Vacuum recipient for selective withdrawal of water from the surface layers of the reservoir
(57) Abstract:Usage: in hydraulic engineering in the operation of existing hydropower plants. The inventive construction consists of three main parts - ship-catamaran, water intake, assembled from separate "A" and "P"- shaped blocks into a single unit with a threshold overflow "G" - shaped. Before the vessel is a catamaran installed additional vessel, made in the form of a pontoon with a flat bottom /pontoon/ and having on each side of the bottom ribs. Pontoon is connected to the gates of the diversion Windows system of levers. This system incorporates a hydraulic cylinder. Pontoon and boat catamaran is connected in a hinged cover with wings. The recipient also has the seal. The recipient is provided a device capable of lowering the atmospheric pressure above the threshold Weir, made in the form of fan, built-in airtight overlap ship-catamaran. 5 Il. The invention relates to engineering and can be used in the operation of existing hydropower plants to align the temperature conditions of the upper and lower pools of the dams of hydroelectric power plants.Known turbine vodoo is wakamaru with trash bars and a working shutter, differs in that order approximation of the temperature regime of the river downstream to the natural in the avankamera is "D" shaped shutter with vertical movement as drawdown or filling of the reservoir, and a horizontal shelf shutter immersed in water and is directed towards the top of the water, and the bottom shutter is lowered below the threshold of avancuara. The conduit according to this invention does not provide a stable selective withdrawal of water from the surface layers of the reservoir, and therefore, does not provide alignment surface temperature conditions of the upper and lower pools for two reasons raising and lowering of the G-shaped shutter time may not coincide with the lifting and lowering of the water level upstream of the dam, and therefore, on the threshold of the Weir will constantly change the layer to remove water and therefore its temperature, which will not be close to the temperature of the surface layers of the water upstream, and the value of G shaped shutter depends on the magnitude of the actuation of the water elevations in the upstream and it can reach many tens of meters. There is another reason. This reason applies to all weirs and is in the form of an ox the exhaust water from the strata lying above the threshold, but below it, and it does not allow for precise alignment of temperature regimes of both pools.There is a method of increasing the capacity of the pressure conduit along. C. the USSR N 1335633 ( author C. D. hero, BI N 33, 1986) characterized in that to increase the efficiency of deformation of the downstream conduit is made of elastic material, and after attaching the nozzle to the end of the conduit to produce stretch its end parts in the horizontal direction, and then fix the end portion of the nozzle in this position. The same reasons discussed in the analysis of device A. with. N 746029 not allow to apply this method for solving the tasks.Closest to the technical essence of the present invention is an invention.with. USSR N 1700136 (BI N 47, 1991), the author, G. Ushakov). According to this invention, the receiving water for the abstraction of water from the surface layers of the reservoir, including penstock and installed on the guides vodopiine device, characterized in that to increase the efficiency in the operation of a water body provided with a serving vessel, and vodopiine the device is made from an individual who with adjustable buoyancy serving the recipient vessel is made in the form of a catamaran.This invention provides a clearer (selective) separation of the layers of water from the top of the water, as it provides a permanent fence stable layer of water on the threshold of a spill, regardless of size and speed trigger level of water upstream of the dam, however, as in the first invention, because the waveform of the Weir and its location at his threshold for the threshold to be some part of the "bottom" of the water, thereby distorting the surface temperature of dams dam.The purpose of the invention increase the efficiency in the work of mine floating intakes. This objective is achieved in that the vacuum recipient for selective withdrawal of water from the surface layers of the reservoir, including penstock with water Windows in its walls made with adjustable buoyancy and vodopriemnym device in the form of a threshold overflow rational profile, ship-catamaran, which is mounted penstock and pontoons on top of which is connected between a solid airtight ceiling, designed so that the valves are in the Marana and having buoyancy, independent of buoyancy of the vessel is a catamaran and pressure conduit and the space above the threshold of Weir and pipeline, limited on one side by the body of the dam, with another ship, the pontoons of a catamaran from the sides and overlapping the top, forms a water chamber that is airtight, and the catamaran is equipped with a device to allow the lowering of atmospheric pressure in the overflow chamber, made for example in the form of a fan installed in it airtight ceiling.Thus, the claimed solution differs from the prototype, therefore, it meets the criterion of "novelty". Comparison of the proposed solution not only prototype, but also other technical solutions in this field of technology has allowed to reveal in them the features distinguishing the claimed solution not only from the prototype, but the criterion of substantial novelty."In Fig. 1 shows the proposed recipient in the context of Fig. 2 a section along A-A in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 a section along B-B in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 section C-C in Fig. 1; Fig. 5 a section along d-D in Fig. 1. On the face of the dam-1, from the top of the water on both sides of the two hydrogens of one turbine set is United in the form of two pontoons, United airtight ceiling 4. Under the catamaran 3 is mounted a water body 5 with a threshold of Weir 6. In cross section the body of the recipient has a "P" or "A"shape, with its open side facing toward the dam body and the ends of the wings, through the rollers resting on the track 2. All construction of water intake and catamaran has a positive buoyancy and is connected in a single unit which can freely move up and down the rails 2. The thickness of the removable layer of water H is set by adjusting the buoyancy of the system. After installing the catamaran 4 and 5 in the recipient body of the dam and connecting them into a single whole in special tanks (quindici) catamaran 4 and receiving water 5 water is pumped, the structure loses some of its buoyancy and sinks to the level at which the layer of water above the threshold of Weir 6 reaches its maximum value of h After starting the turbine from quindell gradually removes part of the water and the whole structure emerges until then, until the threshold overflow does not form a minimal layer of water, which can provide the required flow rate of the turbine. Before catamaran is a boat 7 made, for example, in view of the t and its buoyancy is independent of the catamaran and the recipient, it is a system of levers 9 is connected to the gates of the diversion of the window 10 made in the body of the recipient. Open the window only if it is to disrupt the relative location of the pontoon 7 catamaran 4 or artificial change in the length of one of the levers 9, using a specially built with this system of hydraulic cylinder 15. Additional vessel 7 (pontoon) and intake box 10 provide a steady and stable location of all receiving waters in the dam body during emergency closures, gates, turbines, considerable excitement and upstream of the dam during emergency situations in turbines and their conduits. This system allows to carry out the repairs on emergency closures of water turbines, lattices and cheekbones water without stopping work on the full load of the neighboring turbines. This system allows you to choose these modes of operation in which the value of the removed layer of water from the top of the downstream dam will be the minimum for a given discharge through the turbine. None of the known device in the world that can provide no such stability, no such precision removal of the water layer, necessary for precise alignment of temperature regimes of both dams. So that would be excluding the aspects of the ship 7 ship-catamaran in addition to the levers 9 are connected by a casing 11, a hinge mounted on the vessel 7, and on the catamaran. The wings of the casing 12 is lowered below the water level in the reservoir. The recipient also has the seal 13. All this makes the area above the threshold overflow into the drain chamber catamaran isolated from the environment, and this, in turn, allows to reduce the atmospheric pressure above the threshold overflow and artificially "move" wave overflow threshold in the direction of the receiving water, thereby eliminating the cause of the leak on the threshold of the "bottom" of water. Lowering the pressure above the threshold may be implemented in a variety of ways, for example, by means of the fan 14, a built-in overlap 4 catamaran 3. So the difference between the atmospheric pressure outside and inside the drain chamber of the receiving water was constant and given, in the walls and ceiling of the drain cameras to be installed relief valve 16.Does the recipient as follows.Before opening the shutter of the conduit of the turbine ship-catamaran 4 and the receiving water 5, which in block form a single whole, penetrate to a maximum depth. The value of the lower layer from the top of the downstream dam, in the initial moment of the turbine, such obdi through the turbine. Additional boat (pontoon) 7, having independent from the recipient buoyancy remains on the surface of a pond, and, therefore, all water open water intakes are open to the maximum, i.e. the recipient in this moment "transparent". Through him may enter any amount of water to the turbine. His presence at the dam, at this point, no effect on the operation of the turbine does not have. This allows the water supply to the turbine blades in all modes start-up and operation. After the turbine is started and displayed in the specified operating modes, proceed to enter into the work of the recipient. First, the hydraulic cylinders 15 tightly closed intake box 10. Then removing water from the ballast chambers of the receiving water and catamaran raise the whole complex up until the flow of water through the Weir overflow will not sravnyatsya with the flow of water through the turbine. The speed of the flow through the Weir certainly increases, however, the alignment of the costs of water intake and the turbine does not give reason to believe that a layer of removed water from the top of the downstream dam is at this point is minimal. Typically, the distance between the water turbine is small, and because of the narrowness of the drain front and the significant costs of the turbine to receive GE overflow will shape not only the gravitational force, but for more power. These additional forces can significantly affect the magnitude of the flow velocity on the threshold of the Weir and be managed by a person, can only be a force of atmospheric pressure that occurs when the artificial provision of differences in atmospheric pressure before and after the spill.Design features of the proposed water intake allow you to perform this task. After spending the turbine and the water flow through the Weir overflow is balanced by natural means, included installation, lowering the atmospheric pressure inside the vessel is a catamaran over a drain camera, for example the fan 14. Changing its performance can be adjusted steplessly change in the difference of atmospheric pressure before and after the wave of Weir, gradually increasing the speed of the water at the threshold of the Weir, at a constant water flow through it, the flow is dictated by the flow rate of the turbine on the specified modes of operation, which reduces the amount of withdrawn water layer to the minimum, while ensuring long-term, sustainable, independent of any accidents, the turbine operation with simultaneous, almost perfect alignment temperature dir is the dams dams ice-free in winter polynya and all negative accompanying phenomena, to ensure biogenesis bottom pounds normal historical conditions of its existence, to provide a warm beaches in the summer near the dam, where it is needed, or the flow of heated water on the rice fields where currently spent for these purposes up to 30% of the available power plants, etc. Vacuum recipient for selective withdrawal of water from the surface layers of the reservoir, including penstock with water Windows in its walls made with adjustable buoyancy and vodopriemnym device in the form of a threshold overflow rational profile, the vessel is a catamaran, which is mounted penstock and pontoons on top of which is connected between a solid airtight overlap, wherein the gates of the diversion boxes conduit connected by a lever system with an additional vessel, installed ahead of the ship-catamaran and having a buoyancy independent of buoyancy of the vessel is a catamaran and pressure conduit and the space above the threshold of the Weir and the conduit, limited on one side by the body of the dam, with another ship, the pontoons of a catamaran from the sides and the ceiling above, forming a water chamber, which in the overflow chamber, performed, for example, in the form of a fan installed in it airtight overlap.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed for preventing getting of young fish into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield made in form of hollow guides arranged in tiers across water channels in depth with displacement of each upper tier towards diversion channel. It contains also perforated air duct located on bottom of water channel directly before said shield and train-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of channel in parallel with air duct and connected with outlet and device to let out young fish arranged in height of fish retaining shield. Guides of U-shaped are installed at angle to current of intake channel, their planes are perforated and open end part is pointed to bottom of water channel. Young fish let out device is made in form of perforated shields installed side guides for vertical displacement by drive in height of fish retaining shield relative to additional guides made from side of bank edges of intake channel. Perforation holes of shields and u-shaped guides do not coincide in light.
EFFECT: possibility of retaining and bringing young fish out of limits of influence of diversion facility.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in channel and made in form of perforated pipelines arranged in horizontal tiers along entire depth of channel and connected with source of working medium, perforated air duct placed on bottom of channel directly before shield and trash-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of shield parallel to perforated pipeline and air duct which is connected with fish outlet. Perforated pipelines are furnished with ejectors and fish gathering troughs. Ejectors are connected with pressure line of pump and are placed inside perforated pipelines and in communication with fish gathering troughs through perforation holes made in horizontal plane along both sides of pipelines, fish gathering troughs being rigidly fastened opposite to perforation holes. Inner space of fish gathering troughs is provided with longitudinal horizontal partitions dividing the troughs into separate fish intake parts. Surfaces of fish gathering troughs pointed to surface and to bottom of water channel are made perforated. Cross partitions found inside separate fish intake parts form fish intake channels. Initial part of fish outlet is made with fish intake pocket over entire depth of water channel. End face parts of perforated pipelines pointed to side of fish outlet communicate with inner space of pocket.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and removing of young fish over entire depth of water channel.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in water channel in tiers in depth of water channel with displacement of each higher tier to side of water intake channel, perforated air duct made in form of guides installed across water channel before shield on bottom of water channel, and trash-and-fish trough connected with fish outlet and arranged in upper part of shield parallel to air duct. Guides are made in form of flat plates rigidly installed at angle to flow in intake channel. Each plate is provided with horizontal axle in its upper part on which additional plate is secured from side of water intake channel for turning. Lower end face end of additional plate is provided with radial baffle whose surface has perforation holes. End face part of additional plates is provided with sector stopper from side of fish outlet, horizontal axles of plates being connected with drive. Additional plates can be perforated.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering; fish protective facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to draw off young fish from zone of influence of water diversion front. Method comes to ejecting young fish into intake part of ejecting plant from section of pond with higher concentration of young fish, creating active ejecting working stream in mixing chamber by entraining volume of water containing young fish into stream created by central ejecting hydraulic jet and further conveyance of water-fish mixture along pressure conduit into fish outlet. At the last stage of conveyance young fish is transported into fish outlet under no pressure conditions by forming hydraulic jet angle to trough of fish outlet, young fish being dropped on surface of fish outlet stream. Invention provides effective conditions for drawing off young fish into fish outlet and reduces damage to young fish. If working ejecting stream is preliminarily saturated with atmospheric air, its outer borders are saturated with air in form of finest microbubbles which form boundary layer ("air cushion") at contact with which young fish do not suffer from discomfort and easily take up hydrodynamic pressure built in mixing chamber. Moreover, provision of boundary layer saturated with microbubbles of air makes it possible to considerably reduce value of friction coupling of two streams, main getting from working nozzle and ejecting, containing young fish.
EFFECT: provision of good conditions for letting out young fish into fish outlet, reduced damage of young fish.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices protecting young fish and preventing their getting into diversion facility. Proposed fish protective facility includes filtering water-separating dam made in form of vertical water-separating wall arranged along water intake channel and separating inlet part of channel from water conduit, device for preliminary drawing off young fish made in form of vertical rod installed for rotation by drive arranged before water-separating wall from its end face part pointed opposite to water flow. Rod is displaced relative to water-separating wall towards water intake channel. Device for preliminary drawing off young fish is furnished with additional means to increase fish draw-off effect, said means being made in from of flat round disks rigidly secured in height of rod coaxially with rod. Disks are installed parallel to each other forming slot water intake channels. End face part of water-separating wall adjoining the rod is provided with slots located opposite to planes of arrangement of disks. Disks are installed for free passing relative to slots. Invention provides higher efficiency of drawing off young fish out limits of zone of influence of diversion facility owing to provision of disks considerably increasing area of contact with surrounding medium and creating powerful circulation flow providing diversion of young fish and trash entrained by water behind outer surface of dam.
EFFECT: provision of effective conditions for drawing off young fish out of limits of zone of influence of diversion facility.
15 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.
24 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.
EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.
27 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.
EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering and water supply.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to prevent getting of young fish into diversion at water supply of objects from fishery rivers. Proposed water intake has massive head with crushed stone or stone cushioning layer, filtering cassettes on water intake hole with filtering charge, water intake bell connected with gravity or siphon water conduit. Charge of filtering cassettes is floating, made of different-diameter ball elements of positive fall diameter. Racks are installed in upper and lower parts of filtering cassettes horizontally. Distance between bars of racks is less than diameter of ball elements of floating filtering charge. Distance between upper and lower racks is 30-40% greater than thickness of charge layer which should be not less than 400 mm. Protection is provided by scaring young fish at active movement of ball elements of floating filtering charge in cassettes between upper and lower racks at hydrodynamic action of flow of water getting into water intake, and owing to mechanical prevention of getting of young fish into charge.
EFFECT: improved reliability of water intake in operation, reduced energy consumption at back flushing.