Free-threaded turbine


(57) Abstract:

Usage: hydraulic equipment, allowing to convert the energy flow freely into other forms of energy. The predominant use is the turbine on the free horizontal flow to generate electricity. The inventive turbine is fully immersed in water, the ratio of the dimensions of technology fits into the transverse profile of the river and there are all the blades, and moving against the flow, no resistance to rotation and create torque, and at any point in the movement of the blades switchgear clearly keeps them in the position that produces the maximum torque. 4 Il.

The invention relates to hydraulic equipment for energy conversion of any thread in other forms of energy.

The predominant use of this turbine to generate electricity to flow from any angle.

The closest technicznej solutions to the invention are reactive povorotnoye turbine propeller various modifications. General properties of analogues with Isabela flow at a certain angle and transmitting to the shaft of the turbine;

capability is required reversal of the blades in relation to the stream;

simultaneous regulation of the rotation of the blades;

the variability of the number of blades and their configuration depending on the desired mode of work of the turbine and hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow.

As a prototype of the invention can be considered povorotnoye turbine (turbine Century Kaplan). On the constructive execution povorotnoye turbines do not differ from the propeller, but they are in the process of the blades of the impeller can be rotated around their axes perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. The rotation of the blades is effected by an actuator, usually located in the hub of the wheel, and a system of mechanisms associated with the dependence of the flow rate passing through the turbine and the load input to the generator power. Due to the applied mechanism of rotation of the blades in this type of turbine area high efficiency significantly expands the consumption of idling reduced (5-8% instead of 22-45% of the propeller).

Among the most significant disadvantages of the prototype include the following:

the sleeve of the swivel mechanism reduces the useful section of the work flow and reduces the size of the blades;

dual function of the blade as the blade and arm) reduces the efficiency of the lever and the blade lever operated almost Pollini, and a considerable part of the blade is less profitable area of rotational motion;

the efficiency of a propeller turbine is due only to the pressure flow, and its formation is associated with complex and expensive hydraulic systems;

the blade-arm have constructive apothekenow dependence, therefore, deprived of the possibility of variation of the optimal ratio of the area of the blade and the length of the lever;

due to the strict dependence of the curvature and angle of the blade from the technological regime turbine denied the opportunity in favor of efficiency or power to increase their dimensions in the radial or axial directions.

An object of the invention is the creation of a generic type turbine, which would

most have eliminated the disadvantages of the prototype;

rabotauschii resource flow without disturbing the ecological, transport, fishery and water regimes of rivers;

had high efficiency in a broad range of capacities;

had no limitations overall development in the radial and axial direction.

The invention consists in the fact that, structurally separating the blade-arm prototype into independent components, in conjunction with the rotary mechanism of the blades, the turbine becomes technological, structural and functional together a fundamentally new characteristics, expressed in the following:

eliminated a number of fundamental shortcomings of the prototype;

the blade may, independently of the arm to take in relation to the flow angle from About 90oto have its own axis, perpendicular to the lever and rotate it 360oto have the maximum possible size and configuration, the allowable dimensions of natural or organized thread to be constructive and material diversity and performance, to use all the space in the most effective area of the impeller of the turbine, the center of gravity to rely on at a point remote from the center of the wheel;

the blade has acquired the translational-rotational motion that allowed them technological freedom, allowing torque force is applied to the end, to have its dimensions and material execution, regardless of the blades, to use it for other structural and functional goals;

structural simplicity rotary mechanism of the blades nevertheless ensures high functional reliability of their synchronous rotation, namely, that the installation angle of the blade for each point of its movement clearly supported in such position when torque from the flow is maximum.

In Fig. 1 shows a General diagram of the turbine, a side view of the supporting-rack-mount option; Fig. 2 the same cantilever-suspension variant of Fig. 3 General scheme of the four-bladed turbine, a top view, the horizontal projection of Fig. 4 - kinematic scheme of the system, illustrating the idea of the swivel mechanism of the blades, as the main essence of the invention.

A specific example of the invention can serve as Fig. 1-3, which is represented structurally-mechanical scheme, which can be a universal basis for the design of the turbine with any number of blades required for specific technical and economic conditions.

The main bearing element, providing turboranger is the case of the suspension 1, on which is mounted the plate 4 suspension and leading gear 5. In the case of the suspension with bearings 3 set the power shaft 2. With the help of a flange 7 to the power shaft is attached to the lever 9, is installed on the axis 12 of the driven gear 11 and the blade 10, and the mechanism of turning vanes: transmitting gear 6 and the transmitting shaft 8.

The efficiency of the turbine occurs under the action of the flow on the blade, the structure as a whole starts to rotate. Synchronous rotation of the turbine and the blades depending on the flow rate or capacity of the plant is regulated and maintained by the mechanism of rotation of the blades, consisting of the leading 5 led 11, the transmission 6 gears and gear shaft 8.

The above example is not a single technical solution, but is merely an illustration of the possibilities of practical solutions as ideas. In practice, there may be used and other variations as the number of blades or rotary mechanism without disturbing the basic idea of the incarnation.

In the above example, the terms of the arm or body of the suspension should not be understood purely straightforward: they should be given a broad meaning that encompasses all possible modifications and technical Menno-social efficiency of the invention in fully at this stage is very difficult to determine; however, estimates of comparative analyses with analogues, full-scale tests of existing models and other research show that the invention is superior to existing counterparts in key economic parameters, more than two times; neizvjesnosti some phenomena leaves hope for better results.

Given that the turbine is the basic unit of hydropower equipment industry, which supplies a significant amount of energy to the national economy and the growing importance of environmental problems, a new type of turbine may be alternatives.

Free-threaded turbine containing a frame with reference to the fifth, which is the output shaft, levers and blades, each of which has an axle connected through the transmission gear to the output shaft, characterized in that it is provided with a hub mounted coaxially to the output shaft, and levers on the number of blades, one end of each lever rigidly mounted on the hub, and the other hinge axis of the blade, between pinion gear mounted on the axis of the blade, and a driven gear mounted on the output shaft, installed the PE the


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