The reactor overheated steam

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to nuclear power plants. The inventive reactor superheat contains separated from the body cowling active zone to pass through the Central vertical pipe in which installed the fuel rods overheated steam. The pipe connects the cavity of dry steam, located in the upper part inside the housing, with the bottom cavity of superheated steam formed by the inner surface of the spherical bottom of the casing and separated from the upstream water cavity wall. In the annular cavity formed between the housing and the shell, set the vertical pipe, the ends of which are fixed in the circular Spigots placed at the upper and lower ends of the shell. In the lower part of the reactor above the partition placed a pipe for feeding water. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to atomic energy device and can be successfully implemented in stationary heat and power as an element of the power plant for transport (marine water) court of river, lake, mixed type float the river-sea (train).

Partially above mentioned disadvantages are eliminated in the reactors overheated steam in the core, [2] the prototype contains placed inside a cylindrical housing with a spherical bottom and separated from it by the shell with the formation of the annular cavity active zone to pass through the Central vertical pipe in which installed the fuel Rods overheating pair of connecting placed in the upper part inside the cavity of dry steam from the bottom inside the body cavity of superheated steam formed by the inner surface of the spherical bottom of the casing and separated from the upstream water cavity wall, as well as containing situated above the liquid level of the steam separator.

In the known device is not achieved reliable circulation water mixture, which increases the energy consumption for own needs and complicates the design of the reactor.

Positive technical result in the elimination of these disadvantages is achieved by the fact that the annular cavity installed vertical t lower part of the body above the partition placed a pipe for feeding water.

Passing through the active zone of the Central pipe (vertical, thin-walled) located inside the hull. The upper cavity is dry steam inside the durable housing is communicated with the lower cavity of superheated steam formed by the inner surface of the spherical bottom of the casing and separated from the water cavity wall, and the bottom and wall mounted Rethimno to the same flange of the hull.

Inside the hull at the outer cylindrical surface has an annular chamber, which is separated from the active zone by a cylindrical surface with an annular zones of the upper and lower ends, where the pinned ends of the vertical pipes. Vertical pipe annular cavity interconnected celeritate rectangular strips of expanded metal sheets. Strip attached to pipes welded longitudinal seams. TVEL in cassettes water heating and overheating pair of identical shape and size. Vertical pipe annular cavity cooled from the outside feed water, returning the condensate from consumers pair the primary circuit of the reactor.

The annular cavity is connected a by-pass channels with lower water paloscia above and below the active zone. Thin-walled pipe with cassettes TVEL superheat inside is made from a material that is weakly absorbing neutrons (like, for example, zircaloy). The upper and lower perforated boards with active area mounted on the annular cavity with the pipes. Part of the bypass channel ring cavity made in the form of longitudinal and transverse openings in the cylindrical wall of the hull. These openings are reinforced insertable tubular elements.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic longitudinal section of the reactor of Fig. 2 is a cross section of a single fuel element /FE/ (increased), and Fig. 3 cross section of the annular cavity; Fig. 4 is a longitudinal view of part of the annular cavity in the section of Fig. 5 bypass channel in the solid wall of the reactor vessel, longitudinal section.

The reactor overheated steam in the active area includes located inside uransoderzhashchie fuel elements /FE/, part of which communicates with the steam cavities of the body.

A cylindrical housing imeet removable spherical cap 2 with a flange 3 at the top. Inside the case in the Central part is a vertical thin-walled tube 4 connecting the upper cavity dry the height of the active zone 5 of the reactor). The bottom 6 and top 7 perforated shields limit the active area height. Cassette 8 and 9 contain several TVEL. They are loaded from the top when the cover 2.

The lower cavity 10 of superheated steam formed by the inner surface of the spherical bottom and separated from the water cavity by a partition 11. The bottom and wall mounted Rethimno to the same flange of the hull 12.

TVEL in magazines heating 8 water and overheating 9 pair of identical shape and size. TVEL active zone is made in the form of uranium pipes 13 (from a mixture of two isotopes: uranium-238 and uranium-235, for example), coated outside and inside thin-walled cylindrical protective shells 14 and 15.

Inside the case is set separator 16 with curved channels to pass up steam and dripping down particles of moisture. The separator is installed above the border 17 of the partition between water and steam. Regulatory and emergency rods 18 is made of a material that can rapidly absorb neutrons (cadmium, boron, etc ); to reduce the power and shutdown these rods are inserted (down) in the active area.

Through pipe 19 is relatively cool condensate steam enters the annular cavity inside prochnow Utri reactor.

Through pipe 21 superheated steam is directed to consumers. The annular cavity is connected a by-pass channels 22 with the lower water cavity of the reactor vessel. Part of the bypass channel is made in the form of longitudinal and transverse openings in the cylindrical wall of solid casing ( Fig. 5); these channels are reinforced insertable tubular elements. The lower end of the bypass channel 22 is attached to the pipe 23.

The annular cavity within a solid casing at the outer surface of the housing 1 is separated from the active zone of the cylindrical surface 24. Ring bands 25 defined by the upper and lower ends of the annular cavity, where the pinned ends of the vertical pipes 26 and 27. Last interconnected celeritate rectangular strips 28 of the expanded metal sheets. Strip 28 to the pipes 26 and 27 are attached to the longitudinal welds.

The reactor operates in the following way:

Through pipe 19 of the pump delivers the condensate in the annular cavity of a solid body between the pipes 26 and 27. Feed water condensate is preheated, taking some of the heat from the steam-water mixture inside the tubes 26, 27. Strip 28 significantly increase the heating surface of the tubes. Podagricus increase (Fig. 5) the total sectional area of the channels for the passage of heated water).

Passing through the active zone and washing the inner and outer walls of the fuel elements in the cassette 8, the water is heated with the formation of steam-water mixture. The latter rises. Water particles get inside the pipes 26 and 27. and wet steam rises. Passing through the separator 16, the steam becomes close to dry, as particles trapped moisture vapor flowing down. Passing through the fuel elements in the cassette 9 in the pipe 4, dry steam receives an additional amount of thermal energy and becomes superheated. The superheated steam through the nozzle 21 is directed to consumers.

The presence of the annular cavity with the pipes 26 and 27 and strips 28, and cooling them feed water in the form of steam condensate create a reliable circulation water mixture through the reactor core with fuel elements /FE/ in the cassette 8. When this circulation of the mixture is a natural (without the aid of special circulating pump primary circuit of the reactor).

Superheated steam can be obtained relatively high settings, without significantly increasing the pressure inside the solid reactor, which simplifies the design and allows sizetype height decrease, and diameter did not differ from normal water water reactors.

Possible applications and circuit diagram with a steam generator in which the heating medium is superheated steam obtained in the reactor.

The advantage of the relatively high temperature of the heating steam generator secondary circuit at moderate pressures. All of the elements of the secondary circuit, in addition to its steam generator, biological protection is not needed.

1. The reactor overheated steam containing placed inside a solid cylindrical body with a spherical bottom and separated from it by the shell with the formation of the annular cavity active zone to pass through the Central vertical pipe in which installed the fuel rods overheating pair of connecting placed in the upper part inside the cavity of dry steam from the bottom inside the body cavity of superheated steam formed by the inner surface of the spherical bottom of the casing and separated from the upstream water cavity wall, as well as containing situated above the liquid level of the steam separator, characterized in that the annular cavity installed in a vertical pipe, the ends for which the reactor over a partition placed a pipe for feeding water.

2. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the vertical tubes of the ring cavity are interconnected celeritate rectangular strips of expanded metal sheets.

3. Reactor PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the strip attached to pipes welded longitudinal seams.

4. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the active zone of the fuel rods and the fuel rods overheating pair of identical shape and size.

5. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the upper part of the annular cavity is connected a by-pass channels with the water cavity.

6. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the Central vertical pipe made of a material that is weakly absorbing neutrons, for example of zircaloy.

7. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the shell of the active zone is placed perforated panels.

8. The reactor under item 5, characterized in that the portion of the bypass channel is made in the cylindrical wall of the reactor vessel.

9. The reactor under item 7, characterized in that the channels in the cylindrical wall of the casing reinforced insertable tubular elements.

 

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FIELD: nuclear power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed containment has inner space accommodating condensing chamber, high-pressure chamber, cooling pond, and discharge pipe. It is also provided with condenser communicating with high-pressure chamber. Discharge pipe is component part of inner space that provides communication between high-pressure chamber and condensing chamber. Condenser may be mounted in high-pressure chamber with top end of discharge pipe disposed above condenser. Operating process of condenser in nuclear power plant is characterized in that nondensables are automatically discharged from above-condenser area.

EFFECT: enhanced safety in operating nuclear power plants.

13 cl, 1 dwg

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