Device for measuring linear and angular movements

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to measuring technique and can be used, for example, for measuring linear and angular displacements in mechanical engineering, machine tools and robotics. The technical result is to increase functionality. The inventive device for measuring linear and angular displacements contains the measuring raster 1, two channel readout consisting of illuminators 2, indicator raster 3, associated with the measuring raster, photodetectors 4. The outputs of the photodetectors 4 passes through the shaper 5 to the inputs of the decoder 6, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs of the P - flip-flops 7, 8, 9. The XOR 10, an inverter 11, waiting multivibrator 12, scheme And 13 provide for the formation of a counting impulse coordinates at the input of reversible counter coordinates 14. This excludes the errors of determination of coordinates with the repeated reversal of the direction of motion and the vibrations of the raster. The generator of the pulses 18, the counter 16, the register storage durations of time intervals 15 provide the measurement of the durations of the time intervals between loads the Oia 17 for a given point in time. 2 Il.

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used, for example, for measuring linear and angular displacements in mechanical engineering, machine tools and robotics.

A device for measuring movements (ed. St. USSR N 1250847, CL 01 In 11/00, 1986).

Such a device does not allow to measure with reasonable accuracy the speed and acceleration of the object using the output of the sensor coordinate. In addition, this device places high demands on the alignment of its optical components, the stability of the circuit elements of the processing of information coming from the photodetectors.

The closest to the technical nature of the present device is nakaplivalsya reading device (Photoelectric converters of information. /Ed. by L. N. Presswhen, M. engineering, 1974, S. 178-182), containing the illuminator, the measuring and indicator rasters, balanced pair of photodetectors, the output of which is formed sinusoidal signals V1and V2shifted by the spatial phase /2 and arriving at the inputs of formers f1and f2. Each shaper has two outputs. With one output f the th output - rectangular voltage with a phase shifted in relation to the first. Thus, the outputs of formers f1and f2formed of four rectangular voltage with a spatial phase shift on /2. Pulse shaping addition serve four schema matching AND1AND4with output which pulses are received on the scheme OR1. Pulse shaping subtracting serve as schema matching AND5AND8with outputs which pulses are received at the inputs of the circuit OR2. The first input circuit AND a1AND8impulses are obtained by dierentiating the positive fronts of the rectangular voltage differential chain D1-D8on the second inputs of these circuits are served themselves a rectangular voltage . When the movement of the measuring raster grid in the direction of +X by reversing sensor PC receives signals adding

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When the movement of the measuring raster grid in the opposite direction (-X) reversible counter PC signal subtraction

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When moving the measuring grid on one pitch at the counter served four pulse.

However, such a readout device prevents both from within tchiki to measure the velocity (acceleration) along with the corresponding devices of the processing of their signals. This leads to an increase in the cost of the product. The use of speed measurement evidence is accumulating reading device encounters significant difficulties arising from the principle of the formation of the pulses in the device. The presence of the minor deviations of the magnitude of the phase shift of the signal at the outputs of the photodetectors from /2 (due to inaccuracy of manufacture, Assembly, alignment and so on), the difference in amplitude of signals at the outputs of the photodetectors (due to variation of parameters of photodetectors, uneven illumination, temporal drift of illuminators and photodetectors, fixing errors, inaccuracies adjustment and so on), the difference threshold switching shapers (due to variation of parameters, inaccuracies adjustments, temporary drift and so on) lead to the fact that the four sampling pulse period of the raster are unevenly. This irregularity, without little or no impact when measuring coordinates, leads to significant errors in determining the speed, and even more so when the definition of acceleration, so as to obtain these data are used duration of time intervals between reading them for example in the form of a disk with a slotted cutter radial slots, minor deviations of the position of the photosensors in the radial direction lead to changes in the duty cycle of the pulses from the photodetectors, which leads to the results described above.

The technical result is to expand the functionality of the device, reducing requirements on precision and alignment, reducing the cost.

The result is achieved that the device for measuring linear and angular displacements, containing the measuring raster associated with the object, read channel, made in the form installed in series and optically coupled illuminator, measuring raster optically conjugate with him flat-screen sensor, driver signal, whose input is connected to the output of the photodetector, and a reversible counter, a series-connected second photodetector and the second driver signal is supplied serially fitted and optically connected to the second illuminator and the second display screen that is optically conjugate with the measurement pattern and forming with the second photodetector and the driver signals of the second channel is read by the decoder, three triggers, Skorosti and acceleration the register storage durations of time intervals, a counter generator counting pulses and the outputs of the signal conditioners are connected respectively to first and second inputs of the decoder, the first and second outputs of which are connected to first and second inputs of the first flip-flop, the third and fourth outputs of the decoder are connected to first and second inputs of the second trigger, fifth and sixth outputs of the decoder are connected to first and second inputs of the third trigger accordingly, the output of the third trigger is connected to the third input of the decoder and to the input of the standby multivibrator, the output of the first flip-flop connected to the first input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element, the first input of the reversible counter, the first input block definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration, the second input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element connected to the output of the second trigger, the output of the EXCLUSIVE OR element connected to the input of the inverter, the output of which is connected to the first input circuit And to the second input of which is connected to the output of the standby multivibrator, the output of the circuit And is connected to the second input of the reversible counter, the first inputs of register storage durations of time intervals and counter, while the output of the generator scietifically time intervals, the output of which is connected to the second input of block definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration, to the third input of which is connected to the output of the reversible counter and indicator rasters are set in relation to the measuring raster with mutual shift of a quarter pitch.

Introduced in the proposed device the generator of the counting pulses, a counter, a register storing durations of time intervals, the controller can determine the displacement, velocity and acceleration and linkages between them provides a measurement of time intervals between the arrival of the pulses coordinates, storing successive measurements in the register storage durations of time intervals (the number N2 is determined by the method of forming estimates of position, velocity, and acceleration): use these values to determine the displacement, velocity and acceleration for a given point in time.

The connection between the circuit output And the first input counter and register storage durations of time intervals provides synchronization of processes reading data from the meter, record it in the register storage durations of time intervals with simultaneous erasing values, ptx2">

There is a relationship between the output of the first flip-flop and the first input of the block definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration allows to detect the change of the direction of rotation (movement) on the return to avoid errors in determination of coordinates, velocities and accelerations.

Decoder, three trigger, waiting for the multivibrator, the EXCLUSIVE OR element, the inverter circuit And the connections between them provide a determination of the direction of entry into the area of analysis (i.e., in a zone in which the output of at least one of the shapers of the signal is high), the direction of the exit of this zone and the formation of a counting impulse coordinates, if these trends are the same. Such a scheme eliminates erroneous formation of the pulses coordinates when reversing the direction of rotation (movement), when the oscillatory motion, and do the counting pulses are thus rigidly attached to the measuring period of the raster. Hard binding of the counting pulses to the period measuring raster leads to the fact that the results of the measurement of the velocity and acceleration are insensitive to significant deviations of the magnitude of the phase shift between the signals at the outputs of the signal conditioners from mn the settings, the alignment. The results of measurement of coordinates can be kept at this constant error not exceeding the value of 1/2 of the pitch, which is easy to compensate for. Reduced requirements for precision manufacturing, adjustment and alignment, as well as reduced requirements for stability of the parameters of the lighting, sensors, signal conditioners leads to the reduction of the cost.

It should also be noted that the signal that determines the direction of counting pulses generated at the output of the first trigger that is set before passing the accounts of the momentum coordinates, which is essential for the normal functioning of certain types of reversible counters (coordinates).

In Fig.1 presents a functional diagram of a device for measuring linear and angular displacements, Fig.2 graphs of voltages at various points of the circuit devices.

The device comprises a measuring raster 1, two channel readout consisting of illuminators 2, indicator raster 3, associated with the measuring raster 1, photodetectors 4, located against a flat raster 3, and indicator 3 rasters have a mutual shift of a quarter pitch. The outputs of the photodetectors 4 are the which are connected to the inputs 1, 2 triggers 7, 8, 9, respectively. To the outputs of the trigger 7, 8 connected to the EXCLUSIVE OR element 10, the output of which is connected to the input of the inverter 11. The output of the third trigger 9 is connected to the third input of the decoder 6 and to the input of the standby multivibrator 12. The outputs of the inverter 11 and the standby multivibrator 12 is connected to the input schema And 13, the output of which is connected to the second input of the reversible counter 14, to the first inputs of register storage durations of time intervals 15 and the counter 16. The trigger output 7 is connected to the first input of the reversible counter 14 and with the first course of block 17 definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration. The generator output of the counting pulses 18 is connected to a second input of the counter 16, the output of which in turn is connected to a second input of register storage durations of time intervals 15, the output of which is connected to the second input unit 17 definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration.

The device operates as follows. The outputs of the photodetectors 4 are formed quadrature signals. Shapers signals 5 form signals with steep fronts (Fig.2) which are fed to the inputs of the decoder 6 X1and X2. These signals are used in the decoder 6 for generating signals Ythe waters of the trigger 9, at the entrance of which is formed the signal X3serving to control the process of forming the information received at the inputs of the triggers 7 and 8. In either direction of rotation of the trigger 7 is a record of information about which direction is into the area of analysis the area of analysis is determined from the condition that at least one of the shapers of the signal 5 is high). In the trigger 8 provides information about the direction in which occurred the exit from the zone of analysis regardless of the direction of rotation (movement). Triggers 7 and 8 are controlled by the signals Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4which are formed as follows:

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The output signal of the trigger 7 is used to determine the direction of the account reversible counter coordinates 14 and the operating mode determination unit 17 definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration. The direction of the entrance in the area of analysis and the direction of exit from the zone analysis (stored in triggers 7 and 8) are compared by the EXCLUSIVE OR element 10, the output of which is formed a signal "0" if these trends are the same and "1" otherwise. Thus, there is an analysis of the direction of movement of the measuring raster. At the same time, Ira coordinates.

If the direction of the entrance zone and the exit zone are the same, the signal "0" is supplied from the output of the EXCLUSIVE OR element 10, is inverted by the inverter 11 and is transmitted to the first input circuit And 13, thus allowing the passage of the signal from the standby multivibrator 12 to the circuit output And 13. Waiting multivibrator 12 forms from the decay of the signal at the output of the trigger 9 short pulse. This impulse through the circuit And 13 is supplied to the second input of the reversible counter 14, the first inputs of register storage durations of time intervals 15 and the counter 16.

If the direction of the entrance in the area of analysis and exit zones do not match, then the counting pulse of the coordinates does not pass through the schema And 13. Reversible counter 14 considers supplied to the second input pulses. The sign, which counts each pulse is determined by the signal received at the first input of counter 14. Code stored in the counter 14 is fed to a third input of block 17 definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration. Consider how information is generated, and supplied to the second input of this block. Generator counting pulses 18 delivers the pulses to the counter 16. When receiving a counting pulse coordinates on the input 1 of the counter 16 by pulses from generator schetnyh time elapsed between the last two pulses arrive at the input 1 of the counter 16. This number is overwritten in the register storage durations of time intervals 15. While the "old" number stored in the register storage durations of the time intervals of 15, is erased. Then reset the counter 16 and the renewal of account. Thus, in the case of storage durations of the time intervals of 15 stores the number characterizing the duration of the time intervals between the arrival of the pulses of the coordinates. These numbers come in block 17 definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration, where the calculation of estimates of position, velocity, and acceleration for a given point in time. The number of numbers required for the evaluation of the coordinates, velocity and acceleration, depends on the estimation algorithms and may not be less than 2. Speed and acceleration can be determined, for example, difference methods. Generating estimates of position, velocity, and acceleration for a given point in time can be performed using linear or nonlinear extrapolation and interpolation. At the first input unit 17 definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration signal output from the ATA, the velocity and acceleration when reversing the direction of movement.

In the process, the proposed device provides increased functionality of the measurement of velocity and acceleration, reduced requirements for precision and alignment, reducing the cost.

Using the described technical solutions in comparison with the prototype allows you to:

to provide enhanced functionality, namely the measurement of the velocity and acceleration due to the introduction of the generator counting pulses of the counter register storage durations of time intervals, the block defining the coordinates, velocities and accelerations, as well as through special structuring of the formation of the pulses of coordinates that minimize the variance of the durations of time intervals at a fixed speed;

to increase the accuracy of the measurement of displacement and coordinates due to the estimation of the coordinates at a given point in time (including in the intervals between arrival of the pulses coordinates) by means of a generator counting pulses of the counter register storage durations of time intervals, the block defining the coordinates, velocities and accelerations;


to reduce the cost of manufacture of the device by reducing the requirements on precision and alignment of the optical and mechanical elements of the device, as well as by reducing the requirements for stability of the parameters of the lighting, sensors and signal conditioners.

Device for measuring linear and angular displacements, containing the measuring raster associated with the object, read channel, made in the form installed in series and optically coupled illuminator, measuring raster, optically it is associated with the indicator of the raster and the photodetector, the driver signal, whose input is connected to the output of the photodetector, and a reversible counter, a series-connected second photodetector and the second driver signal, characterized in that it has consistently established and optically connected to the second light and the second indicator pattern, optical the second read channel, decoder, three triggers, XOR, inverter, waiting for the multivibrator, the input circuit And block definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration, storage register durations of time intervals, a counter generator counting pulses and the outputs of the signal conditioners are connected respectively to first and second inputs of the decoder, the first and second outputs of which are connected to first and second inputs of the first flip-flop, the third and fourth outputs of the decoder are connected to first and second inputs of the second trigger, fifth and sixth outputs of the decoder are connected to first and second inputs of the third trigger, respectively, the output of the third trigger is connected to the third input of the decoder and to the input of the standby multivibrator, the output of the first flip-flop connected to the first input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element, the first input of the reversible counter, the first input unit definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration, the second input of the EXCLUSIVE OR element connected to the output of the second trigger, the output of the EXCLUSIVE OR element connected to the input of the inverter, the output of which is connected to the first input circuit And to the second input of which is connected to the output of the standby multivibrator, in time intervals and counter, when the generator output of the counting pulses is connected to the second input of the counter output of the counter is connected to the second input of register storage durations of time intervals, the output of which is connected to the second input of block definitions of displacement, velocity and acceleration, to the third input of which is connected to the output of the reversible counter and indicator rasters are set in relation to the measuring raster with mutual shift of a quarter pitch.

 

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