Installing a two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to petrochemistry, in particular to the two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane, and can be used to improve cooling unit in those industries in which there are processes of heat transfer. The invention solves the problem of energy saving by heat recovery in the manufacturing process, and improve the environment and increase the efficiency of the dehydrogenation process. The invention consists in the fact that the installation of the two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane, including serially connected reactor, separator, boiler, scrubber and cooling unit, which according to the invention consists of a thermosiphon modules connected in parallel, each module consists of serially connected thermosyphons, equipped with a lens compensators, and between different groups of thermosyphons installed horizontal separators, at the end of each module has a vertical separator. 2 Il. The invention relates to petrochemistry, in particular to the two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane, and can be used to conduct theKnown installation dehydrogenation of isopentane in isoamylene, including the separator, through which the mixture of fresh and return isopentanol faction enters the evaporator. Evaporation occurs at a temperature of 80oC and a pressure of 0.58 MPa. From the separator pair of isopentane enter the superheater, then hardening the coil reactor, where the overheat due to the heat of the contact strip. Next couple of isopentane overheat in a tube furnace up to 500-550oC and fed into the reactor under fluidized catalyst bed through a distribution grid. The heat required for the reaction, is supplied with hot regenerated catalyst circulating in the reactor-regenerator. Contact the gas from the reactor after passing through a cyclone for recovery of the principal amount of catalyst dust is sent to the cooling in the vertical HRSG. From the recovery boiler contact the gas with a temperature of 300oC enters the disc scrubber, where it is cooled to 40oC. the Scrubber is divided into two parts: in the upper part of the pump is continuously fed with water temperature 35oC, water circulation in the lower part is the pump. At the bottom of the scrubber catalyst accumulates dust, therefore, is carried out by gas water. From the separator the contact gas is fed to the allocation of isopentane-isoamylene faction. The spent catalyst from the reactor by the air transport lines is fed to the regeneration in the regenerator. The regenerated catalyst enters the regenerative glass regenerator. In the upper part of the recovery Cup is served natural gas for the recovery of hexavalent chromium to trivalent; in the lower part of the nitrogen Stripping of the catalyst product recovery. The recovered catalyst is transported into the reactor. Gases regeneration, passing cyclones in the upper part of the regenerator, cooled exhaust-heat boiler to 300oC, purified from the catalyst dust in the electrostatic precipitators and released into the atmosphere. However, the large costs toplyvoenergetycheskykh resources, lack of utilization of low-grade heat, high pressure losses due to flow resistance does not allow to solve the problem of energy conservation, improve the environment and increase the efficiency of the dehydrogenation process.The invention solves the problem of increasing the efficiency of the process of two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane, energy saving and environmental improvements by reducing losses Mae, reduction of metal consumption, utilization of low-grade heat in the second stage.This objective is achieved in that the installation of the two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane, including serially connected reactor, separator, boiler, scrubber, cooling unit consists of a thermosiphon modules connected in parallel, each module consists of serially connected thermosyphons, equipped with a lens compensators between different groups of thermosyphons installed horizontal separators, and at the end of each module has a vertical separator.The difference of this invention from the prototype is that the cooling unit consists of parallel connected thermosiphon modules, and each module consists of serially connected thermosyphons, equipped with a lens compensators between different groups of thermosyphons installed horizontal separators, and at the end of each module installed vertical separator that provides a solution to the problem.In Fig. 1 shows technologiesa installation diagram of the two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane; Fig. 2, the cooling module.
scrubber 4, thermosiphon modules 5, between the individual groups which have horizontal separators 6 and at the end of each module installed vertical separator 7, the lens compensator 8.Installing a two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane works as follows. After the process is an equilibrium reaction in the presence of alimohammadi catalyst in the dehydrogenation of isopentane in the reactor 1 is formed a mixture of isomeric isoamylenes. The reaction temperature is not higher than 575oC. Contact the gas passage of the separator 2 for recovery of the principal amount of catalyst dust is supplied to the cooling tube space of the boiler 3, boiler 3 contact the gas with a temperature of 250oC enters the scrubber 4 where it is cooled and cleaned of catalyst dust, which accumulates in the lower part of the scrubber 4, the top of the scrubber 4 pin gas is transferred to the cooling unit, consisting of parallel connected thermosiphon modules 5, and then in the separators 6, 7 and further to the second stage dehydrogenation.The use of this invention it is possible to install two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane, the cooling unit which consists of the parallel connection is plennikami, used under the current scheme, the dehydrogenation process will go into more favorable conditions by reducing the pressure in the reactor, there will be a reduction of sediment, reduction of pressure loss in the process stream is the utilization of low-grade heat in the second stage, thereby solved delivered to the invention the problem of increasing the efficiency of the dehydrogenation process, energy saving, causing interest among producers to implement the project. Installing a two-stage dehydrogenation of isopentane, including serially connected reactor, separator, boiler, scrubber and cooling unit consisting of a heat exchanger, wherein the cooling unit consists of a thermosiphon modules connected in parallel, each module consists of serially connected thermosyphons, equipped with a lens compensators, and in the middle of each module has a horizontal separator, and at the end of each module of the vertical separator.
FIELD: chemical industry; reactors for combinatorial estimation of catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: proposed reactor has many upper parts resting against single support; these upper parts are connected with open ends of lower parts, thus forming many independent hermetic reaction chambers and many vessels for catalyst; each vessel has liquid permeable end for avoidance of escape of catalyst and open end; liquid permeable end of each vessel may enter independent reaction chambers through open ends of lower parts; it has also many first liquid passages connected with reaction chambers and second liquid passages also connected with reaction chambers of flow of liquid.
EFFECT: ease in operation; facilitated procedure of assembly.
13 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: polymer production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-soluble powder polymer compositions useful as flocculants for dehydration of solids-containing slurries or sludges. Compositions are prepared via continuous polymerization of at least one unsaturated monomer, wherein at least one polymerization-affecting parameter is varied in accordance with a repetitive scheme. For instance, monomer concentration, molecular weight regulator amount, monomer solution pH value, and/or monomer solution composition can be varied.
EFFECT: expanded flocculation possibilities and reduced sensitivity to composition of fluids to be treated.
14 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical and petrochemical industries.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of chemical and petrochemical industries and is used for realization of processes of heat-mass exchange. The installation consists of: a reactor, pipelines of components supply and a pipeline of components mixture, on which a pump and a heat exchanger are installed. The installation in addition contains an installed on a line of the pipeline of the components mixture cyclone device, in which a separation of drops of an emulsion by their sizes takes place. The cyclone device is installed so, that its inlet faces the pump, in which the emulsification of the components mixture is performed. One outlet of the cyclone device is connected to the reactor for feeding of the most small-sized drops having a developed surface of a contact, and other outlet is connected to the heat exchanger, where the large drops are fed with formation of a contour of the components mixture circulation. The given engineering solution provides stabilization of a temperature mode and accelerates the chemical process in the reactor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures stabilization of a temperature mode and acceleration of the chemical process in the reactor.
FIELD: chemical industry, catalytic processes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a reactor for catalytic processes and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and may be used for catalytic processes. The reactor contains: a body; units of input and output for a reaction mixture and products of reactions; units of loading and unloading of a catalyst; a catalyst layer with the groups of the parallel hollow gas-permeable chambers located on it in height in one or several horizontal planes and each of the chambers has a perforated gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt connected to the group collector and used for input of additional amount of the reaction mixture. Each of perforated gas-permeable chambers is supplied with the second gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt. At that the impenetrable butts of the pipes are located on the opposite sides. The given engineering solution provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.
EFFECT: the invention provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; mining; food industry; pharmaceutical and perfumery industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of the hypersonic cavitational desintegration of liquid mediums and may be used in food, chemical, ore mining, pharmaceutical and perfumery industries. The method provides, that a liquid flow is passing through a resonant cell of the cavitational reactor, where in the liquid is formed a stagnant acoustic wave with the given average value of a volumetric density of the power causing generation of a cavitation in it in the form of one or several stationary cavitational zones. Density of the potential energy evolving for a period of the acoustic wave, in any point of perimeter of any cross-section of the liquid flow inside the reactor is set not exceeding its peak value on the walls of the resonant cell. The reactor contains a resonant cell, a body, a diaphragm with an aperture placed in a plane parallel to the oscillation shifts of the resonant cell walls. Coordinates of points of the perimeter of the minimum area of the cross-section of the reactor in the plane parallel to oscillating shifts of the walls of the resonant cell, are determined by an equation. The technical result is an increase of dispersion, homogeneity, intensifications of reactions, synthesis of new compounds and increase of their activity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased dispersion, homogeneity, intensifications of reactions, synthesis of new compounds and an increase of their activity.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; fine gas separation from a liquid at reconstruction of separators and filter-separators of the absorbing and rectifying columns.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of chemical industry and intended for fine separation of gas from a liquid at reconstruction of separators and filter-separators of the absorptive and rectifying columns. The multi-cartridge ring-type separating nozzle contains: a cover, a filtering unit, a device of water separation, an inlet connection pipe connected with the filtering unit by a pin, gas-distributing discs fixed to the pin. The filtering unit is made in the form of mesh cartridges mounted one on another. At that the internal surfaces of the mesh cartridges form a gas-distributing collector. The device of water separation is made in the form of the overflowing pipes located in the cartridges and mounted under them the drain pans with the axial apertures. Each mesh cartridge is supplied with a baffle made in the form of a plain disk with an axial aperture and a ring-type bead along the disc perimeter. Each mesh is formed by simultaneous winding of two parallel bands of the mesh, one of which is made out of a flat mesh, and the other - out of a corrugated mesh. On the side of its cylindrical internal surface a mesh cartridge is supplied with a cylindrical perforated shell. At that the first layers of the mesh band are fixed to the perforated shell by metal staples or welded to the perforated shell. At least two external layers of each mesh band are fixed by metal staples. The number of the mesh cartridges makes 6. The overflowing pipes are installed uniformly around the nozzle on a circumference, diameter of which makes from 0.85 up to 0.92 of the external diameter of the mesh cartridge and the diameter of a flow area of each overflowing pipe makes from 0.038 up to 0.05 of the external diameter of a mesh cartridge, and the total area of apertures of the shell perforation makes from 50 up to 60 % of the area of the internal cylindrical surface of the shell. In result the invention allows to increase efficiency of separation at the expense of prevention of the separated liquid accumulation in the cartridges of the nozzle.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increase efficiency of separation and prevention of the separated liquid accumulation in the cartridges of the nozzle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; natural gas industry; petroleum industry; petrochemical industry and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: the invention falls into chemical industry, natural gas industry, petroleum industry, petrochemical industry and other branches pertaining to processing of hydrocarbon raw material, in particular, with production of a condensate consisting of light hydrocarbon gases and with processing of high-viscosity petroleum and petroleum residue. Substance of the invention: the method provides for a thermal treatment of the raw materials and treatment of a surface of a layer or a stream of a feed stock in a gaseous medium containing hydrogen and-or gaseous alkanes at a heightened temperature and an atmospheric pressure by ionizing radiation of relativistic electrons with energy in the range from about 0.5 up to about 10.0 MeV, preferably, from about 0.5 up to about 2.5 MeV at a width of the layer or a stream of a feed stock equal to the depth of sorption of the electronic emission, defined by the ratio λ x ρ = 0.5 E - 0.1, where λ - the depth of sorption of the electronic emission, cm; ρ - a density of the raw material, g /cm3; E - energy of electrons, MeV. Electrons irradiation is conducted onto the one side of the layer or from the two counter sides of the layer in the mode of a continuous irradiation or in a pulsed - periodic mode. The invention offers devices for realization of the method. The invention allows to increase output of the low-molecular hydrocarbons and to ensure a desirable productivity of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased output of the low-molecular hydrocarbons and a desirable productivity of the process.
20 cl, 8 ex, 5 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: physico-chemical processes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises filling a cavitation reactor with a liquid or causing a liquid to flow through the reactor and dissipating a given value of the energy of acoustic wave, which accompanied with cavitation. The sizes of the reactor in the direction of the propagation of the acoustic wave should be no less than the length of the wave in the liquid to be treated. The other sizes are chosen to provide the dispersion of the volume distribution of the cavitation potential energy ranging within 0.499-1.027.
EFFECT: improved cavitation treatment and reduced affecting the structure of the reactor.
FIELD: chemical mechanical engineering; apparatus for performing physico-chemical processes between substances in various phase states; chemical technologies.
SUBSTANCE: proposed apparatus has cylindrical housing with rotor mounted on vertical shaft, units for loading and unloading materials and rotor drive. Inner surface of rotor in section passing through axis of rotation is made in form of sinusoid at magnitudes of sine of 1/0/-1/0/1 at periods 1/4T, 2/4T, 3/4T, 4/4T and 5/4T respectively; inner surface has spiral grooves directed from center to periphery. Protective cover secured on rotor has central hole for delivery of material. Rotor is mounted for change of angle of attachment on axle; housing is provided with drive for rotation around vertical axis.
EFFECT: improved quality of mixing; intensification of process; improved controllability.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of nanodispersed powders of refractory inorganic materials and compounds, in particular, installations and methods for realization of plasmochemical processes of production of nanodispersed powder products.
SUBSTANCE: the installation comprises production-linked: microwave oscillator 1, microwave plasmatron 2, gas-flow former 3, discharge chamber 4, microwave radiation absorber 5, reaction chamber 6, heat-exchanger 7, filter-collector of target product (powder) 8, device for injection of the source reagents in a powdered or vapors state into the reaction chamber, the installation has in addition a device for injection of the source reagents in the liquid-drop state, it has interconnected proportioner 9 in the form of cylinder 10, piston 11 with gear-screwed electric drive mechanism 12 adjusting the speed of motion of piston 1, evaporative chamber 13 with a temperature-controlled body for regulating the temperature inside the chamber that is coupled to the assembly of injection of reagents 14 in the vaporous state and to the assembly of injection of reagents 15 in the liquid-drop state, injection assembly 14 is made with 6 to 12 holes opening in the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the axis of the chamber consisting at least of two sections, the first of which is connected by upper flange 16 to the assemblies of injection of reagents, to discharge chamber 4, plasmatron 2, with valve 17 installed between it and microwave oscillator 1, and by lower flange 18, through the subsequent sections, it is connected to heat exchanger 7, the reaction chamber has inner water-cooled insert 20 rotated by electric motor 19 and metal scraper 21 located along it for cutting the precipitations of powder of the target product formed on the walls of the reaction chamber, and heat exchanger 7 is made two water-cooled coaxial cylinders 22 and 23, whose axes are perpendicular to the axis of the reaction chamber and installed with a clearance for passage of the cooled flow, and knife 24 located in the clearance, rotating about the axis of the cylinders and cleaning the working surfaces of the cylinders of the overgrowing with powder, powder filter-collector 8 having inside it filtering hose 25 of chemically and thermally stable material, on which precipitation of powder of the target product from the gas flow takes place, in the upper part it is connected by flange 26 to the heat exchanger, and in the lower part the filter is provided it device 27 for periodic cleaning of the material by its deformation, and device 28 with valve 29 for sealing the inner space of the filter. The method for production of nanodispersed powders in microwave plasma with the use of the claimed installation consists in injection of the source reagents in the flow of plasma-forming gas of the reaction chamber, plasmochemical synthesis of reagents, cooling of the target product and its separation from the reaction chamber through the filter-collector, the source reagents are injected into the flow of plasma-forming gas, having a medium-mass temperature of 1200 to 3200 K in any state of aggregation: vaporous, powdered, liquid-drop or in any combination of them, reagents in the powdered state are injected in the form of aerosol with the gas-carrier into the reaction chamber through injection assembly 35 with a hole opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, reagents in the liquid-drop or vaporous state are injected into the reaction chamber through injection assemblies 15 or 14, respectively, in the form of ring-shaped headers, the last of which is made with 6 to 12 holes opening into the space of the reaction chamber at an angle of 45 to 60 deg to the chamber axis, each of them is blown off by the accompanying gas flow through the coaxial ducts around the holes, at expenditure of the source reagents, plasma-forming gas, specific power of microwave radiation, length of the reaction zone providing for production of a composite system and individual substances with preset properties, chemical, phase composition and dispersity.
EFFECT: universality of the industrial installation, enhanced capacity of it and enhanced duration of continuous operation, as well as enhanced yield of nanodispersed powders and expanded production potentialities of the method.
20 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex