The rotation mechanism

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to a lifting technique. The inventive turning mechanism includes serially connected between the hydraulic motor 1, the brake clutch, planetary gear and the output link with the gear rotation faucet designs. To improve the manufacturability of a design and its reliability and durability transition coupling connection of the shaft of the motor shaft and the sun gear of the gearbox is made of a composite of the two sleeves 11 and 12 with slots, kinematically interconnected, drove 17 of the first planetary series is made with slots having the same involute profile, and the crown of the sun gear 18 of the second planetary series, the crown gear is made in a single unit and are part of the mechanism housing and the piston of the brake clutch is made with two cavities, one of which management and other compensation to equalize the residual discharge pressure, acting on the piston when the brake is being applied. For each of the bearings and gears of the planetary gear unit is a separate lubricating bath. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to hoisting equipment, per hour is ten turning mechanism, contains associated with engine-driven input shaft connected with a sun wheel which, through satellites, the crown wheel of the planetary gear and clutch is connected with the output shaft bearing output gear, gear with the response element rotatable design (see SU, author's certificate N 424804, B 66 C 23/84, 1974).

The design of this rotation mechanism is an example of a conventional design, which is based on the principle of functioning of the mechanism. In this regard, for solving the problem of maintainability all nodes mechanism interconnected connect couplings shafts. As such, the mechanism is a spatially distributed system with high mass-dimensional parameters.

Known for turning mechanism containing attached to the housing of the drive motor, the shaft of which is managed through the brake clutch is connected to the housing of the mechanism, double row planetary gear, made in a stationary housing and including a sun gear of the first planetary number associated with the shaft of the motor and geared via satellite with a crown gear this number associated with the case, the sun gear of the second vtorogo planetary series associated with the case, and the satellites of the second stage is kinematically connected with a freely mounted relative to the housing output link on which is mounted output gear (see DE, application N 2601244, B 66 C 23/84, 1977 ).

Known for turning mechanism is a technologically elaborate design with a high level of maintainability. In this design uses a planetary gear type, Ab1h1a2Ah2h2a2Refer to links of planetary alignments made in accordance with the used in the "Planetary gear", reference book edited by D. T. N. C. N. Kudryavtseva and Y. N. Kardashev. L. engineering, Leningrad branch, 1977.

Technical solution for C. Germany is taken as a prototype.

Analyzing the design of the planetary gear unit according to the known mechanism of rotation in the prototype, it is seen that in this construction have led to the first and second planetary gear sets. In this design was taken as an element allows you to keep the orientation of the satellites in the axial (longitudinal) and radial (transverse) directions. When this was taken the first row still has the function of transmitting torque. To perform the SLA type, therefore the sun gear is splined cutting profile of the teeth other than involute. The production of a part with two different types of meats (involute and slotted) causes certain difficulties, as it does not allow you to use one tool or make cuts in one pass. The same applies to the execution of the transition bushing, connecting the shaft of the motor with a sun gear of the first planetary series. Transition sleeve connecting the shaft of the motor and the high-speed pinion shaft is splined, as a rule, different diameter (on the basis of different conditions of stress), as the shaft of the motor General purpose designed not only for torque, and bending loads (case of the cantilever mounting of the gear hub and the other on the shaft of the motor). And high-speed shaft-gear (sun gear) of the planetary gear loaded only torque. Manufacturer of bushings with different spline on the inner diameter is very difficult, because it does not allow to use the drawing as the most productive tool for the slots of larger diameter and requires a process of chiselling slots, which reduces the quality avoluntary slots on the size of the spline shaft of the motor, possible, i.e. you can choose the slots of the same size, but larger diameter, but this leads to an increase of the diameter of the high-speed shaft and the Central gear low speed gear and, consequently, to increase the size and weight of the gearbox.

In addition, the high-speed shaft of the first planetary series is mounted in the transition coupling with bolt connection. Due to the fact that the shaft is exposed to dynamic and vibration loads, is spontaneous loosening of the bolt. It is therefore necessary periodically to monitor the connection. While carrying out this operation without disassembly of the motor and the brake clutch is difficult, because the connection is spatially inaccessible for visual inspection.

Brake clutch is made hydraulically operated. The inclusion of the braking mode is carried out under the action of a spring which presses the piston against the friction disks, and off the brake mode is carried out by applying the operating pressure in the control cavity of the piston. The disadvantage of this design is that the discharge of fluid from the control cavity in the latter may be some residual pressure in hydraulic systems pressure Sewanee brake mechanism of the rotation.

The location of the bearings of the elements of the planetary gear and the output gear is determined by the design parameters of the elements themselves. In this regard, not all bearings are positioned at the same level in order to ensure lubrication of the total oil bath. Typically, bearings gearboxes are lubricated from a single bath in the cavity of the gear housing. And depending on the mode of loading for each bearing must get the grease (or a thick liquid), in which the bearing is designed.

These shortcomings in the design of the gear and the rotation mechanism are generally a result of the implementation of the principle of functional building design, based on the creation of a kinematic chain that implements the rotation and torque transmission, but without taking into account the fact that this chain consists of individual nodes, each of which can reliably operate only in those conditions for which it is designed. "In addition, the production of some elements of the gearbox time consuming, as the latter must not be processed with one tool, and several that indicates a structural lack of data seeduwa technical challenges: improving the manufacturability of the transition shliovalnoy sleeve, due drove with the sun gears, crown gears and reliability of operation due to changes in brake clutch (exception mode spontaneous release), changes in the structure of the fixing bolt connection speed shaft of the first planetary series and separation of mesoamericana for specific groups of bearings. Achievable technical result consists in the improved performance of the rotation mechanism and increase its durability.

This technical result is achieved in that the rotation mechanism containing attached to the housing drive the hydraulic motor, the shaft of which is managed through the brake clutch is connected to the housing of the mechanism, double row planetary gear, made in a stationary housing and including a sun gear of the first planetary number associated transition splined coupling with the shaft of the motor and geared via satellite with a crown gear this number associated with the case, the sun gear of the second planetary number associated with the planet carrier of the first series and is geared through another satellite with a crown gear of the second planetary number associated with the case, and what about the number of connected splined connection with a sun wheel of the second row, and the satellites of the second row drove through kinematically connected with a freely mounted relative to the housing output link on which is mounted the output ' gear, transition splined clutch made of the main sleeve slotted area on the inner surface for connection with the shaft of the motor and the splines on the outer surface for mounting brake friction discs of the clutch, the piston of the hydraulic cylinder which is spring-loaded in the direction of compression disks when the pressure drops below the specified level in the control cavity, and an additional sleeve with splines on the inner surface for connection with the shaft sun gear of the first planetary series installed inside the main sleeve and associated fixation against rotation and the locking ring against axial displacement, which is a stopper for axial fixation of the bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series, with the crown gear is made in a single unit, and the splines pinion carrier of the first planetary series represent a toothed involute profile of the sun gear and meshed directly with the ring gear of the latter.

In addition, the brake clutch is made of compensatory control of Palast the ion cavity communicated with the drain line.

In addition, washer bolt fixing shaft sun gear relative to the additional sleeves are made conical to contact when tightening its internal conical surface with the conical surface of the bolt head.

In addition, the bearing shaft, output gear with two sides closed cuffs for education reported with a separate oil cavity is filled with grease, and avoid leakage of liquid lubricant from the oil bath in the cavity of the gearbox, and the seal and bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series is also communicated with a separate lubricator.

These characteristics are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable set of essential features, sufficient to obtain the desired technical result.

Thus, the execution of the transition splined couplings in the form of two simple sleeves, each of which can be done technologically productive and simple method of drawing, reduces the complexity of manufacturing. This increases the quality of the profile slots and reduces the time to manufacture.

To reduce the complexity of the manufacturing process as solar sixth is Filia, that of the ring gear of this gear. There is no need to manufacture the shaft sun gear separate slotted section. These features enhance the manufacturability of the design.

The combination lock ring for locking bushings between themselves and for the axial fastening of the bearing fast speed and execution crown gears in a single unit allows to simplify the design and increase its reliability by minimizing locking in the axial direction of the elements and body parts and thereby reduce mass-dimensional indicators of the rotation mechanism.

The locking bolt fixing shaft speed stage conical washer excludes the unwinding of the bolt due to vibration and alternating dynamic loads. This is a necessary condition, as the bolt is in the closed space is not available for visual inspection.

Perform brake normally-closed clutch double chamber with the management and compensation cavities increases the reliability of the brakes and the safety of operation of the rotation mechanism, since it excludes the modes of spontaneous release of the brakes due to the presence in allows to increase the reliability and extend the service life of the mechanism as a whole.

The present invention is illustrated by a specific example, which, however, is not only possible, but clearly demonstrates the possibility of achieving the specified set of features of the desired technical effect.

In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the cargo winch of Fig.2 attachment shaft speed planetary range in the transition coupling.

The rotation mechanism (see Fig.1) comprises a drive of the hydraulic motor 1, the flange 2 is attached to the housing 3 brake clutch comprising friction discs 4, some of which are associated with the casing brake clutch, piston and bogatogo in the direction of the friction disk springs 6 and forming with the walls of the casing two cavities, one of which is managing 7 communicated with the working line 8 discharge circuit, and the other is compensation 9. Both the cavity mode plum communicated with each other to equalize the pressure acting on the piston from both sides. It is possible that one of the cavities has been reported with the discharge circuit, and the other with the drain line. Both the scheme and the inclusion on such a result is equivalent. Due to the fact that in hydraulic systems pressure discharge lines is not equal to zero (0,2-0,3 I avoid this effect, provided the compensation cavity, communicated with the drain. In this case, the discharge of the working fluid from the control cavity installed in it, the residual pressure is balanced by the same pressure in the compensation chamber, placed on the other side of the piston.

The design of the brake piston coupling mechanism of rotation can be calculated so that the off brakes occurred at a pressure equal to 1.0-1.5 MPa, as off the brakes comes from the pressure in the working line 8 pressure circuit. Such pressure occurs in the system when running idle. It should be enough to turn off the brake clutch. However, it is not mandatory, but is a specific example for illustration.

The shaft of the motor is connected with the high-speed shaft, made in one piece with the sun gear 10 of the first planetary series reducer, transition splined coupling. Transition coupling connecting the shaft of the motor and the high-speed shaft speed planetary gearbox, typically in the form of a sleeve having slots of different diameters, according to different conditions of stress. Thus, the shaft of the motor General purpose designed not only for the transmission of torque moments shaft gear loaded only torque. Therefore, the splines of the shaft have a smaller diameter.

Manufacturer of bushings with different spline on the inner diameter is very difficult, because it does not allow to use the drawing as the most productive tool for the slots of larger diameter and requires a process of chiselling slots, which reduces the quality involute profile.

Therefore, in the proposed design of the transition coupling is made of a composite of the main sleeve 11, which linked the other friction disk brake clutch, and an additional sleeve 12, interconnected by three dowels (not shown) on the surface of the coupling made integral with the sleeve 12. This design allows the internal splines on both sleeves with tech tool broaches. Both sleeve composite transition couplings for exceptions axial displacement are connected together by a retaining ring 13, which is also a stop for the bearing 14 high-speed shaft of the gear 10.

Planetary double row reducer mounted on bearings 14 and 15, contains the first high-speed planetary range, formed by the sun gear 10 on the high-speed shaft, geared sat with the m 17 of the first series and is geared with 19 satellites on a movable drive rod 20, associated with the body part 3. The satellites each number entered in engagement with the corresponding stationary crown gear, made in the form of a single block 21, which is also part of the gear of the rotation.

Execution crown gears in a single unit increases the maintainability of the planetary gear mechanism rotate, as it is easily removed node, for dismantling which there is no need to disassemble the entire mechanism of rotation, and is enough to remove the end caps 22 and 23. In this case, easier access to gear from any planetary series.

Internal sun gear 18 is connected kinematically with the speed of the planet carrier 17. In the design of the known solutions for prototype profile, gear (number of teeth, module, etc.) and the profile of the slots of this gear is different, that it is expedient from the point of view of ravnopravnosti, but ethnologica from the point of view of the complexity of the manufacturing process. In the proposed construction of the gear involute profile sun gear 18 simultaneously performs the role of SPL, which improves the manufacturability of the part. Took 17 runs with slots of the same involute profile that DNAM link represents a shaft 24 mounted in the thrust bearing 25, with two Staron closed cuffs 26 and 27, and the output gear 28, kinematically linked to the response element of the rotatable structure (not shown).

For special locking bolt 29 high-speed shaft sun gear 10 with respect to the additional sleeve 12 (see Fig.2) use a specially profiled conical washer 30 having an inner conical section, the surface which is in contact with the conical surface of the head of the bolt when tightening, which prevents loosening of the bolt. This is a necessary condition, as the bolt 29 is in the closed space is not available for visual inspection.

Special attention in the design of the mechanism of rotation given to the modes of lubrication of the bearings and elements of the gear engaged in the transmission of torque.

Lubrication of the gears and gearing lubrication of the bearing 15 led 20 of the second planetary series is produced by the splashing of the oil bath in the cavity of the housing by the capture of the gear teeth portions of the oil. Such liquid lubricant is convenient and acceptable to the gears of the planetary type. And since the bearing 1 is not and then separated by the walls of the carrier 17 from the cavity gearboxes in which there is a spray lubricant, to minimize the wear track friction cuff 31 and for lubrication of the bearing 14 has a separate nipple 32. The bearing. 25 of the output shaft 24 is located in the cavity, in which zapressovyvajutsja grease. The bearing 25 with two sides closed cuffs 26 and 27, which prevent the penetration of dirt into the bearing and at the same time are double protection against leakage (seal) of liquid lubricant from the main cavity of the gearbox. Separate to this bearing lubricator 33 is located in a recess in the housing and does not extend beyond the dimensions of the landing surface. In the same technological deepening mounted drain fitting 34. This arrangement creates convenience for mounting the gear on the rotary platform of the crane. The tube 35 is designed for Gulf oil in the gearbox and control its level. Performing for each bearing and the group of units of gear separately isolated cavities with self lubrication allows you to create the optimal conditions of operation of these elements, for which they are designed. In this case, significantly increases the durability of the structure as a whole.

The present invention allows to obtain a rotation mechanism with improved performance and increased naletili speed planetary range with a sun gear of the low speed planetary range, B block crown gears and recordatorio lubrication bearings. The design of the turning mechanism adaptable and maintainable.

1. The rotation mechanism containing attached to the housing drive the hydraulic motor, the shaft of which is managed through the brake clutch is connected to the housing of the mechanism, double row planetary gear, made in a stationary housing and including a sun gear of the first planetary number associated transition splined coupling with the shaft of the motor and geared via satellite with a crown gear this number associated with the case, the sun gear of the second planetary number associated with the planet carrier of the first series and is geared through another satellite with a crown gear of the second planetary number associated with the case, and drove planetary alignments for transverse and longitudinal orientation of the satellites, moreover, the carrier of the first planetary series connected splined connection with a sun wheel of the second row, and the satellites of the second row drove through kinematically connected with a freely mounted relative to the housing output link on which is mounted output gear, wherein the transition splined clutch completed the external surface for mounting brake friction discs of the clutch, the piston of the hydraulic cylinder which is spring-loaded in the direction of compression disks when the pressure drops below a specified level in the control cavity, and an additional sleeve with splines on the inner surface for connection with the shaft sun gear of the first planetary series, installed inside the main sleeve and associated fixation against rotation and the locking ring against axial displacement, which is a stopper for axial fixation of the bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series, with the crown gear is made in a single unit, and the splines pinion carrier of the first planetary series represent a toothed involute profile of the sun gear and meshed directly with the ring gear of the latter.

2. The mechanism under item 1, characterized in that the brake clutch is made of a compensation control cavity located on the side of the piston opposite to the location of the control cavity, while the compensation cavity is communicated with the drain line.

3. The mechanism under item 1, characterized in that washer bolt fixing shaft sun gear relative to the additional sleeves are made conical to contact when tightening its vnutrennya fact, the bearing shaft, output gear with two sides closed cuffs for education reported with a separate oil cavity is filled with grease, and avoid leakage of liquid lubricant from the oil bath in the cavity of the gearbox, and the seal and bearing shaft sun gear of the first planetary series is also communicated with a separate lubricator.

 

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