of catalytic units of TCN are formed by frame with wing spars, in which holders are inbuilt with catalytic units.
EFFECT: reduction of hydraulic losses in thermocatalytic neutraliser and required volume of catalyst, increase of extent of exhaust gases cleaning, compactness and manufacturability of layout of device for cleaning of exhaust gases of gas-turbine plant.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: suggested invention is related to heat and power engineering and agriculture and may be used to reduce contaminations and greenhouse effect of environment and increased crop capacity when growing vegetables in closed areas. Device comprises zone of treatment connected to transit gas duct 1 via discharge gas duct 2. Zone of treatment includes vertical tubular heat exchanger - absorber 3, which is made of the following components arranged serially by gas in tube space top down air heater 4 and condenser, which is connected by condensate with anionite filter 6, and by gas - with ejector 7, gas duct of working mixture 8 and greenhouse 9, in roof of which there is a deflector 10 arranged. Tube space of air heater 4 is connected to blowing air 11. Tube space of condenser 5 is connected to air duct of ambient air 12 and fan 13.
EFFECT: increased ecological and economical efficiency of purification and recycling of smoke fumes.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in garbage incineration plants in various industries. Gaseous wastes produced in combustion chamber 1, 3 and cooled in jacket 5 are supplied into dust arrester 7, and then in the first scrubber 8. In scrubber 8 via pipeline 19 water is supplied, and hydrochloric acid is discharged via pipeline 16. Partially cleaned gases are sent into the second scrubber 9, where selective cleaning of sulfur dioxide SO2 is carried out with the help of supplied ammonia solution 12. Produced aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate/sulfite is fully or partially returned to combustion chamber.
EFFECT: simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide, halogenated organic compounds and nitrogen oxides NOx.
4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex