Method for neutralizing the harmful gaseous impurities and device for its implementation


(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to a method and apparatus for neutralization of gaseous impurities in the hot combustion gas generated in the combustion process. The inventive harmful exhaust flue gases resulting from combustion are subjected to chemical-mechanical cleaning, which is the primary condensation of at least part of the water vapour present in the cleaned gases, followed by mixing the resulting condensate is separated from the concentrated salts of alkali metals and/or alkali and the residual gases and the implementation of the flushing gas flow. Thus, the residual flue gas is removed the main part of the impurity of the product resulting from the treatment. The loss of thermal energy from the flue gases at the initial stage of leaching (skrabirovanie) could be compensated by additional heating. Consider the cleaning process includes additional processing, consisting in spray irrigation initially treated flue gas main substance of the type of mortar to manoever, 2 c.N. C.p. f-crystals.4 Il.

This invention is directed to the prevention of air pollution exhaust flue gases and relates to a method of purifying gaseous products of combustion using chemical-mechanical processing gases, including the recovery process and the regulation of global cycles of metabolism in the atmosphere, except when the emission of the combustion and exhaust gases. In addition, the subject of the claims of the invention is the treatment device or installation for implementing the foregoing method.

Air pollution is a global problem, increasing the value of which is predetermined by increasing danger for humanity accumulating harmful gaseous impurities, the negative effect which manifests itself in nature in the form of acid rain and global greenhouse effect, mainly due to the widespread increase in the atmosphere of carbon dioxide.

Most types of impurities contains significant amounts of nutrients. Of them to sustain plant life the most important are calcium and magnesium. Acid entering the soil from acid rain, combined with those of Potala pH. At lower values of this indicator to 4 and less metal type aluminum present in the soil in large quantities) and cadmium (present in relatively small quantities) become toxic. These toxic metals affect the roots of plants, disrupting the process of selection of the root system of moisture from the soil and reducing its protective properties against various diseases. Under the action of toxic metals die and soil bacteria, which cyclically restore nutrients, decomposing dying vegetation. Millions of acres of previously fertile land, exposed to acid rain, will die in the near future due to the depletion of nutrients, if not to take drastic measures to restore their balance struck the ground.

When acid rain toxic aluminum is leached from the soil, falling into water, where it accumulates. Gradually under its action killed all living things in the water (as in soil), and all living creatures, feeding on water.

Of the many publications it is well known that the coming global warming of our planet in the long term will lead to the melting of the ice shell on the North and South poles the time and hazard problem for mankind is extremely fast, a frightening increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Experiments show that the concentration of this chemical compounds in the air in excess of 1% of

toxic dangerous threshold for laboratory animals and humans. The increased content of carbon dioxide leads to a corresponding reduction in the content of oxygen (O2and as a consequence reduce the amount of atmospheric ozone.

The two main sources of coloradostephanie on our planet are terrestrial plants and marine algae, which, using photosynthesis to transform carbon dioxide into organic matter, releasing oxygen. Acid rain destroy the vegetation, while in the continuous ingress of toxic impurities in the water bodies die and algae.

Towards solving the problem of acid rain has been a major effort. In particular, in the steel industry and thermal power stations are currently a variety of treatment plants - scrubber. However, existing scrubber are 90-98% efficient in removal of O2, resulting in the concentration of this toxic compounds in the atmosphere is steadily, albeit slow flashing, and than ostaetsya environmental degradation due to continuous air pollution hazardous chemicals. From the air these toxic substances spread like infection, in all natural environments, polluting water, soil, air etc., All this leads to disruption of the natural cycle of metabolism, from which life depends. There is only one way to halt pollution of the natural environment is the treatment of emissions into the air because the atmosphere is the primary "reservoir" from which hazardous chemicals are distributed throughout akorede. Actions in this area should be focused and efficient technical solutions. One such solution is the invention, a summary of which is as follows.

The subject of the claims of the present invention is improved sewage treatment device (installation) to remove impurities from the exhaust flue gases; such a device may be used alone or in a merged cell with optimized total capacity.

The proposed treatment device fully technologically adapted to the existing melting furnaces, thermal power plants and installations for the incineration of garbage most of rastrojstvo on the way, includes flushing (skrabirovanie) water from the flue gases using a reagent additives such as alkali and/or alkali metal salts, and water in this case get in the form of condensate from the water vapour present in the cleaned gases.

In a preferred embodiment, the design of the claimed device provides for the application of corrosion resistant internal walls due predposylki corotiation, acidic character formed by spot cleaning product. This wall may be made as part of the water-cooling jacket, restricting the flow path (passage) of the cleaned flue gases. The surface of the inner wall may be shaped, consisting of a sequence of interconnected curvilinear surfaces that are organized in such a way as to facilitate the collection is separated from the gas of alkali metals, used as extraction reagents can be enhanced by using a series of nozzles through which the cleaning zone may be air, steam or a mixture of such jet boost enhances mixing of the condensation products and Opoczno pair in combination with injectionem highly concentrated solutions of alkali and/or alkali metal salts can improve the overall solubility of harmful impurity gaseous compounds of the type SO2, SO3and NOxin the drops of condensation with formation of the corresponding non-toxic mixed product. This product is collected on a concave, curved surface of the inner wall of the working chamber of the treatment plant scrubber and then displayed on the piping at the base of the specified camera under the above mentioned surfaces.

Thus, the substance of the claims of the present invention is the treatment device extractor used to extract impurities from the hot flue gases derived from the combustion chambers or furnaces. The structure of this device includes: Luggage extraction of gas impurities, through which are passed the treated flue gases condensing means with an external cooling jacket of the mixer within the specified camera designed for homogeneous mixing of the products of condensation of flue gases; means for collecting the resulting mixed product; and drainage affinity for o mixture build up inside the drum.

The primary condensation of part of the volatile components from the flue gas is mainly water vapor in combination with the mixing of the reagent alkali and/or alkali metal salts and the condensate is x gas impurities with drops of condensate, all these operations are carried out simultaneously.

Formed, thus, the mixed product is assembled with a sufficiently large working area deposition and displayed drain out. With a large enough concentration, it can easily be subjected to the recycling process, including mainly the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, which was separated from the flue gas.

The amount of moisture contained in the coal that is used in furnaces, in most cases exceeds the level that is required for separation of the binding of impurities contained in the exhaust flue gases. In turn, when used as fuel oil flagovedeniya is about 11% which is also sufficient for binding impurities in the purification of the gaseous combustion products.

In addition to the cleaning device subject to the claims of the present invention is a cleaning method that is implemented by the above device. This method, designed for efficient selective removal of harmful gaseous impurities from the hot flue gas originating from the zone of combustion, includes the following operations: mixing the treated flue gas evolved from the mi and/or salts of alkali metals in order to intensify the absorption of condensate, according youngest least some portion of impurities from the purified gas to form a liquid mixed product; collecting mixed product on a concave curved surfaces of the inner walls of the extraction chamber surrounding the flow path of the combustion gas; and removing the harvested product of the output of the residual flow of the combustion gas.

Residual fuel gas, purified, at least partially (in sequence) extractor daily camera (cameras), continues to flow further towards the entrance of the chimney. At this stage, if necessary, the gas may be heated or re-heated.

The invention provides, among other things, the mixing of chemically active agent with the flue gas for the chemical decontamination of acidic components of the latter. Chemically active agent, it is best to spray in the form of hot liquid solution in the residual (partially purified) flue gas. In this sense, it is preferable to use raw material type calcium compounds in the form of quicklime. In that case, when the composition is used furnace equipment includes chimney for the release of flue gases, sputtering and the residual flue gas by injection box in his raw material in the form of a heated liquid solution is conducted by using a series of liquid jets, placed preferably at the point or section of the exit flue gases in the atmosphere, and the number and performance of nozzles should be adjusted so that the flow of the combustion gases created required a large concentration of the injected reagent (lime). The temperature of the injected material must be below the point of distraction. The use of sensor pH PH Registrar SO2available to stream for extraconal cleaning the camera, allows you to determine the amount of mortar required for deoxidation of the pre-purified gas.

Thus, the invention involves the use of additional gas-cleaning equipment, the operation of which provides for the mixing of different required chemicals with residual exhaust gases in the duct chimney. This output chimney equipment includes; cumulative remedies used for reagents; reagent supply channel chimney; and means for spraying the reagents for mixing with the output on the chimney pre-cleaned combustion gases.

Specified demogod the target stage output it into the atmosphere. The principle of operation of such equipment includes the following operations: mixing various necessary chemical reagents with the output flow of the combustion gas (the optimum in such a mixture assumes the use of lime water, compressed air, steam or any combinations of them) for at least partial neutralization of the acid-forming pollutants; the issue thus formed product into the atmosphere.

One manifestation of this process clean flue gas is changing its mass in demonyong pipe, which may alter the nature of the deposition of emissions on the earth. This phenomenon can be full sea compensated by increasing the power output into the atmosphere, flue gas, which can be achieved through heating or increasing the kinetic energy of the flow. In the case when the output of the combustion gases in the atmosphere through the flue pipe is used purposefully to improve or correct a previously disturbed pollutant emissions environmental conditions, the scheme is useful deposition precipitation on the ground through the output into the atmosphere of the combustion gas is of particular importance. With this purpose in rating atmospherically substances.

It should be stated that the leeward area vyedaniya useful impurities may be increased or extended with additional mobile divitodesign pipes or columns using air and/or steam as the carrier of the useful chemicals. Such fume-collecting stacks of pipes, mounted on portable units are used exclusively for dissipation into the atmosphere ecologically useful chemicals.

To clarify the nature of the invention, the following example describes the private choices of its execution, which, however, should not be construed as limiting information on the characteristics of the proposed technical solutions. The above description is accompanied drawing materials, a summary of which is as follows.

In Fig. 1 shows a simplified diagram of a thermal power plant, which includes sewage treatment equipment in the appropriate private embodiment representing the present invention; Fig. 2 on an enlarged scale showing part of the circuit of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a diagram of output dimitrovski part of the treatment installation according to the invention in a modified version of IP is Noah building station 1 is connected with the collector 1.2 output exhaust flue gas from the electrostatic precipitator (filter) 3. Output channel 2 this precipitator is connected with the camera-extractor 4 of the treatment plant, representing the subject of the claims of the present invention. The output of the camera 4 is connected with poderevnoy chamber 17 and then through exhaust fan-exhauster 18 gazobalonnoj pipe 10. With longwall extraction chamber 4 are connected storage tanks 11.

The outlet of the treatment chamber 4 through which are derived flue gases, equipped with a sensor 15 pH PH and concentration meter SO2. Further detail on the scheme in Fig. 2. Shown here at the same time camera-extractor 4 has a corrugated inner surface 5 and an outer wall 6, between which is formed an annular chamber, used as a cooling jacket. The cooling water in the chamber-shirt 5.5 carried by the supply pipe 13; in turn, the pipe 14 serves to drain water. The internal volume of 5.7 camera 4 is connected to the depressions 7 of the corrugation through a set of drainage pipes 8 and the collector 8.5 cumulative tanks 11.

Pipe 12 of large diameter passing through the axis of the chamber 4, has a system of radiating radially in a circle and with a corresponding longitudinal displacement of the injection pipe 9. Pataudi the waters 19.5 connected with a source of alkali and/or alkali metal salt (not shown).

In the process, consider equipment hot flue gas generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, for example coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc., passes through the channel 1.2 to electrostatic filter 3, where the gas removes fine dust and other aerosol particle combustion products. Next, the hot flue gas flows through the channel 2 to the treatment chamber-extractor 4. The inner wall 5 of the gas purifying chamber is cooled by water flowing through the space 5.5 counter to the direction of flow of the processed flue gas through the internal volume of 5.7.

Adjustable flow the flow of air and/or steam entering through the supply pipe 19, is displayed through a nozzle in the chamber 4, intensificar the formation of drops and creating trubulence mixing; this contributes to the corrugated inner surface 5. In volume of the chamber 4 is sprayed with alkali and/or alkali metal salts, supplied adjustable for feeding pipeline 19.5 and used as catalyst reagents that increase the solubility of the impurities of the exhaust flue gases.

The cooled inner surface 5 forms a "developed" area of Asti corrugated wall 5 is sent to collect the mixture into the drain pipe 8 and through the pipe collector 8.5 in storage tanks 11. Gathering in these tanks the mixture is expelled through the pump 11.5.

When determining the optimal size and profile of the corrugations of the inner primecasino wall 5 of the treatment chamber 4 should be guided by the boiling point of the used water. In this sense, the restrictive premise is that separated from the gas mixture of impurities should not evaporate when cooled to a safe level, and should fully take place (drain) on the cooled wall 5 to the downstream cavities 7 of the corrugations, intending ultimately accumulating in tanks 11 and doing them on a set of drainage pipes 8 and tubular manifold 8.5.

Energy level is partially treated, residual flue gases can be recovered by supplying heat in the chamber 17 additional heat) and/or increase the kinetic energy of the flow (by means of the exhaust fan 18).

Next, we consider the diagram in Fig. 3, which shows the output part chemical treatment (degassing) declared the treatment plant; in this part of the installation includes the source used lime mortar in the form of tanks mixers 21, equipped with a mechanical stirrer 21.5 who's nozzles 22, 23 (see also Fig.4) associated with the annular transfer channels 19, 20. The pipe 27 connects the annular distributing channel 19 with the supply pump 25 supply system lime mortar. A pipe 28 connects the annular channel 20 to a source of steam (not shown). The bypass steam line 26, put into effect by using shut-off valve 26.5, provides purge the supply system of lime mortar. You should pay attention to the fact that the various pipes and spray equipment need not be placed outside of dimolybdate pipe 10, as shown in Fig. 3 and 4: under certain climatic conditions, it may be appropriate to place all of this equipment inside the pipe 10.

In addition to couple of, which enhances evaporation of lime mortar, can be used compressed air taken from the corresponding source, instead of, or along on the ferry. In this case, the system output cleanup must be entered in the additional annular distributing pipe, air intake pipe, pumps and ring system of nozzles (not shown). When functioning under consideration of the treatment system is necessary to maintain certain temperature all the existing heating means. Only in this case it is possible to achieve maximum efficiency and the desired result.

When carrying out the cleaning method of the present invention are the following chemical reaction:

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The next step would be to draw attention to the fact that the effectiveness of Izvestkovaya stage of the cleaning process depends on the quantity and the concentration of Ca (OH)2the solution is injected into the residual, partially cleaned flue gas. The injection box of mortar near the exit of the chimney allows you to effectively dissipate the relatively large area of the resulting calcium salt that is intended for the regeneration of previously contaminated soil. The use of multi-stage cleaning process can be almost fully neutralized in the combustion gases emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The degree of purification from carbon dioxide will depend on the relative amount of mortar is applied at the stage of chemical degassing.

The velocity dispersion of this solution at the exit chimney is directly proportional to and can be automatically set in accordance with the load of the boiler system; in addition, it maintains and impurities flue gas, effectively neutralizing the remaining therein harmful compounds type of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen, and part of the gaseous CO2.

1. Method for neutralizing the harmful gaseous impurities in the hot combustion gas generated in the combustion process, comprising lowering the temperature of the flue gas before condensation by indirect heat exchange, the injection box in the flue gas of an aqueous solution of alkali, the collection and removal from flue gas products formed, wherein lowering the temperature of the flue gas and the injection box him in an aqueous alkali solution is carried out at simultaneous forced mixing of the flue gas, condensate and injected aqueous solution of alkali, after which the flow of partly purified flue gas in the cross section of the exit channel of the chimney into the atmosphere evaporated aqueous solution of a chemical reagent, selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and mixtures thereof, and take in the atmosphere of flue gas containing aerosol product, then spreading on the wind flow partially cleaned flue gas in the atmosphere near the exit of the chimney on the leeward side in the zone of precipitation of aerosols is in the form of additional external flow.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the operation forced mixing, evaporation and sputtering are moving flue gas through the injection of steam and/or compressed air turbulence.

3. Device for neutralizing harmful gaseous contaminants, including preheating chamber installation for burning, emitting hot polluting flue gases processed in 3 stages at the point of emission from the hole of the chimney into the atmosphere and downwind relative to areas favorable for the precipitation of by-product formed in water of solid particles, characterized in that it includes a device for extraction of acids containing condensation chamber to the condensing means, means for ensuring the turbulence, the collector means and the drainage outlet means, the funds provide turbulence include the supply pipe to supply fluid under pressure flowing in the longitudinal direction of the condensing chamber and having a lot of drainage pipes located at intervals from each other and radiating toward the outside so as to provide inside annoy inner wall of the profiled section, providing an expanded and accessible surface area of the collection, the opening for the release of gases from the device for the extraction of acids is communicated with the inlet hole of the chimney, the ring structure of the spray nozzles for liquid located near the outlet of the chimney, while the nozzles are connected with means for supplying a fluid medium through a set of pipes laid down parallel to the chimney, an additional ring structure of the distribution nozzles for the fluid located near the outlet of the chimney and connected through a set of pipes laid down parallel to the flue to the source of steam or compressed air, auxiliary flue, based on a high-rise structure, the hole is fitted with two ring-like structures of nozzles, similar to the previous one chimney.

4. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the means for supplying fluid includes a source of alkali.

5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the means for supplying fluid includes a source of steam, or compressed air source, or both of these sources in the


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