Opto-electronic measuring the angle of rotation labels


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used for precision measurements of the angles of rotation of the object mounted on alidade. The technical result of the use of the invention is to improve the accuracy. The device contains a tract of rough measurements of the angle and path of accurate measurements (adjustment) of the angle . Opto-mechanical part of the device contains the disk scanner with the number of slits n, located on its periphery, with one of the slits has a great length. With peripheral slots disk involve four opto-couplers that allow you to calculate the exact value of the angle and add these values to the measured values in the path of the coarse measurement, four corresponding optocoupler which is optically interfaced through the crack with greater length. 3 Il.

The invention relates to precision automatic measuring angles of rotation, installed or mechanically connected to the turning circle by alidade. As an example of an object can lead tube of theodolite or total station.

Similar to the proposed measuring device is described in the book. High-precision angular measurements. Ed. by Yu, Acusing the Aner in the form of a rotating disk with one radial slot, driven synchronous motor speed . The electronic unit is connected to the photodiodes four opto-electron pairs, consisting of a light source and photodiode, two of which are fixed at opposite ends of one diameter of the reference circle, and the other two on opposite sides of the labels. Measurement of angles of rotation of a diameter of labels defined by the position of the corresponding optical coupler, relative to the reference direction of the line of opto-couplers on the base circle is as follows. Measured time intervals t1and t2between pulses from photodiode opposite the support and Alizadeh pairs, respectively. At the same time . Duplicate measurements with oppositely placed optocouplers is to eliminate the influence of misalignment of the wheels and drive the scanner device.

The disadvantage of this device is the fact that the measurement results are affected by the irregularity of rotation of the scanner within one turn, even at a constant average speed of rotation of the drive motor due to the angular vibrations of its rotor, which leads to measurement errors of the values of t1and t2.

In the proposed ustroystvami measurements.

To achieve this, the scanner is made in the form of a disk with a large number of radial slots on its periphery at equal distances from each other, with one slit is increased toward the center of the disc length. Opto-electronic part of the device contains eight opto-electron pairs, consisting of photodiodes and LEDs located on opposite sides of the disk scanner and placed in pairs in the four buildings covering the periphery of the disk scanner. Two diametrically opposite housing rigidly connected with alidade and two other similarly situated buildings with the core circle. In each of the buildings two LEDs and two photodiode are arranged radially and are closed by diaphragms with radial slits. The case of opto-couplers are mounted so that the inner pair of led photodiode located closer to the center of the disc, is an optical communication only through the elongated portion of one of the slits and the outer optocouplers this relationship is in turn only through the gap at the periphery of the disk scanner.

The electronic unit conversion information comprises channel coarse measurement of the angle between the reference and alidade directions, the inputs of which are connected with the photodiodes DNAs is arawu. Each channel contains two range measurements from the photodiodes diametrically opposite optocouplers, respectively. All four lines consist of the same elements that have identical connections between them. In the coarse channel measurements each line includes meter impulse period T01or T02with photodiodes optocouplers and measuring intervals to1oro2one input connected to the reference photodiode pair, and the other photodiode alidades optocoupler. The outputs of the measuring these quantities are connected respectively to the two solvers units . Their outputs connected to the input of the averager angle . In the channel accurate measurements are measured the same set of elements of digital technology, the repetition periods T1and T2pulses from N slits on the periphery of the disk scanner and the intervals between the reference and measurement pulses1and2and solvers operations of the computing units . Averager performs .

In Fig. 1 shows a sketch of the opto-mechanical part of the meter in the context of Fig. 2 disk scanner and block diagram of the electronic unit of Fig. 3 graphics pulses in coarse and fine measurement systems.

I the object of measurement (for example, visual trumpet), coaxial with it is a reference (base) round 2, and below is the scan disk 3 with slits, driven in rotation by the motor 4. On the periphery of the scanner 3 are U-shaped holders (corps) optoeletronic pairs 5, 6, 7, 8. In each case, there are two optocoupler consisting of oppositely placed against the disk scanner two diodes 9, 9' and two photodiodes 10 and 10'. From the side of the disk 3 are closed by diaphragms with slots having a radial direction. In the outer photo-coupler 9' 10' optical communication is carried out through the gap at the periphery of the disk 3 of the scanner (Fig. 2) in the moments of their passing slits in the diaphragm photodiodes and LEDs. One of these slits 11 has doubled in length (Fig. 2), and through its elongated part is an optical link in the optical coupler 9 10. The holders of the photo-coupler 5 and 7 are bonded with the reference range, and their location indicates the reference direction. The holders 6 and 8 (Fig. 2) is connected mechanically with alidade 1 (Fig. 1), and the measured angle is the angle between the direction defined by the diameter on the opposite side of which is equipped with opto-couplers 6 and 8, and the reference direction.

The electronic unit conversion information contains two channel measurements. One is the Rennie optocouplers 9 and 10 (Fig. 1). This channel consists of two identical parts (lines), each of which is connected with one of the diametrically opposite optocouplers. In Fig. 2 shows that the optocoupler 5 reference direction 0, and more precisely to one of the photodiodes 9 (internal Fig. 1) attached is included in the top line of the meter pulse repetition period T01the meter 12, and the two inputs of the meter 13 time intervals between pulses to1attached to the respective inner photodiodes of the optical coupler 5 and 6. The outputs of the probes 12 and 13 (i.e., counts pulses of the high-frequency oscillations) is connected to the transmitter angle114 performing the operation .

The bottom line channel coarse measurement is similar to the top of the line elements and compounds and attached to the photodiodes 10 internal photo coupler 7 and 8, i.e. "working" from an elongated bar 11 of the scanner 3. It includes a meter 15 repetition periods T02and the meter 16 time intervals between the pulses from the reference photodiodes and Alizadeh directionso2. Their outputs connected to the computer 17, an outstanding value . The outputs of both of the computers connected to the averager 18, issuing the measured value .

Channel accurate measurements Rubik measurements. The difference lies in the fact that this channel works from the photodiodes external optocouplers 10' (Fig. 1), the pulses of which occur alternately from all N slots on the periphery of the scanner 3. While the gauges 19 and 20 measure the periods of repetition of the pulses T1and intervals1between pulses from the photodiode of the opto-couplers 5 and 6, respectively, and the computer 21 determines the value of the angle adjustment 1according to the formula . The probes 22 and 23, "working" from diametrically located optocouplers, give a value of T2and T1and the transmitter 24 is ; averager 25 performs an operation , i.e., calculates the values of the angle adjustment that is added and a rounded value of the angle a indicated . Thus, the measurement result is defined as . Rounding accurate to the first few digits of the rough results of the measurements can be carried out by the operator or may be provided as an additional operation in the averager 18.

The functioning of the system consider the example of its specific implementation. Take the scanner 3 with the number of slits N 360, i.e. the angle between the slits in the periphery of the disc is equal to 1o.

Consider the coarse measurement angle a (Fig.1) working on the extended part of slit 11. Fig is fiquet somewhat smaller amplitude. These impulses originate from the internal photodiode of the opto-couplers 5 and 6 (or 7 and 8). With a uniform rotation of the disk , for example . The same measurement is made using optocouplers in the holders 7 and 8. The measurement result2for a fixed position of labels 2 may differ from the value obtained above1due to misalignment of the base and Alizadeh circles and the axis of rotation of the scanner 3, and therefore the operation is performed averaging . However, the measurement accuracy may not be high enough due to the irregularity of rotation of the rotor of the motor 4 to drive the rotation of the scanner 3 (Fig. 1), in which, despite the stabilization of the rotation speed, there are angular vibration. It is known that the rotation irregularity leads to instability of the measurement of time intervals of approximately 10-4. This means that , i.e., a rough measurement system, gives readings with an accuracy of not greater than 1'.

Accurate system to measure values and T (see Fig. 3A) and it allows you to calculate values , because when Da 0, and when , i.e., the half angle 1obetween adjacent slits of the scanner, and so on, This means that if the position of the labels is not equal to a multiple of the value of the angle b, the fractional part of the angle b can be considered as a system of adjustment. Now the AK , since T0NT, i.e., have the same formula for finding the value ; therefore, the error of a single measurement values d() will be calculated by the same formula as (see above).

However, during one revolution of the disk scanner is N dimension values t and T, and the computer 21 or 24 is averaged values of t and T with multiplicity N. This means that the average value Da is received with an error, in times less than .

However, the gain in precision time over one period of rotation of the scanner still is not the main advantage of this measure compared to analog. The fact that the irregularity of rotation of the scanner due to angular vibrations with a frequency close to the frequency of rotation of the motor drive is greatly reduced N times within the corner (we have 1o). While slightly different from each other, the absolute value of the angular velocity within one revolution of the scanner does not affect the measurement accuracy, since the angle depends on the ratio of quantities . Thus, we can assume that the measurement accuracy in the system of adjustment is increasing in N 3/2 times as compared with the accuracy of the angle measurement .

Consider the worst case accuracy of measurement of angle a than that was the d() 0.5 to 1". In this case, the testimony of coarse system can be rounded to units of degrees, and additionally calculated to spend in angular minutes and seconds.

You should note that all elements of the computing device could be combined into one microcomputer that performs the above functions of the electronic circuit.

The drawing strokes and their digitization on the base and aleady circles is optional, it is only necessary with sufficient accuracy to evenly penetrate the cracks in the disk scanner.

Opto-electronic measuring the angle of rotation labels containing installed coaxially with alidadi base circle and disk scanner, four optoelectronic pairs installed in the respective holders on diametrically opposite sides of the disk scanner, the holders of two opposite optical coupler that generates reference pulses, bonded with the base circle, and the holders of the other two optocouplers, generating metering pulses bonded with alidade, and an electronic unit for measuring time intervals, coupled with photodiodes optocouplers, characterized in that it is equipped with four additional optical coupler located on the periphery of the disk scanner in the respective holders, the disk is made with n radial the selected slots, photodiodes optocouplers made with slotted apertures, slits oriented along radii of the disk, additional optocoupler is set so that the optical link them through the peripheral slots of the disk, and in the four main photo-coupler through a slot of greater length, the electronic unit is made in the form of a tract of rough measurements of the angle and path of precise measurements of the angle, the gross tract of angle measurement consists of a neutralizer and two measurement channels, each channel measurements made in the form of meter intervals01or 02between pulses, the measuring period T01or T02repetition of the pulses and the transmitter are connected with their outputs, the outputs of the calculators of channels connected to the inputs of the equalization tank, while measuring photodiodes main optocouplers are connected in the respective channels to the inputs of the measuring time intervals between pulses, the reference photodiodes main optocouplers are connected in the respective channels to the second inputs of measuring time intervals and the inputs of the measuring pulse repetition, tract precise measurements of the angle consists of a neutralizer and two measurement channels similar to the channels tract rough measurements, the averager connected to the outputs vicidon measures time intervals1or 2between pulses, the reference photodiodes additional optocouplers are connected in the respective channels to the second inputs of measuring time intervals between pulses and to the inputs of the measuring period T01or T02repetition solvers channel coarse angle measurement calculate values and averager value solvers channels accurate measurement of the angle calculated values, respectively, and the averager value .


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