Glass coating is obtained by spraying, and methods of forming the coating
(57) Abstract:Usage: as architectural glass and in their manufacture. The inventive product is made of glass with a coating obtained by spraying, comprising a glass substrate coated with a layered structure comprising an underlayer Si3N4the first layer of Nickel or its alloy, a silver layer, a second layer of Nickel or its alloy and the upper layer of Si3N4when the thickness of the glass substrate is equal to 2-6 mm, has a transmittance of visible light of at least 78%, the magnitude of the normal emissivity Ennot more than 0.12 and the value of the hemispherical emissivity Enno more than 0,16 through appropriate choice of layer thicknesses and method of manufacture, which consists in forming a sublayer Si3N4in the atmosphere containing nitrogen, the formation of the first layer of Nickel alloy, the formation of the silver layer, forming a second layer of Nickel alloy, the formation in the atmosphere containing nitrogen, the top layer Si3N4while the Nickel alloy is an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride, forming the first and second layers of an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride layer and cerebroretinal relates to products having coatings produced by sputtering technique, and methods for their preparation. More specifically, this invention relates to coated glass produced by the method of spraying with a high transmittance of visible light and excellent properties of reflection of infrared radiation, suitable for use as architectural glass and some unique methods for their preparation.For architectural flat glass, obtained, for example, using the float process, pyrolytic process and method of magnetron sputtering are two of the better known technologies of coating formation, regulating solar radiation.Known disadvantages of coatings obtained by spraying method, is that they often can simply be erased (i.e., there is no "durability"), and that polygenetic used when mounting the multi-architectural glass, often destroys these coatings. This, in turn, leads to the destruction of the seal between the panels, allowing harmful condensate to accumulate between them. On the other hand, the coating obtained by the method of sputtering, have known preient transmittance of visible light compared to most pyrolytic coatings. These last two properties, perhaps among the most important, which is required for some architectural glass.The term "emissivity" and "transmittance" is well known in the art and are used here in accordance with their well-known values. Thus, for example, the term "transmittance" means the transmittance of solar radiation, which consists of transmittance visible light transmittance of infrared radiation and transmittance of ultraviolet radiation. The total transmittance of solar radiation is usually characterized as the average of these values. As for the transmittance, the transmittance of visible light, as reported here, has a standard lamp With 380 -720 nm, infrared 800 -2100 nm, the ultraviolet radiation from 300 to 400 nm, and the total solar radiation of 300 to 2100 nm. However, as discussed below, explore the emissivity use a special range of infrared radiation (i.e., 2500 40000 nm).The transmittance of visible light can be measured using known MIA for each wavelength. Then, using ASTM E-308 "Method of calculating the colors of objects by using the system CEE Yearbook of ASTM standards, vol 14.02. If desired, can be used fewer points wavelength than prescribed. Another technique for the measurement of transmittance of visible light using a spectrometer, for example, a commercially available spectrophotometer Spectrogord production of Pacific Scientific Corporation. This device directly measures and records the transmittance of visible light.Emissivity (E) is a measure or characteristic as the absorption and reflectance of light at these wavelengths. It is usually represented by the formula:
E I reflectivity film
For architectural purposes reflectivity values greater importance in the so-called "middle range", sometimes also called "long-range" infrared spectrum of cure, i.e., in the range of 2500 to 40,000 nm. Thus, when used herein, the term "emissivity" refers to the emissivity measured in the infrared range of the spectrum, as defined by ASTM 1991 for measuring infrared radiation to calculate slotsmachine and calculation of the emissivity of architectural flat glass products using radiometric measurements". This standard and its position is indicated here by reference. In accordance with this standard emissivity is divided into two components: a hemispherical emissivity (Enand a normal emissivity (En).The actual accumulation of data in the measurement values of emissivity is normal and can be performed using, for example, a spectrophotometer type Becnman Model 4260 with the prefix "VW" (Becnman Scientific Instr.Corp.). The spectrophotometer measures the reflectivity depending on the wavelength and on the basis of these emissivity values calculated using the above-mentioned ASTM 1991, which is specified by the link.Others used here, the term is "surface resistivity". The surface resistance (Rsis well known in the art by the term and is used herein according to its well known value. Generally speaking, this term refers to the electrical resistance in ohms of any square of the layered structure on the glass substrate electric current passing through the layered structure. Surface resistivity is a measure of the toga ability as a measure of this characteristic, so important to many architectural glass. The surface resistance is conveniently measured with chetyrehhodovogo ohmmeter, for example, a four-point probe logging resistance head Magnetron Instruments Corp. Model M-800 production Signatone Corp. of Santallara,California.As mentioned above, for many architectural purposes it is desirable to have the glass with the lowest values of emissivity and Rsbecause the window glass reflects a significant amount of energy of infrared radiation incident on the glass. Generally speaking, glass with low emissivity are treated as glass, having the value of a hemispherical emissivity (En) less than about 0.16, and the magnitude of the normal emissivity (En) is less than approximately 0,12. Preferably, Enwas about 0.13 or less, and Enapproximately 0.1 or less. Therefore, it is preferable that at the same time, the surface resistance would have a value of less than about 10,50 m/sq of These glasses for competitiveness should ignore as much as possible of visible light, often about 76% or more when ispolzovanie to be preferred so that the transmittance of visible light was at least 78% for a glass thickness of about 2 to 6 mm, Even more preferably, the transmittance of visible light is approximately 80% or more, and preferably more than 80% of
Technology of production of architectural glass with the deposition of multilayer structures by magnetron sputtering of metal and/or metal oxides or nitrides on sheets of float glass is well known and has been tested and described a large number of combinations of known metals (such as Ag, Au, and so on), oxides and nitrides. In this technology to achieve the required results can be used either flat target, or tubular, or a combination thereof. In a known manner preferred plants for use in this invention is an installation for applying coatings by magnetron sputtering sold Airco Corporation. This commercially available installation described in U.S. patent N4356073 and N 4422916, respectively. The description of these patents included in this application.In particular, it is known to use the above facilities Airco coating spray application method for obtaining architectural-con is standard float glass the following layers:
Si3N4/Ni:Cr/Ag/Ni:Cr/Si3N4< / BR>where in practice it was found that the Ni:Cr is the weight ratio of Ni: Cr equal to 80/20, respectively (i.e., is a nichrome) and two nichrome layer have a thickness of 7 certain thickness of the Ag layer is only about 70 (also indicated that silver may be a thickness of approximately 100 ) layers are relatively thicker (e.g., 320 for the sublayer and about 450 for the top layer). In fact, since the thickness of the layer of silver (Ag) was 70 found that this layer is not continuous coating.In Fig. 1 (described in more detail below) schematically illustrates a typical installation Airco coating by sputtering technique, as described above, is used to obtain products known Airco. In Fig. 1 zone 1, 2, 4, and 5 consist of silicon (Si) tubular target ("t"), and the sputtering is conducted in an atmosphere of 100% n In zone 3 use a flat target "P" for the formation of three intermediate layers, i.e., Ni:Cr/Ag/Ni:Cr. In this zone, use the atmosphere of 100% argon. When using the coating method of spraying up to the present time believed that N2harm the silver in the process of formation of a coating Although this coating has good durability, i.e., the coating has a resistance to scratching, abrasion resistance and chemical resistance, and thus achieved an important part of its properties compared to pyrolytic coating, it was found that his other properties in practice is characterized by insufficient levels of reflectivity of infrared radiation and transmittance of visible light, usually desirable for architectural glazing with low emissivity. For example, for a glass thickness of about 3 mm, the transmittance of visible light (lamp) is approximately 76% Enapproximately 0,20-0,22, and Enapproximately 0,14 0,17. Both these values are relatively high emissivity. In addition, the measured surface resistance (Rs) has a relatively large value 15,80 m (kV), the more acceptable is the amount equal to the estimated 10.5 0 m/kV or less). Thus, although the durability is significantly improved and these coatings were compatible with conventional sealants (thus solving the problem of "delete edge" in multi-panel Windows, which is now not needed), quality regulate is">In the patent and scientific literature, it was reported that in addition to patterns Airco as layers to provide reflectivity of infrared radiation and other regulatory purposes light used other coatings containing layers of silver and/or Ni:Cr. See, for example, filters, Fabry-Perot and other previously known coatings and technology, described in U.S. patents NN 3682528 and 4799745 (and art which they were discussed and/or mentioned). See these metal dielectric multilayer structure obtained in numerous patents, for example, in U.S. patents NN 4179181, 3698946, 3978273, 3901997 and 3889026. Despite the fact that such other coverage is known about them or the information available, it appears that prior to our invention, none of the earlier works were not mentioned or have not achieved the ability to use highly productive method of coating by sputtering technique and at the same time obtain architectural glass, which not only durability approaching or adequate pyrolytic coatings, but also have the same excellent regulation of solar radiation.Additionally argues that, although it was found that the base set is enough. The reason for this low performance is related to the assumption that, as we discovered, is not applicable to our invention that the silver must be separated from the gaseous N2during the spraying process.Considering the above, it is obvious that in engineering there is a need for coating the layered structure formed by the sputtering technique, which for durability approached or met pyrolytic coatings, but which also would have optimal properties regulation of solar radiation, whereby it is necessary to solve the problem, usually related pyrolytic method. The terms "durable" or "durability" is used here in accordance with their well-known values in the technique, and reflect in this respect, the resistance to mechanical and chemical destruction, is close to or equal to the resistance, achieved by using a pyrolytic process. From the above it is also clear that in engineering there is a need in the coating formed in the sputtering process, which improves the transmittance, emissivity, and it is preferable that the surface resistance of these p the th known way.The aim of the present invention is to meet the above needs, as well as other needs technology that will become more obvious to a specialist in the study of the following description.Generally speaking, this invention fulfills the above described needs in the technique of obtaining glass with a coating obtained by the method of spray containing a glass substrate with a deposited from the surface of the glass, the layered structure comprising: an underlayer Si3N4the first layer of Nickel or Nickel alloy, a silver layer, a second layer of Nickel or Nickel alloy and the upper layer of Si3N4and in which, when the glass substrate has a thickness of about 2-6 mm, the glass coating preferably has a transmittance of visible light of at least approximately 78% (lamp) normal emissivity (En), less than about 0.12 and hemispherical emissivity Ehless about 0,16.In some particularly preferred embodiments of embodiment of the layered structure are "durable" and, as mentioned above, the transmittance of visible light is, MX variants of the embodiment of the values of emissivity are about 0.13 or less for Ehand about 0.10 or less for En. In the most preferred case, Ehapproximately 0,12-0,13, and Enabout 0,09 0,10. In these variants of the preferred embodiment the value of the surface resistance is 10.5 Ohms/sq or less, and preferably about 9 to About -10 m/sqIn some additional embodiments, the preferred embodiment of the present invention the layered structure consists of the above five layers and contains no other. In other preferred embodiments the embodiment of the layered structure can be supplemented with known coatings that do not violate the basic properties of the coating according to the present invention. In some cases, such additional layers may actually improve the basic properties of these coatings. One such other layered structure, as proposed in this invention, for example, consists mainly of layered structure due to the increase of the silver layer by applying two layers of silver and a layer of Nickel-based (e.g., nichrome) between them, so that the layered structure from the surface of the glass now mainly consists of:
Si3N4/Ni:Cr/Ag/Ni:Cr/Ag/Ni:Cr/Si3N4.This semilinearity scratches compared to the above-described five-layer structure, as well as even more high reflectivity of infrared radiation.Additional layers can sometimes include an optional top coating to further increase resistance to scratching or sublayers to increase adhesion, etc., However in the practice of the present invention the most preferred structures are described above, five-layer and seven-layer structure.In the practical use of the present invention, it was found that in the preferred embodiment variants for optimum desirable characteristics emissivity and transmittance, the thickness of the various layers is quite important to obtain the required final results. In this respect, and in comparison with the known above-described five-layer structure Airco was established the importance of using increased thickness of silver in excess of the prescribed Airco 70 by approximately 20 to 30% to ensure that, when the silver is applied in the form of one layer, essentially, a continuous layer of silver, and in all cases, to ensure that the reflective characteristics of infrared radiation. Thus, the present invention is inu silver layer 70 .For five-layer structure of the present invention, for example, having a single layer of silver, its preferred thickness is approximately 95 . Three variants of the embodiment, where the silver layer is reinforced in two layers with a layer of Nickel between them, the total thickness of both layers should be approximately 90 to 105 , and preferably the thickness of each should be approximately 50 . In this regard it should be noted that when the thickness of 50 silver layers become partially solid. Despite this condition, which is a problem in the structure of the Airco in the practical use of the present invention because it does not create harmful effects.Used layers on Nickel-base preferably the same nichrome Ni:Cr / 80 /20 used in the structure of the Airco. However, instead of the prescribed Airco thickness 10 (or more) nichrome layers in the present invention have a thickness of about 7 (e.g., 6 or less, which corresponds to a decrease in the thickness of about 15 to 20%).Like increasing the total thickness of the silver layer (s), each layer of Si3N4the present invention also has a greater thickness than the layers of the structure Airco. In preferred embodiments, opprimere, approximately 20% or more. Thus, in preferred embodiments embodiment instead of using the underlayer and top layer of Si3N4thickness of about 320 and 450 , respectively, as described Airco (the thickness of the sublayer is slightly less than the thickness of the top layer), in the practice of the present invention, the thickness of the sublayer Si3n4is preferably at least about 400 , and the thickness of the top layer to about 540 . Most preferred is a thickness of the sublayer of approximately 400 425 and the thickness of the top layer is approximately 540 575 . Paramount layers of Si3N4is to ensure protivooterne, control, color, chemical resistance, durability and scratching and abrasion resistance.For architectural applications widely use multi window. It is established that the layered structure of the present invention is completely compatible with conventional sealants used in the manufacture of these boxes and, thus, as well as a layered system Airco, is to overcome the above problems existing in the art. Thus, in preferred embodiments the embodiment of the present invention does not t the th of the invention is that, for some preferred discussed here layered structures is not only necessary to isolate the silver from the atmosphere N2during the spraying process, but is also advantageous to carry out the spraying of silver, and an alloy based on Nickel, together with such atmosphere. In this case, found no significant loss of properties of silver. This, in turn, led to the unexpected discovery that if the layer contains Nickel, chromium and chromium is converted to the nitride during the spraying process, it is surprising and unexpected increase in transmittance. Thus, in some embodiments, embodiments of the present invention the target of an alloy based on Nickel is an alloy of Ni:Cr and chromium during the spraying process is converted at least partially into the chromium nitride in the zone of dispersion of silver. It was found that it allegedly increases the transmittance of visible light in the final product. In addition, by obtaining this nitride in the same area with a spray of silver costs are reduced and productivity is increased.Increasing productivity and reducing cost in comparison with the method Airco achieved the following OMA targets (for example, to tubular targets in the way Airco) must usually be increased up to the limit of the equipment, as used by the atmosphere is a 100% N2. Assuming that silver should not be sprayed in containing the N2the atmosphere and chrome must be converted to the nitride, nichrome targets must be placed in separate zones, thus creating additional costs. An alternative solution would be to spray these targets in such containing N2zones, as Si; but it would reduce the performance due to the reduced number of Si targets available for use. Finding that in the practical application of the present invention it is advantageous to form a chromium nitride and the fact that N2bad does not affect the silver during the spraying process, eliminates the need for expensive and reduce the performance of the alternative solutions described previously, because the two nichrome target can now be placed in one zone, while the silver target and sputtering can now be performed in an atmosphere of Ar/N2and not in a pure argon atmosphere, as it is still considered necessary. In this regard, in preferred embodiments Vopak: between 0-75 about. Ar 25 and 100 rpm. N2.As mentioned above, in the method Airco sputtering of Si is carried out in a 100% N2. Because currently there is one way to obtain this phase Si; spraying in accordance with the present invention it was found that in some conditions (for example, in the case of production of small volume, small products) in the process of sputtering of Si to N2can be added to argon to increase the known velocity dispersion in the formation of a sufficient number of Si3N4.Considering the above, the present invention additionally satisfies the above described needs in the art provide a new method of obtaining the above products, which includes the target Ni: Cr/Ag/Ni: Cr to form a coating method of spraying in one area, despite the use of an atmosphere containing a sufficient number of N2for the formation of chromium nitride. Preferably, such an atmosphere contained about 0 to about 75. Ar and about 100 about 25. N2. The most preferred is the use of an atmosphere containing about 50. Ah and about 50. N2. In some embodiments, embodiments of the underlayer and the top layer get RAS is involved in N2can be added about 3 about 50. argon.Now the present invention will be described in relation to some of its variants embodiment together with references to the accompanying figures, in which: Fig. 1 schematic illustration of the installation Airco, which can be used in practice of the present invention (and which, as described above, is used differently in the practice of the prior art); Fig. 2 is a partial section side view of the layered structure Airco prior art; Fig. 3 is a partial section side view of a variant embodiment of the present invention; Fig. 4 is a partial section side view of another variant embodiment of the present invention.In Fig. 1 shows a typical installation of the coating by magnetron sputtering, for example, setting Airco, cited above. In the practical application of the present invention prefer to use five zones 1-5. (Layers are sequentially applied to the glass G as it moves forward in the direction of arrow A). Zone 1 contains six tubular targets t1-6of silicon (Si) (for example, doped 3-5 weight. Al for conductivity). Zone 2 contains six targets (tubular) t7-12>and t25-30, respectively, of the same material.The average area of 3, preferably contains either three flat target P1-3(i.e., below the reference numbers 31, 16 and 33, respectively) to form a five-layer structure, for example, shown in figure 3, or five or six targets (i.e., tubular or flat type) to form a layered structure, for example, shown in figure 4. Of course, as shown, the system of the three planar targets can also be used to generate a prototype of the layered structure Airco, shown in figure 2. The location of the target for forming the layered structure, shown in figure 4, in zone 3 is selected depending on the qualifications of an expert and not shown for convenience. Assuming the presence of a composition of the six targets, as in zones 1-2 and 4-5, typical for such a device, one spray technology, giving appropriate thickness of three of the required layers of Nickel (e.g., nichrome), you must use the target (31) and (33) (i.e. P1and P3) as targets on the basis of Nickel, and instead target (16) (i.e. P2to use a number of targets between P1and P2where t13silver, t14alloy based on Nickel and tredstem which is possible with conventional devices, well known in the art of coating, spray application method to set each zone specified regulated atmosphere. As mentioned above, hitherto believed that the use of silver as a target for coating by cathodic sputtering, it is important to maintain a zone of diffusion (i.e., zone 3) basically, as much as possible free of N2. Thus, the known method of obtaining a prototype structure, shown in figure 2, indicated by the use of an atmosphere consisting of 100% of the gaseous argon. Besides, it is also believed that when sprayed Si, you must use an atmosphere consisting of 100% N2and thus was set to this atmosphere.Then, respectively, using this setting, atmosphere, speed control and electric power spraying, using a known method Airco received a layered structure, for example, shown in figure 2. This figure shows a glass substrate "G". This glass substrate preferably is a sheet of standard soda-lime glass with a thickness of approximately 2-6 mm, usually obtained by using the float process, traditionally espinola thickness was approximately 325 . Zone 1-2 had essentially 100% N2. Then used the zone 3 with atmosphere essentially 100% argon, to obtain a first relatively thick (e.g., 7 or more) layer 113 nichrome 80/20, followed by a relatively thin (for example, a thickness of approximately 70 rather non-continuous silver layer 115; the adhesion of which is illustrated in the cavities 117. Then in the same area 3 silver inflicted another relatively thick (for example, a thickness of 7 or more) layer 119 nichrome 80/20. Then in zones 4-5 formed the upper layer 121 Si3N4slightly greater thickness than the sublayer III (for example, approximately 450 ).As mentioned above, this glass has properties regulation of solar radiation worst than desirable, and the example below.Fig. 3 illustrates two variants of the embodiment of the present invention, which can be obtained using the setup shown in Fig. 1. As shown, on the substrate With flosi glass (thickness 2-6 mm) formed of five layers. The first layer 211 is a layer of Si3N4formed in zones 1-2 in the atmosphere, essentially 100% N2. In some cases (for example, at smaller sizes) can be arbitrarily introduced, 15 and 219 (219').In one variant embodiment of this invention, the atmosphere used in zone 3, is basically 100% Ar. In this variant embodiment the target of P1(31) is preferably nichrome 80/20, but if desired may be used Nickel or other alloy based on Nickel. To obtain improved properties, regulation of solar radiation and, thus, overcome the associated problems of the product shown in Fig. 2, the layer 213, which is essentially a layer of pure metal, is applied with a thickness of less than about 7 . This is done by reducing the power applied to the target P1(31) compared to the power used to obtain the product shown in figure 2, of 20% or more. Then as a further improvement of the product, shown in Fig. 2, the silver layer 215 received from the target P2(16) has a greater thickness (for example, approximately 90 105 ) compared to the thickness of the layer 115, which makes the layer 215 is essentially continuous. This is conveniently carried out by increasing the power applied to the target P2about 20 of 33% or more compared to the power that is used to obtain layer 115.Then put another layer 219, on the same thickness, as the layer 213. Then follows the passage of zones 4 and 5 for the application of the top layer 221 Si3N4in a similar way as for the formation of the underlayer 211 (for example, its thickness is approximately 540 compared to the thickness of the layer 211, equal to about 400 ). Despite the fact that the time of formation of the layer thicknesses of Si3N4sublayer and the upper layer (e.g., 211 and 221 or 311 and 321, as described below) of the present invention may be equal to the time of the formation of products Airco (for example, 11 and 121), in preferred embodiments the embodiment of the present invention, each layer is thicker than in the product Airco. This increase in thickness is achieved by increasing capacity in the installation of spray in zones 1-2 and 4-5 about 20% or more. The obtained layered structure has about the same durability as the layered structure shown in Fig. 2, with a little less resistance to scratching, but has much better properties emittance, transmittance and surface resistance (i.e., the transmittance approaching 80% and the value of the emissivity and the surface resistance is significantly lower).In another particularly preferred variant of the embodiment shown in Fig. 3, tsya even better control characteristics of solar radiation. In this unique way follow the same basic stages, as described for the first variant embodiment, except that in contrast to the hitherto existing view, in zone 3 gaseous N2use with argon and alloy nichrome one, and preferably both targets P1(31) and P3(33), for example, metallic chromium is deposited in the form of nitride layer (layers) Ni:Cr (i.e., as one or both layers 213 and/or 219). In this regard, the ratio of argon and N2may be changed in accordance with necessity, but, generally speaking, it was found that to achieve improved properties, such as transmittance or Rscompared even with the properties of the first variant embodiment of the present invention, described above, should 0-75 about. Ar to about 10-25. N2and preferably 50% 50% Ar to Ni. In preferred forms of this variant embodiment the thickness keeps the same as in the first variant embodiment. Typical power values below.The layered structure shown in Fig. 4, can be obtained, as shown above, or by the formation of layers on the basis of Nickel as an essentially pure metal layers, the Noi or more targets, as described above, achieving superior results through the establishment of chromium nitride in one or more (and preferably all) layers of Ni: Cr. In addition, in this variant embodiment, a single silver layer 215, as shown in Fig. 3, is divided into two layers of silver have between them a layer of Nickel-based. Thus, a variant of the embodiment shown in Fig. 4, can be obtained by using the appropriate number of targets ( not shown) in zone 3 formation in zones 1-2 sublayer 311 Si3N4and in zones 4-5 of the top layer 321 Si3N4. Preferably, the thickness of the layers 311 and 321 were the same as the layers 211 and 221, respectively.Fig. 4 differs from the Fig. 3 first of all the fact that in zone 3 first forms a metal layer 313 on the basis of Nickel (i.e., preferably nichrome 80/20) or nitride replacement 313, having a thickness of approximately less than 7 . Then form the first silver layer 315 a thickness of about 50 , followed by another metal layer 314 Nickel-based or nitride-based replacement 314' of a thickness of approximately less than 7 . Then put the second layer of silver V, having a thickness of about 50 , followed by another metal layer 319 Nickel-based the total thickness of the silver layers is preferably 90-105 , as stated above, this layered structure is completed by forming the upper layer 321 Si3N4.As should be expected, when in the variant embodiment shown in Fig. 4, each of the silver layers 315 , has a thickness of only about 50 will have discontinuities, represented by voids 317 as cavities 117 in the embodiment shown in Fig. 2. Although such discontinuities have a significant negative impact on the properties of the structure shown in Fig. 2, they have no effect in the practical application of the variant embodiment shown in Fig. 4.Seven-layer structure shown in Fig. 4, more durable structure than the previous two variants of the embodiment shown in Fig. 3, and although having a lower transmittance than that of those variants of embodiment (i.e., only slightly above the minimum value 76%), the value of its emissivity and the surface resistance is better than the options in Fig. 3. Specifically the reasons for this are not known, but it appears that this is achieved by increasing the total thickness of the silver, together with the use of an intermediate layer of Nickel-based (e.g., nichrome). In this respect, it seems that PR is contributes to the achievement of durability, in particular, if it is presented in the form of Ni: Cr (for example, nichrome 80/20), in which the chromium is converted to its nitride.Now the present invention will be described in some of the following examples.Standard structure ("STD") Airco, shown in Fig. 2, and two variants of the embodiment shown in Fig. 3 were obtained using the device shown in Fig. 1. The first variant of the embodiment of the present invention is referred to as type "A" and the second (i.e., where the nitride is formed in both layers 213' and 219', called type "B". Used tubular targets t2-12and t19-30were alloyed tubular aluminum silicon target Airco. Target P1(31) and P3(33) had a composition of 80 wt. Ni and 20 weight. Cr. Target P2(16) was silver (Ag). As the substrate used conventional soda-lime glass production Guardian Industries Corp. having a thickness of 3 mm is Used, the linear speed of movement was 345 inches (min) 8763 mm (min). In zones 1-2 and 4-5 kept the pressure 2,5 10-3Torr. In these areas used the atmosphere 100% N2. In zone 3 kept the pressure 2,0 10-3Torr. For standard patterns Airco and patterns of type "a" of the present invention used armelectromachine, pokazannoe in tables 1-6.As two other examples of the present invention and to demonstrate the effect of layer thickness, in particular, layer based on Nickel, which can affect the transmittance and reflectance of infrared radiation, there were prepared two glasses of type "In" when using essentially the same conditions in zones 1 and 2 and in zones 4 and 5, in which the formed underlayer and the top layer of Si3N4in an atmosphere of 100% N2. Targets in zones 1, 2, 4, and 5 were alloyed aluminum target, the target P1(31) and P3(33) were nichrome 80/20, and the target P2(16) -silver. The only difference was that in zone 3 used a different capacity, as shown in table 7. The glass was soda-lime float glass with thickness 3 mmAs you can see, with a slight increase in the thickness of the two layers of Ni:Cr (nitride) and a small decrease in the thickness of the silver layer to decrease the magnitude of the reflectivity of infrared radiation and transmittance. However, both of these glasses are acceptable for use in the purchase multi-architectural Windows.In addition, as reported below, using the and glass was 3 mm, and the glass was the same standard float glass used to obtain data presented in table 7.When studying the above description qualified specialist will become apparent many other features, modifications and improvements. Therefore, such features, modifications, and improvements are considered as part of the present invention. 1. The product is made of glass with a coating obtained by spraying, comprising a glass substrate coated with a layered structure comprising an underlayer Si3N4the first layer of Nickel or its alloy, a silver layer, a second layer of Nickel or its alloy and the upper layer of Si3N4, characterized in that when the thickness of the glass substrate, is equal to 2 to 6 mm, the coated glass has a transmittance of visible light of at least 78% of the value of the normal emissivity Ennot more than 0.12 and the value of the hemispherical emissivity Enno more than 0,16.2. Glass products under item 1, characterized in that the layers of Nickel or its alloy has a thickness of not more than 7 and the silver layer has a thickness of at least 90
3. Glass products under item 2, characterized in that the silver layer and the thickness of not less than 400 and the upper layer of Si3N4no less
5. Glass products under item 1, characterized in that the layered structure is durable, and the transmittance of visible light is 78 80%
6. Glass products under item 5, characterized in that the value of Enis not more than 0.10, and Ehno more than 0,13.7. Glass products under item 6, characterized in that the value of Enis 0.09, and Eh0,12 0,13.8. Glass products under item 6, characterized in that its surface resistivity is not more than 10.5 Ω/m2.9. Glass products under item 8, characterized in that the surface resistance is 9 10 Ohm/m2.10. Glass products under item 1, characterized in that after the second layer of Nickel or its alloy added a second silver layer and the third layer of Nickel or its alloy.11. Glass products under item 10, characterized in that the layers of Nickel or its alloy are layers of nichrome.12. Glass products on p. 11, characterized in that each of the silver layer has a thickness of about 50 and each layer of nichrome has a thickness of not more than 7
13. Glass products under item 10, characterized in that the layers of Nickel or its alloy are layers of nichrome or alloy Rida chrome.14. Glass products on p. 13, characterized in that each layer of nichrome or Nickel alloy and chromium nitride is a layer of an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride.15. Glass products on p. 13, characterized in that the nichrome or Nickel alloy with chromium nitride contains about 80% Nickel and about 20% chromium or chromium nitride.16. Glass products under item 15, characterized in that the transmittance of visible light is not more than 80% Enis not more than 0.10 and Ehis not more than 0,13.17. Glass products under item 16, characterized in that the coating has a surface resistance of not more than 10.5 Ω/m2.18. Glass products on p. 13, characterized in that the thickness of any layer of nichrome or Nickel alloy and chromium nitride is not more than 7 and the total thickness of the silver layers is approximately 90 105
19. Glass products on p. 13, characterized in that each layer of nichrome or Nickel alloy and chromium nitride has a thickness of not more than 7 and the thickness of each layer of silver is about 50
20. The method of forming articles with a coating in the form of a layered structure on a glass substrate, comprising the stages consisting in forming pods the silver, forming a second layer of Nickel alloy, the formation in the atmosphere containing nitrogen, the top layer Si3N4, wherein the Nickel alloy is an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride, forming the first and second layers of an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride and a layer of silver is carried out in an atmosphere containing nitrogen 25 about 100. moreover, when the thickness of the substrate 2 to 6 mm, the product has a transmittance of visible light of not less than 78% of normal emissivity Ennot more than 0.12 and a hemispherical emissivity Ehno more than 0,16.21. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the coating layer is carried out in isolation from other areas, with the formation of each layer of Si3N4provide at least two separate zones, each of which contains an atmosphere containing 100% N2and the formation of layers of an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride and silver layers perform one zone in an atmosphere containing a mixture of no more than about 75. AG and at least about 25. N2.22. The method according to p. 21, characterized in that the mixture of AG and N2contains about 50. each gas.23. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that for the formation of layers of Si3N4espera use a flat target, respectively, of chromium and silver.24. The method according to p. 23, characterized in that the transmittance of the product is more than 80%
25. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that Ennot more than 0.10, and Fhno more than 0,13.26. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that the product has a surface resistance of not more than 10.5 Ω/m2.27. The method according to p. 26, characterized in that the thickness of each layer of an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride is not more than 7 and the thickness of the silver layer is 90 105
28. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that it further after forming the second layer of an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride form the second silver layer and a third layer of an alloy of Nickel and chromium nitride.29. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the formation of the underlayer Si3N4carried out in an atmosphere containing additional argon.
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.
EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used for getting image from space, including surface of Earth, from space and from different sorts of air carriers. Device has at least one information channel which channel has objective, filter and multi-element receiver. Filter is made of two lenses, which lenses form flat-parallel plate. Lenses are made of the same material with equal radiuses of curvature of their spherical surfaces. Interference coatings are applied onto spherical surfaces, which coatings form, together with material of lenses, spectral range of device. Filter can be installed between objective and radiation receiver. In this case the first lens is made flat convex, the second one is flat concave. Center of radius of curvature of spherical surface of flat-convex lens is brought into coincidence with center of exit pupil of objective. Filter can be installed in front of objective.
EFFECT: constancy of borders of spectral sensitivity and of level of transmission within total area of angle of view; improved precision of measurement.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: optical filtering device can be used for building devices for spectral filtration of optical images, for example, for wavelength re-tune optical filters, IR imagers working within specified narrow spectral ranges. Filtering device being capable of re-tuning within preset wavelength range is based upon interferometers. Interferometers are disposed along path of filtered radiation flow at different angles to axis of flow. Reflecting surfaces of plates of any interferometer, which plates are turned to meet one another, are optically polished and they don't have metal or interference mirror coatings. To filter selected wavelength of λm; the following distances among reflecting faces of interferometers: d1=(λm/2)k, k=1 or k=2, dn=(n-1)d1 or nd1. Filtering device is equipped with different filters which cutoff radiation outside borders of range to be filtered, including filters which are made of optical materials being transparent within band of spectral characteristic of sensitivity of consumer's receiver, which receiver registers filtered radiation. Filter cutting off short wavelength radiation is made of materials, which form border with positive derivative of dependence total internal reflection angle depending on wavelength. Filter cutting off long wavelength radiation is made of materials which form border with negative derivative of angle of total internal reflection depending on wavelength.
EFFECT: improved stability of parameters; increased transmission ability in maximal points of bands and reduction in number of transmission bands; increased relative aperture; higher quality of filtration; reduced number of side maximums.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: narrowband filtration covers.
SUBSTANCE: narrowband filtration cover contains two systems of alternating dielectric layers with different refraction coefficients and equal optical thickness λ0/4, in the form of high reflection mirrors, and a dielectric layer dividing them. In accordance to the invention, structure of high reflection mirrors additionally features dielectric layers with intermediate value of refraction coefficient and dividing layer has optical thickness λ0 or one divisible by it, and sequence of layer alternation has form (CBCABA)KD(ABACBC)K with nA<nB<nC, where refraction coefficient of dividing layer nD is not equal to nA (for example, nD=nC) and k≥1 is an integer number, where: λ0 - maximal filtration cover throughput wave length; A, B and C - dielectric layers with values of refraction coefficient nA, nB and nC respectively, and D - dividing layer.
EFFECT: increased selectivity due to expansion of high reflection bands on the sides of pass band.
FIELD: fiber-optic transmission systems.
SUBSTANCE: optical multilayer filter has N dielectric layers made of materials with different refractivity. Optical thickness of any layer equals to λ/4, where λ average wavelength of transmission band of optical filter. Optical multilayer filter is composed of input optical transformer, selective part and output optical transformer. Level of signal distortions is reduced till preset value for wide range of frequency characteristics of decay of filter within preset transmission band and decay is improved within delay band till preset value.
EFFECT: widened area of application.
FIELD: fibre-optic communication, optical multilayer filters.
SUBSTANCE: optical multilayer filter (OMLF) consists of an input optical transformer (In. OT 1), a selective part (SP 2), and output optical transformer (Out. OT 3) and substrates 5, 6. The In. OT 1, SP 2, and Out. OT 3 consist of NIn=2s, Nsp=4k and Nout=2r alternating layers 7 and 8, respectively, with high nh and low nl values of refractive indices of materials they are made of. The thickness of every layer d=0.25λ, where λ is the mean OMFL bandwidth wave length. Refractive indices of adjoining layers of the In OT and SP, and those of SP and Out.OT are equal. Note that the SP alternating layers are made from materials with refractive indices mirror-symmetric relative to the SP centre. The first layer of In. OT and the last layer of Out. OT are connected to substrates. Proposed are the relations to calculate the parameters of claimed arbitrary type OMLF.
EFFECT: reduction of signal distortion to preset magnitude in a wide frequency range of the filter attenuation in the preset bandwidth and increase in attenuation to the preset magnitude that allows wider application of the aforesaid filters.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns area of optical thin-film coatings. The spectral divider contains the optical interference system with alternating quarter wave layers; part of them has an optical thickness not multiple to quarter of length of an emission wave. The spectral divider design allows obtaining the optimised spectral characteristics having small fluctuations of the transmittance factor in a working range of transparency.
EFFECT: spectral divider can be used at a direct and inclined light ray tilt angle in various geodetic devices and special purpose devices.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: tunable optical filter with Fabry-Perot interferometre has transparent plates with mirror coatings with spacing in between. When making the said optical filter, a sacrificial layer is deposited on one plate with the mirror coating. A mirror coating is then deposited on top and the second transparent plate is attached through a layer of hardening material. After that the said plates are attached to holders through a hardening material and the sacrificial layer is removed through evaporation by heating to temperature below the thermal destruction temperature of the hardening layer.
EFFECT: easier obtaining of controlled spacing between plates, avoiding use of special methods of obtaining surfaces with high degree of flatness, avoiding the need to monitor the value of the spacing and its wedge.
SUBSTANCE: fibro-optical connector comprises first and second half-couplings to receive first and second sections of optical fiber. First and second pairs of step-down optical multilayer transformers are arranged on end faces of said sections. Air gap is arranged between outer layers of said first and second pairs of said transformers. Layers of first and second pairs of aforesaid transformers are made from materials with differing indices of reflection and are counted from outer layers of aforesaid transformers in direction of the end faces of connected sections of optical fiber. Thickness of every layer makes one fourth of average signal wave λ0 transmitted over optical fiber, while the number of layers is selected subject to conditions covered by invention claim.
EFFECT: reduced power loss, expanded performances.
4 cl, 9 dwg