Electric autonomous vehicle

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: electric traction system for vehicles using energy accumulated in the flywheel. The inventive produced in Association organic whole mahovikova energy accumulator, continuously variable transmission and some other components of the chassis vehicles. A distinctive feature of the drive is that in a sealed enclosure, which created a deep vacuum on a stabilized radial-axial magnetic suspension shaft is rigidly fixed to the hub tipping of spermagonia and anchors two disk homopolar electric machines, which have a common Central liquid-metal contact is made discontinuous and renewable, and separate peripheral contactless thermal emission current collection is equipped with a grid control. It provides modes: charging from internal or external source of energy; acceleration, smooth adjustment of the thrust force in accordance with the driving conditions in the discharge cycle; charging; regenerative braking to increase the stored energy of the flywheel. The control modes is performed by the greates impact on the totality of the parts of the vehicle, for example car, Hirokawa, locomotives, tractors, etc. designed to transfer energy from mahovikova drive to the drive wheels and back through the continuously variable transmission.

Known structural diagram of a drive vehicles with Makhovikov energy storage and continuously variable transmission: hydrostatic, friction, freewheel, multi-friction clutch, etc. (Mani L. Transport, energy and the future. M. Mir, 1987, S. 47 56).

In addition to the structural complexity of its own chassis, including the transfer of gain from the engine through the clutch to the flywheel with gear, a second clutch for a continuously variable transmission, cardan transmission, main transmission and propulsion (wheels), these solutions drive Autonomous vehicles have significant drawbacks associated with a specific execution of the known continuously variable transmission.

For example, hydrostatic transmissions are heavy and bulky; frictional stepless and freewheel transfer of energy in one direction only; the effectiveness of the multi-stage transmission with a friction clutch depends on the admissible values of slip, salvage tools. They contain the energy accumulator in the form of a rotating flywheel, battery charger, electric motor, in which an applied DC electric machine, connected through the gearbox charging flywheel, which is connected through the reduction gear running and the clutch reverse with the leading axis of the propulsion unit, and an AC voltage source Converter (ed. St. USSR N 1516389, class B 60 L 11/16, 1989).

With significant complexity and bulkiness described scheme drive good transmission characteristics and mahovikova drive to achieve is not possible, as the main difficulty is to develop a continuously variable transmission, which would allow for the gradual adjustment of thrust force in accordance with the driving conditions.

As a prototype may be adopted actuator standalone (ed. St. USSR N 1425108, class B 60 L 11/16, 1988).

It contains a traction motor with a control unit, which is connected to the traction battery and electro-mechanical energy accumulator, which consists of an electric machine having armature windings and a separate excitation, mahovikova motor and exciter.

The prototype is peculiar to the above-mentioned disadvantages of electrical power is IU, stored in the flywheel energy is not sufficient for the settlement of autonomy, as evidenced by the obligatory presence of links with a network of three-phase current or the traction battery.

Object of the invention to create a drive Autonomous vehicles, allowing the separation in time of processes and energy consumption to optimize these processes, to simplify the device and service transport, to improve the specific energy intensity and other characteristics of the transmission and mahovikova drive, to ensure autonomy, environmental and economical vehicles.

The goal is achieved by combining an organic whole and mutually complement of the properties and advantages of spermaholic, magnetic suspension, disk homopolar electric machine and contactless thermal emission power collection grid with control by analogy with trachelectomy lamp.

The invention consists in that the charge-discharge rotating body is made with one or two disk homopolar machines electromagnetic excitation and the energy storage in the form of tipping of spermaholic wound from high tenacity yarn. This vertically through the radial-axial magnetic suspension conductive shaft and located between the poles of the stator, General Central power collection disc homopolar machines made in the form of liquid metal contact associated with the control electromagnet with remote interrupt and resume as separate peripheral contacts are coated and include a stationary heated cathodes, placed in the annular undercut the stator magnetic circuit, the anodes formed by the edges of the anchor disk, and a control grid mounted between the anodes and cathodes.

The results of the patent search revealed no drive Autonomous vehicles with the proposed set of features.

Thus, in this case, the known elements combined with new contacts, give traction systems new properties, manifested in the positive effects resulting solution may be considered to involve an inventive step.

The drawing shows an electric drive, a longitudinal section through the axis of rotation of the rotor, with the use of AC machines as a traction motor.

Electric Autonomous vehicle consists of a sealed enclosure 1 power 2 and management 3 system is but fixed shaft 5.

On the shaft 5 fixedly mounted or turned at the same time the hub 6 tipping of spermaholics 7 and two disk-armature 8 two unipolar electrical machines electromagnetic excitation.

Spermaholic 7 coils of high-strength fibers, such as fiberglass, boron, keelara, graphite, quartz, polymers, etc. (Gulia N. Century energy storage. M. Nauka, 1980).

Anchor disks 8 are made of electrically conductive material, are positioned between the poles of magnetodiode (stator) 9 each of the electric machine and together with spermaholics 7 form a common rotor.

General Central liquid metal contact 10 is turned together with the shaft 5, has a minimum possible diameter and is located in an isolated glass 11. For him magnetodiode 9 includes an annular notch.

As liquid metal, providing a reliable Central power collection with rolling disk-armature 8 can be applied mercury, eutectic (alloy Na-R), indium, palladium, etc.

Most preferred is the use of alloy Na-K as providing minimum hydraulic losses, which are proportional to the peripheral speed of rotation in the third degree. Its chemical activeeye the contacts 12 each disk-armature 8 are contactless, based on thermoelectronic emission. The heated cathode 13 and the control grid 14 is stationary, located in the annular bore of magnetodiode 9, the anode is a peripheral part of the rolling disk-armature 8.

Inside the housing 1, a vacuum of about 10 mm RT.article In an environment such rarefied gas the electrons propagate freely, and the right value of the removed load current is provided by the estimated area of the heated cathode. To assess the possibilities of such a non-contact power collection table. 1 shows some common data types of cathodes.

For example, impresionant the cathode can give power collection 8 A/cm2at a temperature of 1000oC (Menke H. gundlah F. Radio directory, T. II, M-L. Gosenergoizdat, 1962, S. 45).

However, for the forced acceleration of the rotor and reduce the charge time can be applied advanced peripheral liquid metal contact, but in this case it must be interrupted and renewable (ed. St. USSR N 1450538, CL G 01 C 19/08, q 01 C 19/24, 1986).

To ensure they remain on the received location of the cathode 13 and the anode 8 in the charging and discharge cycles adopted by electromagnetic Sneem current in the field winding 15. I.e., the mode of operation (charging or Zasadny) of each disk-armature 8 at a constant direction of rotation is determined by the adjustable within wide limits current in the windings of the excitation 15, which are located on the inner side of the peripheral portion of the disc-armature 8.

Power pins 2 may be connected directly to the traction motor 16 drives, for example the motor-wheel, and management 3 control unit BU.

As a traction motor 16 can be accepted as a machine constant and alternating currents, which opens up opportunities for the designer.

Thus, both Autonomous vehicle consists of two simple bazookatone machines with a common shaft, each of which can operate as both a motor and generator together or separately in a wide range of regulation of its parameters, voltage, power, frequency, and type of current (AC or DC), and phase shift.

Food drive-armature 8 constant or variable (non-contact power collection of 12 works as a rectifier at a constant potential of the control grid 14) current from internal or external source through redcomet will be determined by the law of electromagnetic forces, the acceleration of the rotor.

The electromagnetic torque Medeveloped electric machine, the engine running, is proportional to the product of the current on the working magnetic flux1and electromotive force (EMF) induced in the disk-armature 8 of the generator is equal to or e =2i.e. proportional to the speed of rotation of the disk-armature 8 and penetrating its magnetic flux f2.

The nature and magnitude of the control potential of the grid 14 to the non-linear law will determine the nature and magnitude of the output voltage.

Despite the fact that, in principle, restrictions in obtaining the necessary capacity is not, in the General case described design should be considered as an element or several elements, a series-parallel connection which will allow you to get any range, intensity, voltage, current, and therefore power.

Magnetic suspension and deep vacuum inside the housing 1 will provide for the exclusion of losses by friction of moving parts, and a special version of spermaholic a relatively large maximum allowable rotor speed (up to 600-800 thousand rpm), which, in turn, will eliminate this disadvantage of the known unipolar electric is t, losses in "copper" will also be insignificant due to the low current density in the disk-anchor 8.

But the main thing is energy. Are given in table. 2 comparative characteristics of known energy storage show that the proposed actuator has the greatest intensity.

In addition twisted flywheel 7 in case of exceeding the maximum permissible speed goes down safely (shatterproof), smoothly thermoses of the housing 1.

It should be borne in mind that the energy intensity of 90 kW/h provides a modern car weighing 1 ton stock of about 450 km To its motion with a speed of 60 km/h the power required 5-6 HP when the weight of the power plant 30 40 kg. Life Makhovikov drives 5-6 times higher gasoline engine, and the efficiency of the car with a flywheel increases by more than 50% (Mani L. Transport, energy and the future. M. Mir, 1987, S. 52-56).

Electric Autonomous vehicle maintenance, constructive simplicity and relatively higher energy intensity has absolutely unique properties and can act as a battery, power Converter, power amplifier, rectifier, investorsites frequency, the frequency control and voltage, heat exchanger, power relay, variable transmission, filter, higher harmonic components, platform, etc. most of which can be used to improve the technical characteristics of the vehicles.

Applied to hirogaru the actuator is rigidly attached to the frame; in other cases, to exclude the effects of precession can be freely mounted on gimbaled, as it does not possess reactive torque.

In the charging mode, both the electric machine working as motors, providing acceleration of the flywheel and the accumulation of energy, which depends on its speed squared.

In bit mode by changing the direction of flow is smooth regulation traction control in accordance with the driving conditions.

In regenerative braking, one or both of the electric machine drive are the engine driving the rotor with the flywheel and generates electric power when the traction electric machine 16.

In the mode of constant floating one of the cars drive directly connected to the onboard power source which operates with maximum efficiency plucene cover peaks real load on the wheel.

Another machine drive works as a generator, feeding the traction motor 16, and when engine braking, advanced promotion of the flywheel.

If there is a mode of constant floating and on-Board charging power source is not provided, it is possible to simplify the described construction by eliminating one of the two electric machines electric drive, as all other modes, including regenerative braking, can provide one electric machine, a shaft which is rigidly connected with the hub of spermaholic.

As for the control unit (cu), the device will depend on the decision of the type of traction motor 16. The application of the DC machine will detect the presence of BU controllers DC and AC controllers frequency with exposure to the control grid 14 in the key or pulse-width mode.

Electric Autonomous vehicle containing mounted on a common shaft and connected with the driving wheels, continuously variable transmission traction motor, Makhovikov energy storage device and the charge-discharge rotating body, the latter two of which are placed in a sealed vacuuminsulated unipolar machines electromagnetic excitation, and the energy storage in the form of tipping of spermaholic wound from high tenacity yarn, and the armature disk homopolar machines turned for one with hub spermaholic or rigidly attached to the established vertically through the radial-axial magnetic suspension conductive shaft and located between the poles of the stators, the total Central power collection disc homopolar machines made in the form of liquid metal contact associated with the control electromagnet with remote interrupt and resume as separate peripheral contacts are coated and include a stationary heated cathodes, placed in the annular undercut the stator magnetic circuit, the anodes formed by the edges of the anchor disk, and control grid mounted between the anodes and cathodes.

 

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