The rotation mechanism
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to a lifting technique. The inventive turning mechanism includes serially connected between the hydraulic motor 1, the brake clutch, planetary gear and the output link with the gear rotation faucet designs. To improve the manufacturability of a design and its reliability and durability transition coupling connection of the shaft of the motor shaft and the sun gear of the gearbox is made of a composite of the two sleeves 11 and 12 with slots, kinematically interconnected, drove 17 of the first planetary series is made with slots having the same involute profile, and the crown of the sun gear 18 of the second planetary series, the crown gear is made in a single unit and are part of the mechanism housing and the piston of the brake clutch is made with two cavities, one of which management and other compensation to equalize the residual discharge pressure, acting on the piston when the brake is being applied. For each of the bearings and gears of the planetary gear unit is a separate lubricating bath. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to hoisting equipment, per hour is ten turning mechanism, contains associated with engine-driven input shaft connected with a sun wheel which, through satellites, the crown wheel of the planetary gear and clutch is connected with the output shaft bearing output gear, gear with the response element rotatable design (see SU, author's certificate N 424804, B 66 C 23/84, 1974).The design of this rotation mechanism is an example of a conventional design, which is based on the principle of functioning of the mechanism. In this regard, for solving the problem of maintainability all nodes mechanism interconnected connect couplings shafts. As such, the mechanism is a spatially distributed system with high mass-dimensional parameters.Known for turning mechanism containing attached to the housing of the drive motor, the shaft of which is managed through the brake clutch is connected to the housing of the mechanism, double row planetary gear, made in a stationary housing and including a sun gear of the first planetary number associated with the shaft of the motor and geared via satellite with a crown gear this number associated with the case, the sun gear of the second vtorogo planetary series associated with the case, and the satellites of the second stage is kinematically connected with a freely mounted relative to the housing output link on which is mounted output gear (see DE, application N 2601244, B 66 C 23/84, 1977 ).Known for turning mechanism is a technologically elaborate design with a high level of maintainability. In this design uses a planetary gear type, Ab1h1a2Ah2h2a2Refer to links of planetary alignments made in accordance with the used in the "Planetary gear", reference book edited by D. T. N. C. N. Kudryavtseva and Y. N. Kardashev. L. engineering, Leningrad branch, 1977.Technical solution for C. Germany is taken as a prototype.Analyzing the design of the planetary gear unit according to the known mechanism of rotation in the prototype, it is seen that in this construction have led to the first and second planetary gear sets. In this design was taken as an element allows you to keep the orientation of the satellites in the axial (longitudinal) and radial (transverse) directions. When this was taken the first row still has the function of transmitting torque. To perform the SLA type, therefore the sun gear is splined cutting profile of the teeth other than involute. The production of a part with two different types of meats (involute and slotted) causes certain difficulties, as it does not allow you to use one tool or make cuts in one pass. The same applies to the execution of the transition bushing, connecting the shaft of the motor with a sun gear of the first planetary series. Transition sleeve connecting the shaft of the motor and the high-speed pinion shaft is splined, as a rule, different diameter (on the basis of different conditions of stress), as the shaft of the motor General purpose designed not only for torque, and bending loads (case of the cantilever mounting of the gear hub and the other on the shaft of the motor). And high-speed shaft-gear (sun gear) of the planetary gear loaded only torque. Manufacturer of bushings with different spline on the inner diameter is very difficult, because it does not allow to use the drawing as the most productive tool for the slots of larger diameter and requires a process of chiselling slots, which reduces the quality avoluntary slots on the size of the spline shaft of the motor, possible, i.e. you can choose the slots of the same size, but larger diameter, but this leads to an increase of the diameter of the high-speed shaft and the Central gear low speed gear and, consequently, to increase the size and weight of the gearbox.In addition, the high-speed shaft of the first planetary series is mounted in the transition coupling with bolt connection. Due to the fact that the shaft is exposed to dynamic and vibration loads, is spontaneous loosening of the bolt. It is therefore necessary periodically to monitor the connection. While carrying out this operation without disassembly of the motor and the brake clutch is difficult, because the connection is spatially inaccessible for visual inspection.Brake clutch is made hydraulically operated. The inclusion of the braking mode is carried out under the action of a spring which presses the piston against the friction disks, and off the brake mode is carried out by applying the operating pressure in the control cavity of the piston. The disadvantage of this design is that the discharge of fluid from the control cavity in the latter may be some residual pressure in hydraulic systems pressure Sewanee brake mechanism of the rotation.The location of the bearings of the elements of the planetary gear and the output gear is determined by the design parameters of the elements themselves. In this regard, not all bearings are positioned at the same level in order to ensure lubrication of the total oil bath. Typically, bearings gearboxes are lubricated from a single bath in the cavity of the gear housing. And depending on the mode of loading for each bearing must get the grease (or a thick liquid), in which the bearing is designed.These shortcomings in the design of the gear and the rotation mechanism are generally a result of the implementation of the principle of functional building design, based on the creation of a kinematic chain that implements the rotation and torque transmission, but without taking into account the fact that this chain consists of individual nodes, each of which can reliably operate only in those conditions for which it is designed. "In addition, the production of some elements of the gearbox time consuming, as the latter must not be processed with one tool, and several that indicates a structural lack of data seeduwa technical challenges: improving the manufacturability of the transition shliovalnoy sleeve, due drove with the sun gears, crown gears and reliability of operation due to changes in brake clutch (exception mode spontaneous release), changes in the structure of the fixing bolt connection speed shaft of the first planetary series and separation of mesoamericana for specific groups of bearings. Achievable technical result consists in the improved performance of the rotation mechanism and increase its durability.This technical result is achieved in that the rotation mechanism containing attached to the housing drive the hydraulic motor, the shaft of which is managed through the brake clutch is connected to the housing of the mechanism, double row planetary gear, made in a stationary housing and including a sun gear of the first planetary number associated transition splined coupling with the shaft of the motor and geared via satellite with a crown gear this number associated with the case, the sun gear of the second planetary number associated with the planet carrier of the first series and is geared through another satellite with a crown gear of the second planetary number associated with the case, and what about the number of connected splined connection with a sun wheel of the second row, and the satellites of the second row drove through kinematically connected with a freely mounted relative to the housing output link on which is mounted the output ' gear, transition splined clutch made of the main sleeve slotted area on the inner surface for connection with the shaft of the motor and the splines on the outer surface for mounting brake friction discs of the clutch, the piston of the hydraulic cylinder which is spring-loaded in the direction of compression disks when the pressure drops below the specified level in the control cavity, and an additional sleeve with splines on the inner surface for connection with the shaft sun gear of the first planetary series installed inside the main sleeve and associated fixation against rotation and the locking ring against axial displacement, which is a stopper for axial fixation of the bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series, with the crown gear is made in a single unit, and the splines pinion carrier of the first planetary series represent a toothed involute profile of the sun gear and meshed directly with the ring gear of the latter.In addition, the brake clutch is made of compensatory control of Palast the ion cavity communicated with the drain line.In addition, washer bolt fixing shaft sun gear relative to the additional sleeves are made conical to contact when tightening its internal conical surface with the conical surface of the bolt head.In addition, the bearing shaft, output gear with two sides closed cuffs for education reported with a separate oil cavity is filled with grease, and avoid leakage of liquid lubricant from the oil bath in the cavity of the gearbox, and the seal and bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series is also communicated with a separate lubricator.These characteristics are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable set of essential features, sufficient to obtain the desired technical result.Thus, the execution of the transition splined couplings in the form of two simple sleeves, each of which can be done technologically productive and simple method of drawing, reduces the complexity of manufacturing. This increases the quality of the profile slots and reduces the time to manufacture.To reduce the complexity of the manufacturing process as solar sixth is Filia, that of the ring gear of this gear. There is no need to manufacture the shaft sun gear separate slotted section. These features enhance the manufacturability of the design.The combination lock ring for locking bushings between themselves and for the axial fastening of the bearing fast speed and execution crown gears in a single unit allows to simplify the design and increase its reliability by minimizing locking in the axial direction of the elements and body parts and thereby reduce mass-dimensional indicators of the rotation mechanism.The locking bolt fixing shaft speed stage conical washer excludes the unwinding of the bolt due to vibration and alternating dynamic loads. This is a necessary condition, as the bolt is in the closed space is not available for visual inspection.Perform brake normally-closed clutch double chamber with the management and compensation cavities increases the reliability of the brakes and the safety of operation of the rotation mechanism, since it excludes the modes of spontaneous release of the brakes due to the presence in allows to increase the reliability and extend the service life of the mechanism as a whole.The present invention is illustrated by a specific example, which, however, is not only possible, but clearly demonstrates the possibility of achieving the specified set of features of the desired technical effect.In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the cargo winch of Fig.2 attachment shaft speed planetary range in the transition coupling.The rotation mechanism (see Fig.1) comprises a drive of the hydraulic motor 1, the flange 2 is attached to the housing 3 brake clutch comprising friction discs 4, some of which are associated with the casing brake clutch, piston and bogatogo in the direction of the friction disk springs 6 and forming with the walls of the casing two cavities, one of which is managing 7 communicated with the working line 8 discharge circuit, and the other is compensation 9. Both the cavity mode plum communicated with each other to equalize the pressure acting on the piston from both sides. It is possible that one of the cavities has been reported with the discharge circuit, and the other with the drain line. Both the scheme and the inclusion on such a result is equivalent. Due to the fact that in hydraulic systems pressure discharge lines is not equal to zero (0,2-0,3 I avoid this effect, provided the compensation cavity, communicated with the drain. In this case, the discharge of the working fluid from the control cavity installed in it, the residual pressure is balanced by the same pressure in the compensation chamber, placed on the other side of the piston.The design of the brake piston coupling mechanism of rotation can be calculated so that the off brakes occurred at a pressure equal to 1.0-1.5 MPa, as off the brakes comes from the pressure in the working line 8 pressure circuit. Such pressure occurs in the system when running idle. It should be enough to turn off the brake clutch. However, it is not mandatory, but is a specific example for illustration.The shaft of the motor is connected with the high-speed shaft, made in one piece with the sun gear 10 of the first planetary series reducer, transition splined coupling. Transition coupling connecting the shaft of the motor and the high-speed shaft speed planetary gearbox, typically in the form of a sleeve having slots of different diameters, according to different conditions of stress. Thus, the shaft of the motor General purpose designed not only for the transmission of torque moments shaft gear loaded only torque. Therefore, the splines of the shaft have a smaller diameter.Manufacturer of bushings with different spline on the inner diameter is very difficult, because it does not allow to use the drawing as the most productive tool for the slots of larger diameter and requires a process of chiselling slots, which reduces the quality involute profile.Therefore, in the proposed design of the transition coupling is made of a composite of the main sleeve 11, which linked the other friction disk brake clutch, and an additional sleeve 12, interconnected by three dowels (not shown) on the surface of the coupling made integral with the sleeve 12. This design allows the internal splines on both sleeves with tech tool broaches. Both sleeve composite transition couplings for exceptions axial displacement are connected together by a retaining ring 13, which is also a stop for the bearing 14 high-speed shaft of the gear 10.Planetary double row reducer mounted on bearings 14 and 15, contains the first high-speed planetary range, formed by the sun gear 10 on the high-speed shaft, geared sat with the m 17 of the first series and is geared with 19 satellites on a movable drive rod 20, associated with the body part 3. The satellites each number entered in engagement with the corresponding stationary crown gear, made in the form of a single block 21, which is also part of the gear of the rotation.Execution crown gears in a single unit increases the maintainability of the planetary gear mechanism rotate, as it is easily removed node, for dismantling which there is no need to disassemble the entire mechanism of rotation, and is enough to remove the end caps 22 and 23. In this case, easier access to gear from any planetary series.Internal sun gear 18 is connected kinematically with the speed of the planet carrier 17. In the design of the known solutions for prototype profile, gear (number of teeth, module, etc.) and the profile of the slots of this gear is different, that it is expedient from the point of view of ravnopravnosti, but ethnologica from the point of view of the complexity of the manufacturing process. In the proposed construction of the gear involute profile sun gear 18 simultaneously performs the role of SPL, which improves the manufacturability of the part. Took 17 runs with slots of the same involute profile that DNAM link represents a shaft 24 mounted in the thrust bearing 25, with two Staron closed cuffs 26 and 27, and the output gear 28, kinematically linked to the response element of the rotatable structure (not shown).For special locking bolt 29 high-speed shaft sun gear 10 with respect to the additional sleeve 12 (see Fig.2) use a specially profiled conical washer 30 having an inner conical section, the surface which is in contact with the conical surface of the head of the bolt when tightening, which prevents loosening of the bolt. This is a necessary condition, as the bolt 29 is in the closed space is not available for visual inspection.Special attention in the design of the mechanism of rotation given to the modes of lubrication of the bearings and elements of the gear engaged in the transmission of torque.Lubrication of the gears and gearing lubrication of the bearing 15 led 20 of the second planetary series is produced by the splashing of the oil bath in the cavity of the housing by the capture of the gear teeth portions of the oil. Such liquid lubricant is convenient and acceptable to the gears of the planetary type. And since the bearing 1 is not and then separated by the walls of the carrier 17 from the cavity gearboxes in which there is a spray lubricant, to minimize the wear track friction cuff 31 and for lubrication of the bearing 14 has a separate nipple 32. The bearing. 25 of the output shaft 24 is located in the cavity, in which zapressovyvajutsja grease. The bearing 25 with two sides closed cuffs 26 and 27, which prevent the penetration of dirt into the bearing and at the same time are double protection against leakage (seal) of liquid lubricant from the main cavity of the gearbox. Separate to this bearing lubricator 33 is located in a recess in the housing and does not extend beyond the dimensions of the landing surface. In the same technological deepening mounted drain fitting 34. This arrangement creates convenience for mounting the gear on the rotary platform of the crane. The tube 35 is designed for Gulf oil in the gearbox and control its level. Performing for each bearing and the group of units of gear separately isolated cavities with self lubrication allows you to create the optimal conditions of operation of these elements, for which they are designed. In this case, significantly increases the durability of the structure as a whole.The present invention allows to obtain a rotation mechanism with improved performance and increased naletili speed planetary range with a sun gear of the low speed planetary range, B block crown gears and recordatorio lubrication bearings. The design of the turning mechanism adaptable and maintainable. 1. The rotation mechanism containing attached to the housing drive the hydraulic motor, the shaft of which is managed through the brake clutch is connected to the housing of the mechanism, double row planetary gear, made in a stationary housing and including a sun gear of the first planetary number associated transition splined coupling with the shaft of the motor and geared via satellite with a crown gear this number associated with the case, the sun gear of the second planetary number associated with the planet carrier of the first series and is geared through another satellite with a crown gear of the second planetary number associated with the case, and drove planetary alignments for transverse and longitudinal orientation of the satellites, moreover, the carrier of the first planetary series connected splined connection with a sun wheel of the second row, and the satellites of the second row drove through kinematically connected with a freely mounted relative to the housing output link on which is mounted output gear, wherein the transition splined clutch completed the external surface for mounting brake friction discs of the clutch, the piston of the hydraulic cylinder which is spring-loaded in the direction of compression disks when the pressure drops below a specified level in the control cavity, and an additional sleeve with splines on the inner surface for connection with the shaft sun gear of the first planetary series, installed inside the main sleeve and associated fixation against rotation and the locking ring against axial displacement, which is a stopper for axial fixation of the bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series, with the crown gear is made in a single unit, and the splines pinion carrier of the first planetary series represent a toothed involute profile of the sun gear and meshed directly with the ring gear of the latter.2. The mechanism under item 1, characterized in that the brake clutch is made of a compensation control cavity located on the side of the piston opposite to the location of the control cavity, while the compensation cavity is communicated with the drain line.3. The mechanism under item 1, characterized in that washer bolt fixing shaft sun gear relative to the additional sleeves are made conical to contact when tightening its vnutrennya fact, the bearing shaft, output gear with two sides closed cuffs for education reported with a separate oil cavity is filled with grease, and avoid leakage of liquid lubricant from the oil bath in the cavity of the gearbox, and the seal and bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series is also communicated with a separate lubricator.
FIELD: materials handling facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for taking loose materials from pile and stowing them in layers differing in content of useful component in each layer with simultaneous averaging in process of taking material from pile and it can be used in open stores. Proposed loose material stower-gripper has boom of gripper and boom of stower of lift-lower type turnable in horizontal plane by slewing circle installed on base and drives to turn booms of gripper and stower. Slewing circle is made in form of fixed rings rigidly secured to each other and to frame of base, two coaxially arranged movable rings with gear rims resting of fixed rings through solids of revolution. Movable rings are non-connected mechanically, one movable ring being furnished with external teeth rim coupled with gripper boom turning drive, and the other is provided with internal teeth rim coupled with stower boom turning drive. Each toothed rim has independent self-contained system to regulate geometrical parameters of mating of solids of revolution with movable and fixed rings. Base be made in form of self-propelled chassis or stationary portal. Gripper boom has gripping member of rotary or scraper type.
EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions of stower-gripper, facilitated maintenance.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, processing apparatuses for tree harvesting machine used in tree felling and bunching equipment.
SUBSTANCE: supporting-rotating apparatus has base and rotary platform between which are positioned three rotating wheels and two intermediate members, said intermediate members being mounted between rotating wheels. Central brake is installed on rotary platform and is cooperating with base through joining link which is connected with its upper end through Hooke's universal joint and central brake to rotary platform and with its lower end through the same Hooke's universal joint to base. Link is adapted for changing its length by means of, for example, splined joint. Intermediate and lower rotary wheels are equipped with brakes. Intermediate rotary wheel brake is mounted on upper intermediate member. Lower rotary wheel brake is mounted on lower intermediate member. Rotary wheels are arranged at an angle with respect to each other. On rotation of rotary platform, rotation mechanism cooperates with one of rotary wheels. During operation on slopes, individual members of apparatus are rotated to thereby level rotary platform until it is rotated and set in horizontal plane.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by employing machine for felling and bunching trees on uneven felling areas and on slopes, reduced labor intensity, and provision for creating comfortable working conditions for operators.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to slewing circles of cranes and other load-lifting machines. Proposed slewing circle consists of fixed and movable upper and lower races interconnected by bolts, and solids of revolution placed in between. Lower movable race is connected with gasket made of high-strength material installed from lower side of race. Said gasket can be sectional, with butts located in non-loaded zones and can be secured by bolts or glue.
EFFECT: increased durability of slewing circle.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; tower cranes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of tightening bolts or nuts of larger-size bolted joints. Method includes manual turning in and off of bolt of bolted joint by rotating bolt head by lever wrench until definite axial force appears in threaded joint with subsequent tightening of bolt by mechanical tightening member. Prior to tightening bolt or prior to its backing off, wrench is connected with first bolt of bolted joint of slewing circle, and then lever of member is connected with second bolt of bolted joint, then lever of member and lever of wrench are connected in plane of arrangement of bolt heads. Wrench and member lever are locked to prevent displacement in vertical direction, and then distance between lever of wrench and second bolt of bolted joint is decreased or increased. Invention provides three design versions of device for implementing the method.
EFFECT: provision of compact device for use in confined spaces.
5 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: materials handling facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to turntables of cranes and other load lifting machines. Proposed turntable consists of fixed and movable upper and lower rings and roller solids of revolution arranged in cress-cross manner and installed in raceways. Ring step formed on raceways by rollers worn along ring is eliminated by sphere of ball solids of revolution installed between roller solids of revolution.
EFFECT: increased service life turntable.
FIELD: forest engineering.
SUBSTANCE: supporting-and-rotating apparatus has roller-type rotating support having lower immovable part rigidly fixed on frame of self-propelled chassis and equipped with toothed crown on its inner circumference. Rotating platform is rigidly fixed on upper movable part of support and handler is mounted on said platform. Rotation mechanism for rotating platform with handler in horizontal plane relative to frame of self-propelled chassis is also fixed on movable part of support. Platform rotation mechanism has engine and reducer with drive gear rigidly fixed on output shaft, said drive gear being meshed with toothed crown of immovable part. Device for shifting of cantilever of drive gear shaft is made in the form of U-shaped frame whose sides are extending in horizontal plane, have different lengths and are equipped with openings wherein drive shaft with drive gear is introduced through bearing units. U-shaped frame is joined with its longer side to rotating platform.
EFFECT: elimination of misalignment in drive gear and toothed crown teeth meshing to thereby enhance reliability and prolong service life of apparatus.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in devices designed for providing turns in horizontal or vertical planes. Proposed turning drive contains motor with brake, reduction gear, friction mechanism to limit maximum torque on reduction gear shaft and differential mechanism, all mounted on support and turnable (movable) parts of object. Motor is connected with input shaft of reduction gear on output shaft of which ring main gear is secured, being in meshing with gear rim. Differential mechanism is made in form of planetary train with epicyclic gear, sun gear, carrier and planet pinions. Sun gear is connected with motor shaft, carrier is connected with input shaft of reduction gear, and epicyclic gear is mechanically coupled with said friction mechanism through gearing.
EFFECT: improved dynamic and service characteristics of turning drive.
9 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in devices designed for turning in a horizontal or vertical plane. The turn drive contains a tooth rim meshing with two identical main gears; the said rim is assembled on a turning portion of the object, this turning portion is installed with a support component on the base whereon an electric motor, a brake mechanism and a reducer are arranged. The electric motor via a coupling is connected to an input shaft of the reducer which includes a frictional mechanism to limit a maximum torque at the input shaft of the reducer, self braking worm gear and two differential mechanisms. Each of the differential mechanisms is made as a planetary drive equipped with an epicyclic gear, a sun gear, a carrier and satellites. One of the main gears is secured to the shaft made as one whole with the carrier of the first planetary gear, the axis of which is geometrically coupled with the central axis of the latter. The other main gear is fixed on the shaft installed in the case of the reducer; whereon the gear is attached meshing with the gear made as one whole with the epicyclic gear of the first planetary gear mechanism. The sun gear of the second planetary gear mechanism is connected to the shaft of the motor; epicyclic gear of the planetary gear mechanism by means of tooth meshing is kinematically tied to the above said friction mechanism. The sun gear of the first planetary gear mechanism is secured on the shaft which is kinematically tied with the carrier of the second planetary gear mechanism via the said self braking worm gear.
EFFECT: increased reliability of operation, improvement of dynamic and operational characteristics of a turn drive.
6 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: slewing ring contains fixed and movable rings with running paths contacting with rolling bodies located between them. Cross-section of running paths profile represents square equally inclined to ring base, with radial recesses made on each of its sides, and running paths consist of 8 rectilinear and 4 radial surfaces located along diameter of ring running paths centre. In running paths with rectilinear surfaces rolling bodies of roller-type are installed, and between them/in running paths with radial surfaces - rolling bodies of ball-type, at that, balls diameter exceeds rollers diameter.
EFFECT: increase of load-carrying capability of running paths and lowering of contact loads.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: support-rotating device (SRD) incorporates rotary-roller support with its lower part rigidly attached to the self-propelled chassis frame and furnished gear ring arranged along its outer edge, and its upper movable part accommodating platform rigidly fixed thereon. The platform supports manipulator and mechanism to turn the said platform with the manipulator horizontally and relative to the self-propelled chassis frame, the latter being furnished with a motor and a reduction gear with its output shaft provided with a drive gear in mesh with the aforesaid gear ring of the support fixed part. A rotary plate is fitted on the reduction gear output shaft, furnished with additional gears driven from the drive gear via a flexible link, e.g. a roller chain and lantern gears, one of them being fitted on the drive gear shaft, the others on the additional gear shafts. The said additional gears are in mesh with the fixed support gear ring.
EFFECT: longer life of SRD and machine proper.
4 cl, 2 dwg