Line for processing furs
(57) Abstract:Usage: fur industry. The invention: the invention relates to the manufacture of furs. Line for processing furs after drying machine includes sequentially installed downstream of the first divorce machine for non-skins, machine for namanga of pickling, rack for aging skins, the second divorce machine for non-skins, machine for namanga tanning and fatliquoring with bath and device for producing emulsions, the second rack for aging and mendilow machine for wet grinding. Machine for namanga of pickling contains clamping shafts with integral grooves set in the direction of the working branch conveyor in front of the bar for machining mechanism of its reciprocating movement in the vertical direction. Planck machining is perpendicular to the direction of movement of the conveyor. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill., table 1. The invention relates to the fur industry, namely the lines tanning of fur raw materials in Cyrano-dyeing workshops.Known production line at the site of pickling, Dublin is, is obline, fatliquoring, rack too, push the machine (see Aronia Y. N. and other Technology fur (Aronia Y. N. Efremov, F. Esin, F. M: Light industry, 1974, S. 147).The main disadvantage of this production line is the alternation of batches and routine treatments, as well as a large consumption of water, chemicals and pollution of waste water chemical reagents. In addition, metal machine cool down quickly working solutions.Closest offer technical essence is the line for processing furs containing sequentially installed equipment to conduct pickling, tanning, fatliquoring, rack for aging skins, push the car and mendilow machine for wet grinding (see processing Technology fur sheepskin. M. cniitei Legprom, 1982, S. 14-17).The disadvantage of this process line is the high water consumption at the site ocenocnaja of pickling, tanning and fatliquoring, significant loss of chemical materials, wastewater pollution, alternating batches and individual processing. When amanokrom the pickling, tanning, greasing chemical materials are subjected not only leather TAC overuse of chemicals. In addition, when a liquid processing sheepskins at high LCD chemicals not fully practiced. For example, when conducting ocenocnaja of pickling, tanning, fatliquoring observed following the use of chemicals in the sodium chloride 10, sulfuric acid 95, acetic acid 20, chrome tanning agent 45, sodium thiosulfate 50, industrial AND oil-12A 60 (Purim J. A. Technology of manufacture of fur and sheepskin raw material. M. Light and food industry, 1983, S. 154). Therefore, the waste water have a greater contamination of chemicals and petroleum products. Thus, the number of wastewater per 1000 pieces of raw material is sheepskin 200-300 m3. Wastewater fur companies contain in mg/l of fat-soluble substances 500oC1400, chlorides 200oC15000, chromium 7,5oC50, detergents and 1.5oC220.The problem to which the invention is directed, is the reduction and pollution wastewater, as well as reducing the consumption of chemical materials. Processing of furs on the proposed technology enables the processes of pickling, tanning-fatliquoring piece, unlike traditional technologies, and taking into account the new sequence of carrying out business operations and their apparatures the mi characteristics of the proposed line for the processing of furs in comparison with the prototype are two drawbridges machines for non-hides and second rack for aging skins, when you do this consistently over the course of the technological process in line after drying machines are the first Razvodnaya machine for non-skins, equipment for conducting pickling, made in the form of machine for namanga of pickling, rack for aging skins, the second Razvodnaya machine for non-skins, equipment for tanning and fatliquoring, made in the form of machine for namanga tanning-fatliquoring with a bathtub and a device for producing emulsions, the second rack for aging skins and madrilena machine for wet grinding.Distinctive features of the proposed machine for namanga of pickling is that it contains the pinch rollers made with annular grooves that are installed in the direction of the working branch conveyor in front of the bar for machining mechanism of its reciprocating movement in the vertical direction located perpendicular to the direction of movement of the conveyor.To obtain stable results, prevent changes in the properties of the emulsion and the temperature of the emulsion is prepared directly at the machine for namanga tanning-fatliquoring and therefore for Ognevom and agitators for hydrophobic and hydrophilic phases, the emulsion basis, standard for the respective tanks, connected piping and shut-off apparatus with emulsion basis, made in the form of a reactor with a steam jacket and a stirrer, connected to the pump, while the pipe line connecting the emulsion basis with the dipstick for the hydrophilic phase has a throttle for regulating the feed to the emulsion basis, and the latter through a pipe connected to the tub of the machine for namanga tanning-fatliquoring skins.Machine for namanga of pickling and machine for namanga tanning-fatliquoring having a porous conveyor, allow processing of only the leather over the entire area of sheepskin. When this hair is not exposed to chemicals that eliminates the possibility of skolachivaniya. The chemicals penetrate only into the structure of the dermis, associated with collagen and subsequent processes are not removed from it, which eliminates them from reaching the wastewater.Before namesname machines pass-through type are movable machine designed for non-leather sheepskin, i.e., removal of possible folds and wrinkles on the leather.The use of these machines allows primeshop water on the processes of pickling, tanning, fatliquoring 37 times. In the exclude penetration of chemicals in wastewater and prevent their interaction with the hair reduces the consumption of chemicals in 2-15 times depending on the type of immaterial.Processing of furs on the proposed line allows you to perform separately the pickling and tanning-greasing piece in contrast to the lines of the prototype, where after degreasing and runoff is oconnee pickling tanning-greasing skins partiendo. Moreover, the proposed line, in contrast to the lines of the prototype, processes, and operations are performed in the following sequence: spinning, non, namazee pickling, aging, non, namazee tanning-greasing emulsion type water in oil, hides, wet grinding.Processing of furs in sequence using machines for namazee processing and emulsion tanning-fatliquoring leather gives a new technological effect: reduced consumption of chemicals, water, increases the quality of the finished product, it reduces the consumption of raw materials.Thus, the technical result obtained in the processing of furs on the proposed line is x2">The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the line for processing furs; Fig. 2 operating parts of the machine for namanga of pickling; Fig. 3 installation for the preparation of the emulsion type water in oil".Line for processing furs contains installed downstream push machine 1 (Fig. 1), two draw machines 2 and 3, a machine for namanga of pickling 4, two rack for aging skins after Namazova the pickling and tanning-fatliquoring, 5 and 6, the device for holding tanning-fatliquoring, 7, and installation for obtaining emulsions water in oil" 8 and mendilow machine 9 for wet grinding the leather.Machine for namanga of pickling 4 furs as working bodies (Fig. 2) contains two clamping shaft 10, the length of which is equal to the width of the aisle, and two shaft 11 whose length is 1/4 of the length of shaft 10, mounted in front of the bar 12 for machining with the mechanism of the reciprocating movement of her 13 in the vertical direction, and the strap length equal to the length of the shafts 11. The shafts 10 and 11 are made with annular grooves. The shafts 10 and 11 are pressed against the porous conveyor 14 idle branch kotori to obtain emulsion contains 8 (Fig. 3) capacity hydrophobic phase 17, the hydrophilic phase 18. Capacity (reactors) 17 and 18 provided with a stirrer and steam jackets for mixing and heating phases to the required temperature. Glass tanks of 19 hydrophobic phase and 20 for the hydrophilic phase is equipped with a measuring scale. Both measuring device 19, and 20 through piping with valves 21 and 22 are connected with emulsion basis 23, inside the agitator. The emulsion basis 23 through pipelines connected with the centrifugal pump 24. Filling the tank 17 is made through the creation of a vacuum by means of the pump 25. The tank 17 is connected by a pipe 26 with a capacity of 27, located in the Cabinet to heat the fat 28. Submission of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic phases of the tanks 17 and 18 in the respective tanks 19 and 20 by gravity by opening valves 29 and 30. On the pipeline connecting the measuring device 20 to the hydrophilic phase and the emulsion basis 23 installed orifice 31, which is a washer with a calibrated orifice to adjust the feed rate of the hydrophilic phase in the emulsion basis 23. The valves 32, 33, 34 are used to control the process of preparation of the emulsion, and feed into the tub of the machine for namanga tanning-fatliquoring 7. The valve 35 is used to supply the hydrophilic phase with hinstance after degreasing press on cutting drying machine type womp-C to a moisture content of the leather 50-55% produce non-skins on the first swing machine 2, namazee pickling the leather on the machine 4 and put on the aging for 24 hours on the first rack 5. After aging pickled skins peterout on the second swing machine 3. At the same time on installation 8 prepare the emulsion, check its properties and pumped into the tub of the machine for namanga tanning-fatliquoring 7. Namazee tanning-creasing the leather produced by car 7 and put on the hides on the second rack 6. After aging produce wet grinding on madrilenos machine 9.Machine for namanga of pickling 4 (Fig. 1) works as follows.Sheepskin stack Koshevoy cloth down on a moving porous conveyor 14 is impregnated pikelny solution (Fig. 2). Conveyor and furs pass under the rollers 10, 11 and vibrolance 12, exposed to intensive mechanical stress, which under the effect of "sponge" pikelny liquid is squeezed out from the porous conveyor 14 and penetrates into the structure of the dermis. The most intensively treated spinal part of the skin that have a higher density and thickness in comparison with loose and thin floors. This allows you to increase the uniformity of the properties of the leather area.until 35 (Fig. 3), is poured into the container 18 hydrophilic phase, where it is diluted to the desired concentration. In the load capacity of 27 components of the hydrophobic phase and establish it in a heated Cabinet 23. After heating the hydrophobic phase of the lower pipe 26 into the tank 27 and include a vacuum pump 25. In sealed containers 17 creates a vacuum and as a result the contents of the tank 27 is transferred into the container 17. In the vessel 17 hydrophobic phase is heated to the desired temperature and is stirred until a homogeneous mass. Turn off the vacuum pump 25 and open the valve 29. This hydrophobic phase by gravity to the measuring device 19. Measure the required amount of a hydrophobic phase and opening the valve 21, poured the contents of the measuring device 19 in the heated emulsion basis 23. When the valves 33 and 34 must be closed and the valve 32 is open. Include centrifugal pump 24 and the recirculation moves components of the hydrophobic phase. Then, opening the valve 30, measure the required amount of the hydrophilic phase by means of the measuring device 20. Open the valve 22. This hydrophilic phase enters the emulsion basis 23 at a certain speed. The speed of delivery of the hydrophilic phase in the emulsion basis 23 varies by selecting open the resistance. After filing a hydrophilic phase, the stirring is continued for another 5-10 minutes. Opening the valve 34, select a sample of the emulsion to determine its properties. Then, by opening the valve 33 and closing the valve 32, serves the emulsion in the tub for namanga tanning-fatliquoring 7 (Fig. 1). The application of the emulsion on the leather is produced in a single pass.The proposed line of the achieved technical result was compared with the processing line furs of the prototype.Comparative technical and economic indicators are presented in table 1.As can be seen from table 1, the processing of furs on the proposed line can reduce water consumption 37 times, to reduce the consumption of chemicals in 2-15 times, reduce wastewater pollution by chromium salts 10 times, sodium chloride 7 times.The present invention was created in the research laboratory of the Department "Technology of leather and fur" was PUBLISHED. The proposed line is tested at the Kirov fur factory and experimental production, was PUBLISHED.The proposed line is designed for manufacturing fur and fur skins and allows you to improve the organoleptic properties of the leather. 1. Line for processing furs, coderamasino for wet grinding skins, characterized in that it has two draw machines for non-hides and second rack for aging skins, in line sequentially in the course of the technological process after drying machine is the first Razvodnaya machine for non-skins, the equipment for carrying out pickling, made in the form of machine for namanga of pickling, rack for aging skins, the second Razvodnaya machine for non-skins, equipment for tanning and fatliquoring, made in the form of machine for namanga tanned fatliquoring with a bathtub and a device for producing emulsions, the second rack for aging skins and madrilena machine for wet grinding.2. Line p. 1, characterized in that machine for namanga of pickling contains the pinch rollers with annular grooves that are installed in the direction of the working branch conveyor in front of the bar for machining mechanism of its reciprocating movement in the vertical direction located perpendicular to the direction of movement of the conveyor.3. Line p. 1, characterized in that the device for producing emulsions contains tanks with heating and stirring for hydrophobic and hydrophilic phases, Amul the rum, made in the form of a reactor with a steam jacket and a stirrer, connected to the pump, while the pipe line connecting the emulsion basis with the dipstick for the hydrophilic phase has a throttle for regulating the feed to the emulsion basis, and the latter through a pipe connected to the tub of the machine namanga tanning-fatliquoring skins.
FIELD: production of fur articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying fur strips with its side opposite to pile surface to substrate surface and attaching said strips on surface by wrapping with thread stitch loops at outside for closing at least part of substrate surface with piles of strips; applying each fur strip onto substrate surface for defining alternating rectilinear and looped portions; providing attachment of said strips along the entire length of rectilinear portions, with fur strips being arranged along width of substrate at frequency directly proportional to density of fur article to be manufactured.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption and wider range of fur articles.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fur industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing fur strips; forming pairs of adjacent strips so that their piles are arranged at different sides of plane of fur sheet; joining fur strips to one another at individual portions, each of said portions having length equal to at least 1/5 the length of non-joined portion.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, improved quality and wider range of articles manufactured with the use of fur.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: bird skin dressing processes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves strictly observing succession of performing operations for preliminary processing of skins including steps of bird skinning in single sheet by cutting it along line running from region above beak on upper side of head and spine line to tail base; impregnating feather cover with absorbing powder; degreasing and cleaning skin by scraping with obtuse-angled knife from tail to head while adding absorbing powder; washing skin in detergent solution and adding washing degreasing means; drying skins in desiccant powder medium; knocking out desiccant powder from skin by means of spade; fixing skin by means of pins and preserving with the use of acidic-saline solution. Starch is used as absorbing powder and desiccant powder. Wide range of aquatic bird skins are suitable with regard to strength of flesh side, density, strength and beauty of color of bird's feather cover for dressing into fur articles. Method allows settling of fat and other contaminants onto feather cover to be prevented and bird skin drying process to be performed under predetermined conditions with the use of starch as absorbing powder and desiccant for imparting initial appearance to dressed feather cover with regard to direction of feathers and natural color.
EFFECT: increased physical-mechanical properties of dressed bird skin as compared to skins of fur animals dressed by way of standard processes.
FIELD: light industry, in particular, furrier and sewing industry for manufacture of fur products.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lines of predetermined configuration onto skin web; cutting skin web into fragments; shifting and connecting fragments, said lines being of two configurations: at least two straight parallel lines serving as guides, extending in parallel with spine and having width of at least 0.5 cm, with space between parallel lines being equal to skin width minus width of guide multiplied by number of said lines, and drawing arcs between said lines, with radius of arc being equal to width of skin, said arcs extending from center selected on axis between guides; before cutting procedure, plotting two lines at both sides of spine line, said lines extending through points at ends of penultimate arcs in skin base, and through points disposed at a distance of up to 25% the width of skin on first arcs provided in upper part of skin; shifting and connecting said fragments along said line.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities in cutting of fur skins and wider range of fur products manufactured by method.
FIELD: light industry, in particular, furrier and sewing industry for manufacture of fur products.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lines of predetermined configuration onto skin web; cutting skin web into fragments; shifting and connecting fragments, said lines being of two configurations: at least two parallel straight spaced lines serving as guides, extending in parallel with spine and having width of at least 0.5 cm, with space between parallel lines being equal to skin width minus width of guide multiplied by number of said lines, and drawing arcs between said lines, with radius of arc being equal to width of skin, said arcs extending from center selected on axis and disposed in the middle between guides; after shifting, folding each arced fragment so that skin web is facing inward; performing joining in two steps: initially joining folded fragments with guides and then with each other.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities in cutting of fur skins for manufacture of double-sided articles.
2 cl, 3 dwg