(57) Abstract:Usage: hydraulic equipment, allowing to convert the energy flow freely into other forms of energy. The predominant use is the turbine on the free horizontal flow to generate electricity. The inventive turbine is fully immersed in water, the ratio of the dimensions of technology fits into the transverse profile of the river and there are all the blades, and moving against the flow, no resistance to rotation and create torque, and at any point in the movement of the blades switchgear clearly keeps them in the position that produces the maximum torque. 4 Il. The invention relates to hydraulic equipment for energy conversion of any thread in other forms of energy.The predominant use of this turbine to generate electricity to flow from any angle.The closest technicznej solutions to the invention are reactive povorotnoye turbine propeller various modifications. General properties of analogues with Isabela flow at a certain angle and transmitting to the shaft of the turbine;
capability is required reversal of the blades in relation to the stream;
simultaneous regulation of the rotation of the blades;
the variability of the number of blades and their configuration depending on the desired mode of work of the turbine and hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow.As a prototype of the invention can be considered povorotnoye turbine (turbine Century Kaplan). On the constructive execution povorotnoye turbines do not differ from the propeller, but they are in the process of the blades of the impeller can be rotated around their axes perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. The rotation of the blades is effected by an actuator, usually located in the hub of the wheel, and a system of mechanisms associated with the dependence of the flow rate passing through the turbine and the load input to the generator power. Due to the applied mechanism of rotation of the blades in this type of turbine area high efficiency significantly expands the consumption of idling reduced (5-8% instead of 22-45% of the propeller).Among the most significant disadvantages of the prototype include the following:
the sleeve of the swivel mechanism reduces the useful section of the work flow and reduces the size of the blades;
dual function of the blade as the blade and arm) reduces the efficiency of the lever and the blade lever operated almost Pollini, and a considerable part of the blade is less profitable area of rotational motion;
the efficiency of a propeller turbine is due only to the pressure flow, and its formation is associated with complex and expensive hydraulic systems;
the blade-arm have constructive apothekenow dependence, therefore, deprived of the possibility of variation of the optimal ratio of the area of the blade and the length of the lever;
due to the strict dependence of the curvature and angle of the blade from the technological regime turbine denied the opportunity in favor of efficiency or power to increase their dimensions in the radial or axial directions.An object of the invention is the creation of a generic type turbine, which would
most have eliminated the disadvantages of the prototype;
rabotauschii resource flow without disturbing the ecological, transport, fishery and water regimes of rivers;
had high efficiency in a broad range of capacities;
had no limitations overall development in the radial and axial direction.The invention consists in the fact that, structurally separating the blade-arm prototype into independent components, in conjunction with the rotary mechanism of the blades, the turbine becomes technological, structural and functional together a fundamentally new characteristics, expressed in the following:
eliminated a number of fundamental shortcomings of the prototype;
the blade may, independently of the arm to take in relation to the flow angle from About 90oto have its own axis, perpendicular to the lever and rotate it 360oto have the maximum possible size and configuration, the allowable dimensions of natural or organized thread to be constructive and material diversity and performance, to use all the space in the most effective area of the impeller of the turbine, the center of gravity to rely on at a point remote from the center of the wheel;
the blade has acquired the translational-rotational motion that allowed them technological freedom, allowing torque force is applied to the end, to have its dimensions and material execution, regardless of the blades, to use it for other structural and functional goals;
structural simplicity rotary mechanism of the blades nevertheless ensures high functional reliability of their synchronous rotation, namely, that the installation angle of the blade for each point of its movement clearly supported in such position when torque from the flow is maximum.In Fig. 1 shows a General diagram of the turbine, a side view of the supporting-rack-mount option; Fig. 2 the same cantilever-suspension variant of Fig. 3 General scheme of the four-bladed turbine, a top view, the horizontal projection of Fig. 4 - kinematic scheme of the system, illustrating the idea of the swivel mechanism of the blades, as the main essence of the invention.A specific example of the invention can serve as Fig. 1-3, which is represented structurally-mechanical scheme, which can be a universal basis for the design of the turbine with any number of blades required for specific technical and economic conditions.The main bearing element, providing turboranger is the case of the suspension 1, on which is mounted the plate 4 suspension and leading gear 5. In the case of the suspension with bearings 3 set the power shaft 2. With the help of a flange 7 to the power shaft is attached to the lever 9, is installed on the axis 12 of the driven gear 11 and the blade 10, and the mechanism of turning vanes: transmitting gear 6 and the transmitting shaft 8.The efficiency of the turbine occurs under the action of the flow on the blade, the structure as a whole starts to rotate. Synchronous rotation of the turbine and the blades depending on the flow rate or capacity of the plant is regulated and maintained by the mechanism of rotation of the blades, consisting of the leading 5 led 11, the transmission 6 gears and gear shaft 8.The above example is not a single technical solution, but is merely an illustration of the possibilities of practical solutions as ideas. In practice, there may be used and other variations as the number of blades or rotary mechanism without disturbing the basic idea of the incarnation.In the above example, the terms of the arm or body of the suspension should not be understood purely straightforward: they should be given a broad meaning that encompasses all possible modifications and technical Menno-social efficiency of the invention in fully at this stage is very difficult to determine; however, estimates of comparative analyses with analogues, full-scale tests of existing models and other research show that the invention is superior to existing counterparts in key economic parameters, more than two times; neizvjesnosti some phenomena leaves hope for better results.Given that the turbine is the basic unit of hydropower equipment industry, which supplies a significant amount of energy to the national economy and the growing importance of environmental problems, a new type of turbine may be alternatives. Free-threaded turbine containing a frame with reference to the fifth, which is the output shaft, levers and blades, each of which has an axle connected through the transmission gear to the output shaft, characterized in that it is provided with a hub mounted coaxially to the output shaft, and levers on the number of blades, one end of each lever rigidly mounted on the hub, and the other hinge axis of the blade, between pinion gear mounted on the axis of the blade, and a driven gear mounted on the output shaft, installed the PE the
FIELD: hydropower engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in lower power hydroelectric power stations. Proposed hydraulic turbine contains housing with end face covers, intake and exhaust branch pipes. Housing accommodates two rotors and streamlined guide. Rotors are made of made tubes provided with longitudinal cut and installed so that part of tube plays part of plate and other part plays part of rotor housing. Hydraulic turbine is furnished with system including pump, distributing device and pipelines providing pressure of water in tandem spaces between plates and housing.
EFFECT: reduced labor input in manufacture of hydraulic turbine.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow of small rivers and tides. Proposed hydraulic turbine has housing and wheel with helical blade provided with flange in form of cylindrical spiral secured on blade for changing outreach of flange.
EFFECT: increased transmission of flow to wheel, reduced losses for friction against stationary housing, increased efficiency of turbine.
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for creating stationary and transportable modular hydraulic plants and setting up unit hydraulic power stations. Proposed water-wheel generator has body, shaft with central bevel gear, planet pinion members, each containing blade and shaft with bevel gears on ends, one end of shaft being coupled with central gear. Central bevel gear is rigidly secured on one of ends of central shaft non-rotating around its axis and arranged vertically. Planet pinion members are arranged around central radially and uniformly. Shaft of each planet pinion member with bevel gears on its ends is made single-section, and bevel gear belonging to said shaft and pointed to side of blade of said planet pinion member engages with bevel secured rigidly and coaxially to smaller spur gear of blade reduction gear. Larger spur gear engages with smaller one, and it is secured on axle of blade installed vertically. Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation of brackets mounted by bases on cylindrical housing installed for rotation coaxially relative to central shaft, and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims. Upper rim, being drive wheel, is coupled with energy converters. Central shaft rests by both ends with locking on framework provided with pontoon devices. Invention makes it possible to use river current energy with maximum efficiency at no adverse effect on environment caused by submersion of river flood lands caused by building of dams, energy of ocean currents, energy of tides and ebbs owing to use of blades with two points of support. Versions of design of water-wheel generators are provided in description.
EFFECT: simple design, high adaptability to manufacture and servicing of water-wheel generator.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for converting energy of small water flows with low flow rates and heads into electric energy. Proposed device contains water wheel made up of rigidly connected drum, side walls, blades and hub rigidly connected by spokes with drum, connected by mechanical transmission through reduction gear with electric generator, bearing units, supports, water supply and water outlet systems. It is provided with water holding member installed at a distance of 5-10 mm from lower, in vertical axis, pointed of side walls from side of working part of water wheel and made radially curved with angle of enclosure equal to 150-165° and width equal to width of water wheel. Each blade of water wheel is made in form of plates consisting of two parts, with angle in between equal to 120-140° and ratio of length of one part of plate to length of other part secured on drum being 1/1.5 - 1/2.0, with angle to tangential line in place of contact of plate and drum equal to 25-45°. Number of blades is chosen to provide blade-to-blade distance over outer perimeter of side walls equal to 0.25-0.35 m. Water is installed on axle secured on supports by means of hub and bearing units. Used as electric generator is induction motor connected with automatic control system including switching and measuring equipment unit to which units of field capacitors, thyristor converter and useful load are connected and regulating, protection and control unit connected with thyristor converter unit to which ballast load and field capacitor units are connected. Mechanical transmission is made in form of chain train whose driving sprocket is secured on spokes of water wheel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, improved reliability and convenience in operation, simplified design of device.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to hydraulic power development. A support arm with a hinge, enabling rotation and fixing the water pipeline in the direction of flow of water, allows for using the power installation as a flow power installation or as a wave power installation. Functional capabilities of the power installation are widened due to use of water pipelines with orthogonal turbines and an electric power generator under water on the support arm. The amount of electrical power generated can also be increased due to that, the blades are oriented in opposite directions for rotation of orthogonal turbines in opposite, unchanged directions, independent of the direction of flow through the orthogonal turbines. The inductor coil of the electric power generator is immoveable, has two-directional operation and is between neighbouring short-circuited rotors, each connected to its axle of the orthogonal turbine. The short-circuited rotors rotate in opposite directions, are fitted with small clearances from the inductor coil and are fixed using lining made from material with low sliding friction. As a result, there is increased efficiency of using energy of water passing through the flow part of the convergent-divergent water pipeline.
EFFECT: wider functional capabilities of a power installation with orthogonal turbines.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric power production devices. The proposed unit comprises a vertical support tower and rotation mechanism, the said tower having lower and upper platforms to form upper and lower water tanks. The upper platform tank bottom has a water discharge opening. The inner space between aforesaid platforms forms at least one vertical chamber arranged between aforesaid water tanks. The tower features also at least one horizontal partition located in the said inner space to make the bottom of every chamber. Every partition forms a discharge opening. Rotation mechanism is located inside each chamber and incorporates multiple buckets and rotary shaft. The said buckets. Feature open parts arranged at different angles. Aforesaid shaft is linked up with the buckets and, in operation, with one of the power generator shafts. The upper water tank is filled with water to be discharged downward via appropriate openings into the chambers below to produce electric power.
EFFECT: unit operating cyclically with external power supply and generating continuously electric power.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: motors and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: motor for fluid energy utilisation consists of a frame with an orifice. There are drums in the cylindrical chambers of the frame. They are installed on vertical shafts, which are cinematically coupled with electrical generators. Blades are attached to the external cylindrical surfaces of the drums along helical line so that front edge of each blade is shifted on one end of the drum in the rotation direction relative to the blade end on the second drum end by 1 or 2 intervals of blades arrangement on the drum. The width of orifice inlet is no less than the doubled blade width and no more than the drum diametre. The exit cone along flow axis is less than the inlet cone no less than in two times.
EFFECT: simple structure, improved reliability, increased efficiency factor and wide range of application.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to designs of plants for transformation of sea current energy into electric energy. Generator that operates at sea current comprises cylindrical jacket 19 with inlet and outlet nozzles 20 and 21, two power generators 1 installed parallel to each other with cylindrical body 3 and external rotor 4, installed outside body 3, and hydrodynamic drive 2, made in the form of blades 9, which are radially installed on external surface of external rotors 4 in both power generators 1. Power generators 1 are arranged as birotating and are equipped with internal rotor 5, installed inside body 3. Internal and external rotors 4 and 5 are connected to each other by means of reduction gear 12, cavity of which is filled with lubricating liquid, which provides for opposite rotation of rotors 4 and 5, and blades 9 are arranged as flat.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at higher efficiency factor of plant with reduction of its dimensions and simultaneous increase of power.
2 cl, 2 dwg