Opto-electronic measuring the angle of rotation labels
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used for precision measurements of the angles of rotation of the object mounted on alidade. The technical result of the use of the invention is to improve the accuracy. The device contains a tract of rough measurements of the angle and path of accurate measurements (adjustment) of the angle . Opto-mechanical part of the device contains the disk scanner with the number of slits n, located on its periphery, with one of the slits has a great length. With peripheral slots disk involve four opto-couplers that allow you to calculate the exact value of the angle and add these values to the measured values in the path of the coarse measurement, four corresponding optocoupler which is optically interfaced through the crack with greater length. 3 Il. The invention relates to precision automatic measuring angles of rotation, installed or mechanically connected to the turning circle by alidade. As an example of an object can lead tube of theodolite or total station.Similar to the proposed measuring device is described in the book. High-precision angular measurements. Ed. by Yu, Acusing the Aner in the form of a rotating disk with one radial slot, driven synchronous motor speed . The electronic unit is connected to the photodiodes four opto-electron pairs, consisting of a light source and photodiode, two of which are fixed at opposite ends of one diameter of the reference circle, and the other two on opposite sides of the labels. Measurement of angles of rotation of a diameter of labels defined by the position of the corresponding optical coupler, relative to the reference direction of the line of opto-couplers on the base circle is as follows. Measured time intervals t1and t2between pulses from photodiode opposite the support and Alizadeh pairs, respectively. At the same time . Duplicate measurements with oppositely placed optocouplers is to eliminate the influence of misalignment of the wheels and drive the scanner device.The disadvantage of this device is the fact that the measurement results are affected by the irregularity of rotation of the scanner within one turn, even at a constant average speed of rotation of the drive motor due to the angular vibrations of its rotor, which leads to measurement errors of the values of t1and t2.In the proposed ustroystvami measurements.To achieve this, the scanner is made in the form of a disk with a large number of radial slots on its periphery at equal distances from each other, with one slit is increased toward the center of the disc length. Opto-electronic part of the device contains eight opto-electron pairs, consisting of photodiodes and LEDs located on opposite sides of the disk scanner and placed in pairs in the four buildings covering the periphery of the disk scanner. Two diametrically opposite housing rigidly connected with alidade and two other similarly situated buildings with the core circle. In each of the buildings two LEDs and two photodiode are arranged radially and are closed by diaphragms with radial slits. The case of opto-couplers are mounted so that the inner pair of led photodiode located closer to the center of the disc, is an optical communication only through the elongated portion of one of the slits and the outer optocouplers this relationship is in turn only through the gap at the periphery of the disk scanner.The electronic unit conversion information comprises channel coarse measurement of the angle between the reference and alidade directions, the inputs of which are connected with the photodiodes DNAs is arawu. Each channel contains two range measurements from the photodiodes diametrically opposite optocouplers, respectively. All four lines consist of the same elements that have identical connections between them. In the coarse channel measurements each line includes meter impulse period T01or T02with photodiodes optocouplers and measuring intervals to1oro2one input connected to the reference photodiode pair, and the other photodiode alidades optocoupler. The outputs of the measuring these quantities are connected respectively to the two solvers units . Their outputs connected to the input of the averager angle . In the channel accurate measurements are measured the same set of elements of digital technology, the repetition periods T1and T2pulses from N slits on the periphery of the disk scanner and the intervals between the reference and measurement pulses1and2and solvers operations of the computing units . Averager performs .In Fig. 1 shows a sketch of the opto-mechanical part of the meter in the context of Fig. 2 disk scanner and block diagram of the electronic unit of Fig. 3 graphics pulses in coarse and fine measurement systems.I the object of measurement (for example, visual trumpet), coaxial with it is a reference (base) round 2, and below is the scan disk 3 with slits, driven in rotation by the motor 4. On the periphery of the scanner 3 are U-shaped holders (corps) optoeletronic pairs 5, 6, 7, 8. In each case, there are two optocoupler consisting of oppositely placed against the disk scanner two diodes 9, 9' and two photodiodes 10 and 10'. From the side of the disk 3 are closed by diaphragms with slots having a radial direction. In the outer photo-coupler 9' 10' optical communication is carried out through the gap at the periphery of the disk 3 of the scanner (Fig. 2) in the moments of their passing slits in the diaphragm photodiodes and LEDs. One of these slits 11 has doubled in length (Fig. 2), and through its elongated part is an optical link in the optical coupler 9 10. The holders of the photo-coupler 5 and 7 are bonded with the reference range, and their location indicates the reference direction. The holders 6 and 8 (Fig. 2) is connected mechanically with alidade 1 (Fig. 1), and the measured angle is the angle between the direction defined by the diameter on the opposite side of which is equipped with opto-couplers 6 and 8, and the reference direction.The electronic unit conversion information contains two channel measurements. One is the Rennie optocouplers 9 and 10 (Fig. 1). This channel consists of two identical parts (lines), each of which is connected with one of the diametrically opposite optocouplers. In Fig. 2 shows that the optocoupler 5 reference direction 0, and more precisely to one of the photodiodes 9 (internal Fig. 1) attached is included in the top line of the meter pulse repetition period T01the meter 12, and the two inputs of the meter 13 time intervals between pulses to1attached to the respective inner photodiodes of the optical coupler 5 and 6. The outputs of the probes 12 and 13 (i.e., counts pulses of the high-frequency oscillations) is connected to the transmitter angle114 performing the operation .The bottom line channel coarse measurement is similar to the top of the line elements and compounds and attached to the photodiodes 10 internal photo coupler 7 and 8, i.e. "working" from an elongated bar 11 of the scanner 3. It includes a meter 15 repetition periods T02and the meter 16 time intervals between the pulses from the reference photodiodes and Alizadeh directionso2. Their outputs connected to the computer 17, an outstanding value . The outputs of both of the computers connected to the averager 18, issuing the measured value .Channel accurate measurements Rubik measurements. The difference lies in the fact that this channel works from the photodiodes external optocouplers 10' (Fig. 1), the pulses of which occur alternately from all N slots on the periphery of the scanner 3. While the gauges 19 and 20 measure the periods of repetition of the pulses T1and intervals1between pulses from the photodiode of the opto-couplers 5 and 6, respectively, and the computer 21 determines the value of the angle adjustment 1according to the formula . The probes 22 and 23, "working" from diametrically located optocouplers, give a value of T2and T1and the transmitter 24 is ; averager 25 performs an operation , i.e., calculates the values of the angle adjustment that is added and a rounded value of the angle a indicated . Thus, the measurement result is defined as . Rounding accurate to the first few digits of the rough results of the measurements can be carried out by the operator or may be provided as an additional operation in the averager 18.The functioning of the system consider the example of its specific implementation. Take the scanner 3 with the number of slits N 360, i.e. the angle between the slits in the periphery of the disc is equal to 1o.Consider the coarse measurement angle a (Fig.1) working on the extended part of slit 11. Fig is fiquet somewhat smaller amplitude. These impulses originate from the internal photodiode of the opto-couplers 5 and 6 (or 7 and 8). With a uniform rotation of the disk , for example . The same measurement is made using optocouplers in the holders 7 and 8. The measurement result2for a fixed position of labels 2 may differ from the value obtained above1due to misalignment of the base and Alizadeh circles and the axis of rotation of the scanner 3, and therefore the operation is performed averaging . However, the measurement accuracy may not be high enough due to the irregularity of rotation of the rotor of the motor 4 to drive the rotation of the scanner 3 (Fig. 1), in which, despite the stabilization of the rotation speed, there are angular vibration. It is known that the rotation irregularity leads to instability of the measurement of time intervals of approximately 10-4. This means that , i.e., a rough measurement system, gives readings with an accuracy of not greater than 1'.Accurate system to measure values and T (see Fig. 3A) and it allows you to calculate values , because when Da 0, and when , i.e., the half angle 1obetween adjacent slits of the scanner, and so on, This means that if the position of the labels is not equal to a multiple of the value of the angle b, the fractional part of the angle b can be considered as a system of adjustment. Now the AK , since T0NT, i.e., have the same formula for finding the value ; therefore, the error of a single measurement values d() will be calculated by the same formula as (see above).However, during one revolution of the disk scanner is N dimension values t and T, and the computer 21 or 24 is averaged values of t and T with multiplicity N. This means that the average value Da is received with an error, in times less than .However, the gain in precision time over one period of rotation of the scanner still is not the main advantage of this measure compared to analog. The fact that the irregularity of rotation of the scanner due to angular vibrations with a frequency close to the frequency of rotation of the motor drive is greatly reduced N times within the corner (we have 1o). While slightly different from each other, the absolute value of the angular velocity within one revolution of the scanner does not affect the measurement accuracy, since the angle depends on the ratio of quantities . Thus, we can assume that the measurement accuracy in the system of adjustment is increasing in N 3/2 times as compared with the accuracy of the angle measurement .Consider the worst case accuracy of measurement of angle a than that was the d() 0.5 to 1". In this case, the testimony of coarse system can be rounded to units of degrees, and additionally calculated to spend in angular minutes and seconds.You should note that all elements of the computing device could be combined into one microcomputer that performs the above functions of the electronic circuit.The drawing strokes and their digitization on the base and aleady circles is optional, it is only necessary with sufficient accuracy to evenly penetrate the cracks in the disk scanner. Opto-electronic measuring the angle of rotation labels containing installed coaxially with alidadi base circle and disk scanner, four optoelectronic pairs installed in the respective holders on diametrically opposite sides of the disk scanner, the holders of two opposite optical coupler that generates reference pulses, bonded with the base circle, and the holders of the other two optocouplers, generating metering pulses bonded with alidade, and an electronic unit for measuring time intervals, coupled with photodiodes optocouplers, characterized in that it is equipped with four additional optical coupler located on the periphery of the disk scanner in the respective holders, the disk is made with n radial the selected slots, photodiodes optocouplers made with slotted apertures, slits oriented along radii of the disk, additional optocoupler is set so that the optical link them through the peripheral slots of the disk, and in the four main photo-coupler through a slot of greater length, the electronic unit is made in the form of a tract of rough measurements of the angle and path of precise measurements of the angle, the gross tract of angle measurement consists of a neutralizer and two measurement channels, each channel measurements made in the form of meter intervals01or 02between pulses, the measuring period T01or T02repetition of the pulses and the transmitter are connected with their outputs, the outputs of the calculators of channels connected to the inputs of the equalization tank, while measuring photodiodes main optocouplers are connected in the respective channels to the inputs of the measuring time intervals between pulses, the reference photodiodes main optocouplers are connected in the respective channels to the second inputs of measuring time intervals and the inputs of the measuring pulse repetition, tract precise measurements of the angle consists of a neutralizer and two measurement channels similar to the channels tract rough measurements, the averager connected to the outputs vicidon measures time intervals1or 2between pulses, the reference photodiodes additional optocouplers are connected in the respective channels to the second inputs of measuring time intervals between pulses and to the inputs of the measuring period T01or T02repetition solvers channel coarse angle measurement calculate values and averager value solvers channels accurate measurement of the angle calculated values, respectively, and the averager value .
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: detector can be used for measuring angular position of rotor of galvanometer scanners used for laser marking and engraving. Angular position optical detector has light emitting diode which illuminates slot diaphragm, objective with round diaphragm at entrance, flat-parallel plate connected tightly with object to me measured, two photodiodes with two photosensitive areas. Going-out currents of photodiodes are conversed into voltages and are subtracted by differential amplifier. Output voltage of differential amplifier is proportional to angular shift of flat-parallel plate which provides higher stability and linearity of conversion function of detector at its small sizes.
EFFECT: higher stability; small sizes.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: to measure mast tilt angle value, builder's level is used on which level web-camera is located so that web-camera's focus is constantly aimed at end of guide located at zero-mark side of ruler. Web-camera is connected to computer. In the second invention version, web-camera is fitted on builder's level so that horizontal bubble level is constantly present in web-camera frame. Web-camera is connected to computer.
EFFECT: measuring accuracy improvement due to recording ruler readings and bubble position in horizontal bubble level by means of web-camera shooting and reduction of labour consumption during measurement execution.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to diagnostic instruments that define technical condition of common machine building units. Device incorporates bed plate with movable support and slipping support, and tested driveline. At that torque loader consists of lever, dynamometer and threaded link. Gap meter contains of stand, on which indicating gage body is fixed, and platform. Scale of axial shift is rigidly fixed in bed plate, and pointer is placed at movable support.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of actual angle of driveline hinges break.
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: facility can be used in metrology, particularly for measurement of plane angle. The gauge consists of at least carrier of dial scale and a pointer, one of the two is immovable, while turn of an object specifying the measured angle is conveyed to another one. The multi-value gauge of two or more rays forming a flat semicircle or several semicircles serves as the pointer; also rays appear simultaneously or alternately; notably, the gauge maintains reference angles between separate rays. An external optical source radiates rays with reflecting facets of a prism or pyramid located on axis coaxial to a photo-receiver of panoramic type. The photo-receiver is located on internal cylinder surface and functions as a carrier of the dial scale.
EFFECT: improved metrological and weight-dimension characteristics as well as workability of facility at simultaneous increased reliability.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metrology, particularly to methods of calibrating goniometrical and angle specifying devices of a rotary type forming discrete circular scales of full and (or) not full ranges by means of comparing them with reference devices (reference scales). The essence of the invention is as follows: the disclosed here method is based on adjusting indices of the plan of measuring procedure and on performing interactive control of accuracy of its results. Adjustment is carried out by means of adaptive modifications of procedures of preparation and measuring. The procedure is established as sequence of comparisons of angles between marks of each of calibrated scales taken in pairs; also combinations of marks (pairs) are formed in series, number of which is not specified beforehand. Obtained primary data are processed by the method of the least squares on base of model equations connecting measured parametres; while algorithm of processing contains blocks of check of uniform precision of series (with their possible reject) and check of adequacy of accepted model ( with its possible refinement). The procedure is interactive and lasts till achieving required or utmost possible accuracy of results.
EFFECT: expanded range of discreteness of calibrated circular scales and refusal of full range requirement; also facilitating control over accuracy of calibration, including accuracy due to refinement of model of primary data.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: inventions refer to assembly of magnet angular converter. The essence of the invention is as follows: tool set consists of setters in form of process cylinder 14 for processing card 10 and process cylinder 18 for cylinder magnet 7, and magnet limiting device 7 in form of limiting cylinder element 12. Process cylinders 14, 18 are made with contacts 15, 19 and setting bases 16, 20. Process cylinder 14 and limiting cylinder element 12 are made out of non-magnet material, while process cylinder 18 is made out of magnet material. For assembly process cylinder 14 is installed in central opening 6 of shaft 3 till contact base 15 contacts base end 4 of shaft 3. Magnet sensitive element 11 is brought to contact setting base 16. Processing card 10 is glued and process cylinder 14 is taken out after glue polymerisation. Cylinder magnet 7 is assembled on setting base 20 of process cylinder 18 coaxially to setting base 20; glue and process cylinder 18 with magnet 7 are introduced into central opening 6 of shaft 3; upon glue polymerisation process cylinder 18 is taken out. Limiting cylinder element 12 is installed into central opening 6 of shaft 3 till its flat surface 13 contacts internal base 9 of cylinder magnet 7. There are performed gluing and glue polymerisation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of assembly, simplification of installation, and facilitation of assembly reliability.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to instruments for measurement of turn (inclination) angle of objects versus vertical line. Invention objective is improved accuracy and expanded range of angle measurement. Device comprises thermoelement with two pairs of point thermal sensors and heater arranged in the form of cylindrically shaped rod with longitudinal axis oriented perpendicularly to vertical plane of turn. At the same time heater is connected to source of voltage. Besides device comprises measuring circuit, which includes two differential amplifiers and calculation device. Thermal sensors of thermoelement are installed in plane of turn as pairwise on vertical and horizontal axes at identical distances from longitudinal axis of heater.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and expansion of angle measurement range.
SUBSTANCE: device has a thermal converter with three pairs of point thermal detectors and a heater in form of a spherical body, and a measurement circuit having three differential amplifiers and a computing device. The thermal detectors of the thermal converter are paired on three orthogonal axes, equidistant from the geometric centre of the spherical surface of the heater.
EFFECT: high accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determining the state of bearing structures of antenna mast structures (AMS), rapid signalling of change in state thereof and warning on emergency situations and can be used in automated systems for monitoring safety of bearing structures during use of buildings and other structures. The method involves processing parameters of a device which measures linear and angular deviations from the vertical position of the AMS, said device being a three-axis accelerometer mounted on the AMS. Projections of linear acceleration on three orthogonal axes of the accelerometer for at least two successive measurement sessions are measured, and linear and angular deviations from the vertical position of the AMS are calculated from results of selecting and analysing the translational component of dynamic characteristics of the translational-oscillatory motion of the AMS, calculated based on values of said linear acceleration projections.
EFFECT: monitoring the vertical position of AMS with any frequency with automatic measurement.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement of a deviation angle of surface of controlled objects from a basic level, a profile and curvature of surfaces of parts in machine-building industry. A device implementing a method for determining angular positions of object surfaces includes a radiation source, a light-guide system consisting of two harnesses of light waveguides, a photoreceiver, two comparators with different comparison levels, a shaper of comparison levels, two units for detection of middles of electrical pulses, a recording unit of time intervals, an electric motor, an optic head piece and a light waveguide of the optic head piece. The latter is made in the form of a hollow cylinder, and the light waveguide of the optic head piece is installed diametrically in the side wall of the cylinder. Besides, the invention introduces a reference signal mark installed on the optic head piece, a pulse sensor of the reference signal, the output of which is connected to the input of the second comparator.
EFFECT: enlargement of the range of measured angular positions of controlled surfaces by increasing the time of simultaneous existence of sounding and received - reflected radiation flows.
2 cl, 4 dwg