The method of constructing profiles of three-dimensional objects and a device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: radio physics and laser tracking, control structures, underground structures, different roads, pipelines, mines, mining, and other inventive discrete laser scanning space in the plane perpendicular to the direction of the laser, with the subsequent registration of the reflected signal and determining the range for each of the discrete points of the scan, build profiles of interest with regard to the angular position of the points of the discrete scan and speed, while registering the reflected signal is separated into three signals, two of them spatial linearly converted into the video signals, the time interval between which is proportional to the distance R to the object, change the power of the third signal and when reaching the upper limits of the dynamic range limit the duration of the laser pulse, and the distance R is determined by the formula R=k1/(1+k2k3h), where h is a value proportional to the time interval between the centers of light marks; k1, k2the coefficients determined in the calibration; k3the coefficient associated with mornig profile contains installed on a moving medium pulse laser, the synchronization unit, the unit adjust the duration of the laser pulse, the data processing unit, comprising an input lens and connected in series, the first photodetector, the power generation information about the distance and the computer, and the second photodetector from the entrance lens and the unit of measurement of the power reflected signal, the block sampling measurements, includes a rotating mirror unit to stabilize the frequency of rotation of the mirror block synchronization of the phase of rotation of the mirror and run the laser in burst mode, the aperture with two holes and optically associated with the last two of the optical wedge, the first photodetector is made long and discretized. 2 S. and 4 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the field of radio physics and laser ranging and can be used to control the transverse and longitudinal profiles of railway structures, underground structures, different roads, pipelines, mines, mining, and also to build profiles of other structures and volumes.

The main directions in the development and improvement of methods and devices build profiles of three-dimensional objects are to increase the measurement accuracy, the density of the AI.

A device measuring the oversize tunnels [1] implements the method, which consists in forming a light path corresponding to the contour of the cross section of the tunnel, the projecting length of the path stencil reception of the optical signal light circuit with series-connected lens, optoelectronic transducer and electronic signal processing.

This way and realizing his device does not allow you to work even when the average ambient light, because the lowering of the contrast directly reduces the measurement accuracy. Implement large velocity measurements in this device is not possible, because the blurring of the light path during movement.

The known device for measuring dimensions and implements its way [2] developed by EUMIG (Austria), lies in the scanning dimension of the laser beam through a rotating measuring head, the speed of which is proportional to the distance traveled and the measurement of the distance to the points of the envelope. This device provides a measurement of the envelope along the path with an interval of 2 m At a stationary position of the measuring head the stage is aetsa way to build profiles of three-dimensional objects, implemented in the device Profil 2000" [3] consisting of discrete laser scanning space in the plane perpendicular to the direction of motion with the subsequent registration of the reflected signal and determining the distance to each point of the discrete scan, build profiles of interest with regard to the angular position of the points of the discrete scan and speed.

Device Profil 2000" contains mounted on the moving means of the laser, the data processing unit, comprising an input lens and photodetector connected in series, the power generation information about the distance and the computer, the synchronization unit, the unit of sampling measurements, includes a rotating mirror.

Information about the profile are the rotation angle of the rotating mirror and the distance from the viewpoint to the obstacle. The number of points measured in the same profile, reaches 200. The measured profile is made from a stationary state of the device and is from 0.8 to 2.0 with depending on the number of points on the perimeter of the profile. Tapes for final processing is transmitted to a stationary computer.

Technical result provided by the invention, the possibility is I work at a high-frequency in the microsecond regime in the meter and centimeter range.

The invention consists in achieving the mentioned technical result in the method of constructing profiles of three-dimensional objects, providing discrete laser scanning space in the plane perpendicular to the direction with the subsequent registration of the reflected signal and determining the distance to each point of the discrete scan, build profiles of interest with regard to the angular position of the points of the discrete scan and speed, while registering the reflected signal is separated into three signals, two of them simultaneously and spatially linearly converted into the video signals, the time interval between which is proportional to the distance To the object, measure the power of the third signal and when reaching the upper limits of the dynamic range limit the duration of the laser pulse, and the distance R is determined by the formula

R k1/(1+k2k3h) (1)

where h is the magnitude of which is proportional to the time interval between the centers of light marks;

k1, k2the coefficients determined in the calibration;

k3CL is divided into three equal power and signal form, and spatial linear transformation is performed along the line connecting the centers of the first and second divided signals.

The essence of the invention is to achieve the mentioned technical result, in particular a device for constructing profiles of three-dimensional objects containing mounted on the moving means is a pulse laser, the data processing unit, comprising an input lens and connected in series, the first photodetector, the power generation information about the distance and the computer, the synchronization unit connected with the first sensor and the processing unit of the information about the distance, the unit of sampling measurements, includes a rotating mirror, optionally, in the device entered the unit adjust the duration of the laser pulse, the output of which is connected to the input of the laser, the data processing unit further includes a serially connected second photodetector output lens and the unit of measurement of the power reflected signal, the output of which is connected to the first input of the unit adjust the duration of the laser pulse, and the second input with the output of the synchronization unit, the aperture with two holes and optically associated with the last two Opticheskie further comprises a unit to stabilize the frequency of rotation of the mirror, the input and output of which are associated with exit and entrance of the rotating mirror, and the second input is connected with the block synchronization and block synchronization of the phase of rotation of the mirror and run the laser in burst mode, the input of which is connected with the output of the rotating mirror, and the output from the second input unit adjust the duration of the laser pulse and the power generation information about the distance.

The holes in the diaphragm are made identical and are symmetrical relative to the center of the input lens, in front of the aperture along the axis of the input lens installed prism, optical wedges are made identical and installed in front of the entrance lens opposite the holes of the screen, and extended the discretized sensor installed along the line connecting the centers of light marks formed by the apertures in the plane of the image input lens, optically coupled with the middle of the working interval ranges, and the entrance prism Shusterman with the laser output, the output with the axis of rotation of the mirror, wherein the second photodetector to the input lens is installed on the side opposite the entrance prism, and the axis of the lens parallel to the axis of the input lens.

The position and angle optical cling the SEM measurement range range.

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram explaining the principle of measuring the distance to the surface profile of Fig. 2 the device to build profiles of three-dimensional objects; Fig. 3 the measurement results of one flat profile obtained using the described device

On the object (Fig. 1), which measure the distance R, by using the optical system 9 and the deflecting element 6 to form the laser beam 1 in the form of spots L, the dimensions and proportions of the sides of which depend on the working range of distances. Of the reflected from the object signal using aperture 3 with two holes 4 located at a distance b from each other, form two signals that are passing each identical path through the wedges 5 and the corresponding marginal zone of the lens 2 having a focal length f', formed on the spatial linear photodetector 7 two images 8 spot L on the object. The sensor 7 converts the image 8 in two video signal, the time interval between which is proportional to the distance d on the photodetector 7 between markers 8. At the same time using the device 10 to measure the power of the third signal equal to the thickness of the first and second signals, and, if the latter is beyond the upper edge is of several meters to tens of nanoseconds, while the laser emits pulses of microsecond duration, the adjustment of the duration of the pulse and, accordingly, the received power is carried out simultaneously with the registration of the received signal. This instantaneous power control allows to carry out measurements on objects with a very large range and high dynamics reflective properties.

The range R to the object L can be calculated from the relation (1).

To obtain the values of the coefficients k1and k2the calibration process is as follows. Operating range range is divided into m sections. At the distances determined from the expression Ri=Rmin+iR, where R (Rmax-Rmin)/m, Rminand Rmaxrespectively the minimum and maximum range of the working range, a i 1, m, along the axis of the optical system has consistently set flat object and the value of hirecorded at a range of Ri. The obtained information taking into account expressions (1) and the previously known values of k3treated using the method of least squares and obtain the values of the coefficients k1and k2. Thus the values of k2and k2automatically plot the focal plane of the optical system.

For example, during calibration in the range of distances Rmin=700 mm to Rmax3500 mm for R 100 mm, m 29, f', 110 mm b 50 mm and the value of f corresponding to the receiving focus lens at a distance of 1700 mm, were obtained the values of the coefficients k1=1855 mm and k20,171 mm-1while k3= 0,013 mm

Device for constructing profiles of three-dimensional objects (Fig. 2) contains a rotating mirror 14, the reflective surface which is angled 45oto the axis of rotation, located on the continuation of the optical axis of the input lens 2. In front of the entrance lens 2 is installed aperture 3 with two holes 4. Holes 4 are preferably located symmetrically with respect to the optical axis of the input lens 2. Prism 6 is located on the optical axis of the input lens and Shustrova with rotating mirror 14 and the laser 1 so that the beam 17 of the laser spread along the optical axis of the lens 2 and reflected from the rotating mirror 14 at a point coinciding with the axis of rotation. Optical wedges 5 are installed between the diaphragm 3 with two holes 4 and the input lens 2. The diagram shows the unit to stabilize the frequency of rotation of the mirror 15, the block synchronization phase fraserdale 11, the unit adjust the duration of a laser pulse 12, the spatial linear photodetector 7, a second photodetector with an input lens 10, the power generation information about the range 8 and the computer 8, the United indicated on the diagram, and 0-the object whose coordinates are measured.

On the form A (Fig. 2 shows the preferred arrangement of the holes 4 in the aperture 3 of the prism 6 and the second photodetector 10 with the input lens.

Opto-mechanical part of the device should be mounted on the rigid base. Instead of a prism can be used any periscopic device, the crucial task of removing the laser radiation from the devices so as to provide a radiation direction along the optical axis of the input lens. If the aperture with two symmetrical holes to perform a photolithographic method on the glass substrate, the optical wedges may be affixed directly to the surface of the substrate. As a spatial linear photodetectors may be used, the line CCD or photodiode line.

The method of using the device is as follows.

The synchronization unit 13 produces the op is Nanoha of the photodetector 7, block the formation of information about the range of 8, unit of measure of the power reflected signal 11 and the block to stabilize the frequency of rotation of the mirror 15, which provides the phasing frequency of rotation of the mirror 14 with the frame rate of the photodetector 7.

Block synchronization of the phase of rotation of the mirror and run the laser in batch mode 16 generates for each turn of the mirror 14 pulse defines the start of the review or cycle of the device. The position of the start pulse survey also provided fazirovannym with the frame rate of the receiver 7. The pulse start of the review arrives at the processing unit of the information about the distance 8, providing a clocking operation. During one revolution of the rotating mirror 14 is formed by a bundle of impulses launches laser 1, located uniformly in the interval quantum device that allows every frame work of the photodetector 7 to form one pulse laser 1, fazirovannye frame rate of the receiver. Thus, during one revolution of the rotating mirror is formed of n laser pulses, spaced evenly in the time cycle of the device that the high stability of frequency of rotation of the mirror enables the number of the laser pulse in the pack is definitely the position of the laser spot L on the object.

The signal laser 18, scattered on the object is reflected from the rotating mirror 14 and passing through the holes 4 of the diaphragm 3, the entrance lens 2 and the wedges 5, in the form of two image spots of the laser L to the object is fed to the input of the spatial linear photodetector 7.

The block forming information on the range 8 essentially produces the value of h, is proportional to the distance d between the two images (Fig. 1). The signal from block 8, which contains information about the h value enters in the computer 9, and the frame number in the quantum device provides information about the angular position of the rotating mirror.

At the same time in the same frame work of the device of the second photodetector to the input lens 10 registers the third divided signal 19, and the unit 11 measures its power. In case of excess of the last upper bound of the dynamic range of the photodetector 7 unit 11 generates a corresponding signal sent to the unit adjust the duration of a laser pulse 12, which causes the interruption of the pulse, thus reducing its energy in the current frame operation. A similar procedure is carried out in each frame.

The computer 9, using the formula (1) and openta k3, calculates the position of the illuminated point of the object in this frame receiver operation in the polar coordinate system and then converts it into the coordinate system of a vehicle. Such frames per revolution of the rotating mirror is obtained n, respectively, the number of pulses of the laser in one bundle generated for one revolution of the mirror 14, or, what is the same, the number n is equal to the number of frames of the photodetector 7 for one revolution of the rotating mirror 14.

Device mounted on the moving means so that the plane of rotation of the laser beam 17 is perpendicular to the direction of motion, allows continuous shooting profiles along the trajectory path.

The device is tested at the stand of JSC DUP "standard", as well as on the mobile laboratory of the all-Union scientific research Institute of railway transport. The following results are obtained:

The range of working distances of 0.7-3.5 m

The accuracy of the measurement range, respectively 2-25 mm

Precision measurement of angular coordinates in my profile < 0,2%

The time of measurement coordinates at one point 65 ISS

The number of measurement points in one profile 500

The measuring time of one profile 25 MS

The distance between, is received when tested using the described device. The profile consisted of items with different reflectivity: green oil paint, whitewash, sliced dark wood. The dimension of X and Y corresponds to millimeters at the point X00 mm and Y04600 mm were the axis of rotation of the mirror device.

Thus the proposed technical solutions were allowed to raise:

measurement speed one two-dimensional profile from 40 to 200 times;

precision profile design in two and a half times by increasing the number of measurement points in one profile from 200 to 500;

speed build profiles of three-dimensional objects due to the possibility of operation at high vehicle speeds.

Application of the proposed technical solutions essentially opens a new class of devices, which allow to measure with high frequency (tens of kilohertz) in the microsecond regime, in the meter range distances with millimeter (inch) accuracy in the centimeter range of distances to obtain an accuracy of several tens of micrometers.

Sources of information

1. SU, ed. St. N 1323852, CL G 01 B 21/00, 1986.

2. Rilssderg000 for automatic profill meuzurement and independent analytical output processing Sacher F. "Large Rock Caverns: proc Int Symp Helsinki", 25-28, 1986, Vol Oxford e.a. 1987, 1009-1016. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE USSR. Rail transport, joint volume RJ VINITI, No. 5, 1988.

1. The method of constructing profiles of three-dimensional objects, providing discrete laser scanning of an object in space in the plane perpendicular to the direction of movement of the laser, with the subsequent registration of the reflected signal by the photodetector and determining the range to each point of the discrete object scanning, building a profile of the object taking into account the angular position of the points of the discrete scan speed and laser, characterized in that the registration of the reflected signal is separated into three signals, two of which spatial linearly converted into the video signals, the time interval between which is proportional to the distance to a corresponding point on the object, measure the power of the third signal and upon reaching the upper limits of the dynamic range of the photodetector limit the duration of the laser pulse, and the distance R is determined by the formula

R k1/(1 + k2k3h),

where h is the magnitude of which is proportional to the time interval between the centres of the video signals;

k1, k2the coefficients opredelennogo linear transformation of the photodetector.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the reflected signal is divided into three equal power and signal form.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the spatial linear transformation shall be along the line connecting the centers of the first and second divided signals.

4. Device for constructing profiles of three-dimensional objects containing made with the possibility of installation on a moving medium pulse laser, the data processing unit, comprising an input lens and connected in series, the first photodetector, the power generation information about the distance and the computer, the synchronization unit, the first and second outputs of which are connected respectively to the input of the first photodetector and the second input of the processing unit of the information about the distance, the unit of sampling measurements, including installed with the possibility of rotation of the mirror actuator, characterized in that the device entered the unit adjust the duration of the laser pulse, the output of which is connected to the input of the laser, the data processing unit further includes a serially connected second photodetector with the entrance lens and the unit of measurement of the power reflected signal, the output of which loke synchronization aperture with two holes and optically associated with the latter two optical wedge optically coupled with the lens, the first photodetector is made long and discretized, the block sampling measurements further comprises a unit to stabilize the frequency of rotation of the mirror, the first input and the output of which is connected respectively with the first output and the drive input mirror and the second input is connected to the fourth output of the synchronization unit, and the block synchronization of the phase of rotation of the mirror and run the laser in burst mode, the input of which is connected with the second drive output mirror, and the output from the second input unit adjust the duration of the laser pulse and the third input of the processing unit of the information about the distance.

5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the holes in the diaphragm are made identical and are symmetrical about the optical axis of the input lens between the mirror and the aperture along the axis of the input lens is installed prism entrance face of which is optically associated with the laser, and the output mirror, the optical wedges are made identical and are installed between the input aperture and the lens opposite the apertures, and extensive discretizer is iaphragm in the plane of the image input lens, optically conjugate with the plane in the object space corresponding to the middle of the operating range of distances, while the second photodetector to the input lens is installed on the side opposite the input face of the prism and the optical axis of the lens parallel to the optical axis of the input lens.

6. The device under item 4 or 5, characterized in that the position and angle of the optical wedges is selected from the condition of ensuring the availability of signals from both of the apertures on the first photodetector in the whole range of the measurement range.

 

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FIELD: measuring arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the X-axis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Z-axis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.

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EFFECT: increased precision of measurements and increased trustworthiness of profile control results.

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FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring the angles of inclination of the members of the surface of the sheet in each of the belt longitudinal sections of the strip selected by the measuring device. The angle defined by the lines of intersection of the plane tangent to the surface of the sheet at the point of measurements and plane tangent to the bearing members are measured. The flatness of the sheet is determined from the formula proposed.

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FIELD: electro-optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: electro-optical device for controlling profile of blade runner has motionless horizontal base, two vertical posts disposed onto base at opposite sides of runner to be controlled, first carriage disposed onto motionless base for movement between vertical posts in parallel to X axis and provided with first linear movement detector and first drive. Device also has second and third carriage mounted onto vertical posts for movement in parallel to Z axis and provided with second third linear movement transducers correspondingly, contrivance for mounting blade disposed onto first carriage which provides strict positioning of blade runner in vertical plane. First and second electro-optical heads are disposed onto second and third carriages and formed each of narrow light beam sources of multi-element photoreceiver, which is provided with sweep-out and code forming unit. Device also has objective. Objectives of electro-optical heads are mounted for triangle optical communication of photoreceivers with narrow light beam sources through corresponding surfaces of runner of blade to be controlled. Device also has second drive and computer. Inputs of computer are connected with outputs of linear movement detectors and of multi-element photoreceivers; outputs of computer are connected with drive of device. Device has joist which connects vertical posts; it forms the first portal and second portal which has vertical posts disposed at opposite sides of blade to be controlled. One post of second portal is attached to second carriage. Light radiation source and receiver, conjugated optically, are provided with corresponding objectives and are fixed at different posts of second portal. Flexible cinematic coupling connects second and third carriages. Second drive is disposed onto joist of first portal and it is provided with driving roller which communicates with flexible cinematic coupling. Output of light radiation receiver is connected with input of computer. False parts of contour of runner are eliminated out of memory of computer.

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