Device for measuring deviations from straightness
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular to control the basic feature of this and flatness of extended surfaces such as rails high-precision large-sized machines, and can also be used when testing the straightness of coordinate displacements machines aligned holes and shafting checking elevations during equipment installation. The technical result is a more accurate measure of the deviation from linearity of the controlled profile in turbulent flows on the highway distribution of the laser beam by reducing the diameter of the constriction of the information beam. The result is achieved that the device is equipped with an axicon with holes set along the laser beam for the telescopic system and the beam splitter with a hole or mirror in the center, set along the beam with the reflector. 4 Il. The invention relates to measurement devices, and more particularly to control the basic feature of this and neplodnosti extended surfaces, such as precision guides croup agabaritic machines and can also be used when control is yatnyh marks when installing the equipment.Known photoelectric device for measuring the deviation from straightness of surfaces (ed.St. N 427230, G 01 B 11/30, 1974), which contains sequentially arranged light source (a laser with a Gaussian beam), posted on the measured surface, and the Registrar. This device is accepted as equivalent.A distinctive feature of the device is similar is that in order to increase the measurement accuracy, lenses spaced from each other at a distance equal to the sum of their focal lengths, i.e., represent a telescopic system, which expands the laser beam, thereby reducing the angular vibration of its centerline and is caused by vibrations of error.The disadvantage of this device is similar is that it is not possible to eliminate the error from the turbulence of the air flow at the highway distribution of the laser beam.This drawback, Lisino device for measuring deviations from straightness (ed.St. N 1564492, G 01 B 21/30, 1990.), which contains consistently located the laser is mounted with the possibility of placing a laser beam parallel to the average controlled direct profile, telescopic system, the reflector in view of the beam, sensor linear displacement, established in the course of the reflected laser beam and the Registrar. This unit is adopted as a prototype.A distinctive feature of the device of the prototype is that to improve the accuracy of the turbulence of air flow along the laser beam propagation, it is equipped with a sensor of angular displacement, established in the course of the reflected laser beam, the discriminator zero level, the input connected to the output of the sensor of angular displacement, the block selection signal input connected to the output of the sensor linear displacement, and a control input connected to the output of discriminator zero level and block averaging, the input connected to the output of the fetch block, and the output to the input of the recorder.Improving the accuracy of measurement device prototype is achieved by sampling the signals from the sensor linear displacement only at points in time that correspond to zero angular displacement of the axis of the reflected laser beam and averaging a predetermined number of measurements.The drawback of the prototype is the presence of significant error converting the linear sensor is a receiver and transmitter of analog signals. The laser has a Gaussian distribution of the amplitude of the main fashion from the x and y coordinates of its cross section. Telescopic system expands the laser beam, reducing the degree of change in luminance in the vicinity of its axis and thereby increases the accuracy of conversion of the sensor linear displacement.The technical result is to increase the measuring accuracy deviation from linearity of the controlled profile if turbulentnosti threads on the highway distribution of the laser beam due to the diameter reduction of the information beam.The above drawbacks are eliminated by the fact that the proposed device has the axicon established in the course of the laser beam for a telescopic system, and a beam splitter installed along the beam with the reflector. Moreover, the axicon has a Central hole and a few holes on its peripheral circumference, and a beam splitter has a hole or a mirror in the center.In Fig. 1 shows a functional diagram of the proposed device for measuring deviations from linearity in Fig. 2 is a section of the axicon with a Central hole; Fig. 3 axicon with four peripheral holes; Fig. 4 distribution of intensives is the Devi ations from linearity includes a laser 1, telescopic system 2, the axicon 3, a reflector 4, a beam splitter 5, a sensor 6 linear displacement sensor 7 angular displacements, consisting of a lens 8 and the sensor linear displacement 9, the discriminator 10 zero level, the fetch block 11, block averaging 12 consisting of an analog-to-digital Converter 13 and the transmitter 14 and 15 Registrar.The laser 1 is mounted for billing axis of the information beam 16 and the reference beam 17 parallel to the average controlled direct profile 18. Telescopic system 2 extends the Gaussian beam 21 of the laser, forming extended parallel Gaussian beam 22. Axicon 3 is installed on the slip 20, axicon has a Central hole 25 in Fig. 2) and peripheral (holes 28 in Fig. 3), the holes that are used to form a wide parallel beam 17, and deposited on a transparent substrate 26 integral scattering layer 27 (Fig. 2), which is designed to generate information beam 16 with a subtle shifting on its axis. The reflector 4 is made in the form of a prism RBB 180o. The beam splitter 5 is made in the form of a mirror with a Central hole and is intended for the direction of the information beam 16 and the sensor 6 linear displacement and the reference beam 17 h and differential Converter analog signals, the output of which is connected to the information input 23 of the fetch block 11. The sensor 7 angular displacements contains the lens 8 and the sensor 9 linear displacements is identical to the sensor 6), PCF which is installed in the focal plane of the lens. The input of the discriminator 10 zero level is connected to the output of the sensor 7 angular displacements. The output of discriminator 10 zero level is connected with the control input 24 of the fetch block 11, the output of which is connected to the input of block averaging 12. Block averaging 12 includes a cascaded analog-to-digital Converter 13 and the transmitter 14. The output of block averaging 12 is connected to the input of the recorder 15.The device operates as follows.First set the laser 1, the telescopic system 2 and the axicon 3 on the slip 20 so that the axis of the information beam 16 and the reference beam 17 coincided and were directed parallel to the controlled profile 18. Telescopic system 2 extends the Gaussian beam 21 of the laser and generates an expanded parallel beam 22, which falls on the axicon 3 with the Central and peripheral holes. Part of the extended parallel beam 22 passing through the Central and peripheral holes of the axicon 3, forms Shiro is the duty to regulate the information beam 16 with a subtle shifting on its axis. Both beams pass through the reflector 4, is made in the form of a prism RBB 180oand going in the opposite direction parallel to the midline of the controlled profile 18. The information beam 16 passing through the aperture of the beam splitter 5, gets on the sensor 6 linear displacements. The reference beam 17 reflected from the beam splitter 5, gets on the sensor 7 angular displacements. The reflector 4 is mounted on a controlled profile 18 sequentially at selected points of the test surface.Sensor 6 linear displacements containing PCP and differential Converter analog signals, produces an analog output signal UxUyproportional to the deviation of the controlled profile from linearity in x, y respectively. Voltage UxUyarrive at the signal inputs 23 of the fetch block 11. The sensor 7 angular displacements contains the lens 8 and the sensor linear displacement 9, which can be performed similarly to the sensor 6, while PCF sensor 8 is installed in the focal plane of the lens 8. The output signal of the sensor 7 angular displacements to the input of the discriminator 10 zero level. The discriminator 10 generates the control pulses at the moments of time when the influencers pulse unit 11 sample opens and sends the signals UxUyon its outputs. Analog-to-digital Converter 13, containing two-channel analog switch, serially connected to the outputs of the fetch block 11 and converts the input analog signals into digital values, which are then accumulated in the RAM memory of the computer 14. After admission to the transmitter 14 a predetermined number of digital values unit 12 produces their averaged separately for each of the coordinates of the deviation of the information beam. Averaging the digital values of the deviations registered by the Registrar 15. Then the reflector 4 is moved to the next point of the controlled profile 18 and the measurement process repeated.The diameter d (Fig. 4) banners information beam 16, the proposed device is about 10 μm, i.e., 5000 times smaller than the diameter of the Gaussian information beam in the device prototype that falls on the sensor linear mixtures. About the same time increases the sensitivity of the proposed device to the linear displacement axis of the information beam. This eliminates the error sensor conversion of linear displacements due to small changes in the ambient lighting in the vicinity of the axis of the extended g the sizes from 1 x 1 mm20.1 x 0.1 mm2.The Central hole of the axicon 0.5 1.0 m narrows the range of lengths of the controlled profiles. Therefore, to expand the measurement range, it is expedient to apply the axicon only with peripheral holes (Fig. 3), which, not narrowing range, allow you to equalize the amount of light energy concentrated in the cross section of banners remote from the axicon 3 areas of the information beam 16. Ideally, the shape of the peripheral holes should be close to the shape of an isosceles triangle with the apex near the center of the axicon 3 and the bisector directed along its radius.Along the beam splitter 5 with a Central hole, it is advisable to use a beam splitter with a Central mirror, deposited on a transparent substrate. Such a beam splitter is easier and cheaper to manufacture. This functional diagram and operation of the device will remain unchanged except that the sensor 6 linear displacement sensor 7 angular displacements connected to its output by the discriminator 11 to swap and accordingly, to swap information 23 and 24 managing unit sample 11. Device for measuring deviations angleway on the test surface during laser irradiation, a beam splitter mounted in the course of the reflected laser radiation and intended for dividing it into two beams, the linear sensor offset and sensor angular displacements installed after the beam splitter along the respective beams, the Registrar, the discriminator zero level, the input connected to the output of the sensor of angular displacements, the block selection signal input connected to the output of the sensor linear displacement, and a control input connected to the output of discriminator zero level, and the block averaging, the input connected to the output of the fetch block, and the output to the input of the Registrar, characterized in that it is provided with an axicon with holes, set on a course of laser radiation for telescopic system, a beam splitter is made in the form of a mirror with a Central hole or a transparent plate with a Central mirror.
FIELD: measurement of planeness of strip in reel shaft of hot strip rolling mill.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of planeness in reel shaft of hot rolling mill; reel shaft is provided with movable and immovable strips between pulling device and reel; hot strip is fed to reel through its shaft by means of roller table and pulling roller of pulling device; reel is provided with drum, hold-down rollers and end guides; roller for measurement of planeness is closed in reel shaft turned inside guide strip. Moving roller used for measurement of planeness has working position at which hot strip passes around roller used for measurement of planeness retaining approximately constant wrapping angle α and lowered position; reel shaft is provided with swivel guide strip closing the roller used for measurement of planeness.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency; enhanced protection of roller in lowered position.
15 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metering equipment, namely to measurement of moving surface parametres. Charge of explosive substance is initiated with the help of lens or detonation distributor on surface, which is speeded up by explosion products to velocity that causes glow of shock wave in front of it. Receiver of the same shape closed by screen is installed on motion route. Two or more groups of electro-optical detectors are installed in receiver along normal line to moving surface on different bases from initial position of surface. Surface of screen inverted to electro-optical detectors in process of motion interacts with their ends, besides, at the same time electric and light signals are generated, which are supplied to recorders. Recorders measure time of moving surface approach to the end of every detector. Diversity is defined by difference of times of electric and light signals in every group of detectors.
EFFECT: makes it possible to improve reliability and accuracy of measurements of time intervals in complex expensive experiments.
FIELD: physics, measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for contactless detection of quality in items having medium and low classes of purity. Detection of surface roughness parametres is carried out by digital survey of investigated surface or its area by digital optical device with resolution of at least 3 megapixels at angle of illumination of 15°, 45°, 75° with normal location of lens to investigated surface. Digital pictures are sent to computer, pictures are processed and analysed on the basis of calculation of statistical criteria of each picture. Mean-square deviation is found between statistical criteria, which is correlated with arithmetical mean deviation of roughness sample Ra. Restoration coefficient k is determined. Electronic model of surface microrelief is built by transformation of picture pixels into three-dimensional coordinates, which are used for calculation of geometric parametres of surface roughness.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of surface roughness parametres measurement.
2 cl, 14 dwg, 8 tbl
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: this method is based on the use of coherent electromagnetic radiation. Under this technology optical nonlinearity of the surface with microrelief and reference specimen are created. Measurement of the surface microrelief is made by the analysis of the interferences obtained as a result of interaction between nonlinear optical surface reflected from the microrelief of the giant second harmonic and giant second harmonic reflected from the surface of the reference specimen. Unambiguity of the microrelief altitude measurement is ensured by the analysis of the interferences of the derived part of radiation and radiation reflected from the surface with microrelief. Optical nonlinearity of the surfaces with microrelief and reference specimen can be created by the method of chemical chemical etching of the surfaces or by their covering with metal nanoparticles or semiconductor particles.
EFFECT: improvement of the accuracy and unambiguity of the measurements of the microrelief altitude with sharp drop of altitudes.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling surface roughness involves probing the surface with laser radiation and recording photoluminescence intensity using photosensitive devices. The rough surface is covered with a layer of nanoparticles. The detected information feature used is characteristic photoluminescence of these particles, induced by the probing laser radiation. Roughness of the surface is controlled by changing the nature of photoluminescence intensity when the angle between the axis of the probing radiation and the normal to the rough surface is changed.
EFFECT: integral evaluation of roughness, local evaluation of the section of interest and automation of the control process.
7 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: roller for measuring flatness defects of a strip has force transducers built into the lateral surface of the roller with formation of measurement sections and coatings for the force transducers which are flush with the surface of the roller. The coatings are surrounded by a gap for movement with formation of a clearance from the force transducers. The measurement sections are closed by one or more metal films adhesively connected to the surface of the roller. Also the measurement roller has an additional shell.
EFFECT: increased strength and wear-resistance of the measurement roller, prevention of shear deformation in coatings which form measurement sections of the roller.
9 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular, to facilities for control of relief and surface properties of samples with the help of sclerometers, and may be used to assess variation of surface properties along the scanning path. For this purpose they perform scanning of the controlled surface more than once with different extent of probe approaching to the controlled surface with simultaneous production of data on spatial and power parameters of scanning, and sample parameters are defined using them, which characterise relief and/or properties of the sample surface, extent of probe action at the surface or surface layers of the sample, and also value of residual deformation is defined by difference of produced values of spatial and power parameters. At the same time the first scanning is carried out with a load at the probe, not causing plastic deformation of the surface, and they assess vertical movements of the probe in process of scanning, on the basis of which they build a profilogram of the controlled surface and determine parameters of its roughness, then the probe is returned into the initial position, the probe is inserted into the surface layer for the required depth, reflecting volume properties of the surface layer, due to application of the permanent normal load, and the second scanning is performed, and vertical movements of the probe are assessed, on the basis of which they build the curve of the support surface and assess its characteristics, and also define the distribution of hardness of the surface layer along the scanning path.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of assessment of surface layer characteristics and production of more correct data reflecting volume properties of surface layers.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular, to devices for measurement of profile of surfaces of low-modular viscoelastic sheet materials of light industry, namely, man-made and natural leathers, etc. A device to detect profile of materials in deformed condition, comprising a base, a counting unit, a locating element, installed as capable of rotation around its axis, differing by the fact that the locating element is made in the form of a semi-cylinder with a hollow semi-cone and two limiting plates to fix a sample; the device comprises an additional counting unit fixed on the semi-cylinder, to detect bending radius of the investigated sample, arranged in parallel to the semi-cone guide, at the same time the main counting unit is made as combined, capable of displacement along the axis of rotation of the locating element and comprises a strain gauge motion sensor and a digital optical microscope.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to study hidden defects of natural leather and man-made materials, to determine variation of material relief under bending deformation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring macro roughnesses surfaces can be used in hydropower control macro roughnesses, taper and deviation from the horizontal plane mirror surfaces disc thrust bearings of hydroelectric. Device for measuring macro roughnesses surfaces, comprising mounted horizontally and in parallel above one another rigid rectangular plates fixed together by vertical uprights disposed on the outer side of each plate at the corners three support adjustable legs installed at the inner side of the bottom plate two sensor inclination angle, the axes sensitivity are mutually perpendicular and parallel to the adjacent side of the plate and fixed by means of removable alignment ring on one of the plates with its outer side magnet, the center of which is located inside the right-angled triangle formed by the three bearing adjustable feet at the median from the vertex of the right angle.
EFFECT: technical result is to increase the accuracy of measurement macro roughnesses by measuring the angular displacement in the coordinate system associated with the survey surface, expanding the functionality of the device.
1 cl, 1 dwg