Device for measuring the absorption coefficient of the mirrors
(57) Abstract:The inventive device includes a radiation source optically coupled through the mirror with absorbing cone, the cooling system of mirrors and cone with collectors entrance and exit of the refrigerant and the cooling channels, thermal sensors. Mirror and absorbing cone is further provided with nozzles placed in them by the sensors, made in the form megaspine thermocouple and oriented in the direction opposite to the movement of the refrigerant. The collectors of the entrance and exit of the refrigerant absorbing cone is placed on its back surface, and the cooling channels of the cone is made on the lateral and dorsal surfaces. The nozzles are connected to the collectors of the entrance and exit of the refrigerant absorbing cone and mirrors. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to quantum electrical engineering, in particular to a device for measuring the absorption coefficient used in devices for forming and transporting radiation cooled mirror at the working wavelength.A device for measuring the absorption coefficient of the sample mirrors  including a radiation source, a sample mirror attached to it is of infrared radiation and subsequent similar heat from the heater.The main disadvantages of the known device is its use for research only specially made uncooled samples of mirrors with integrated heaters and not real-cooled mirrors, and low accuracy.The technical nature closest to the invention /prototype/ calorimeter is a device for measuring the absorption coefficient of the mirrors  containing a radiation source, an uncooled sample mirrors with built-in electric heater, a heat reservoir with coolant thermally stabilized liquid, teplovod placed between the sample and thermal reservoir temperature sensors-thermistors, absorbing the cone heater and the heat line. When heating the sample mirrors and absorbing cone of radiation energy using a thermistor measures the temperature difference on the heat line between the sample /cone/ and reservoir with coolant constant temperature, then the difference is reproduced using the built-in heater.The main disadvantages of the device /2/ are able to move it in the laboratory for research only specially made of Pohl the ri unlimited time source and constant power radiation, great effect of heat losses on the measurement accuracy due to the fact that laser and electric heating spaced in time.The objective of the invention is to improve the accuracy of measurement of the absorption coefficient are from service and used in devices for forming and transporting radiation cooled mirrors.This technical result is achieved in that known device, containing a radiation source optically coupled through the mirror with absorbing cone cooling system mirrors and cone with collectors entrance and exit of the refrigerant and the cooling channels, the sensor is further provided with nozzles with pockets for the placement of sensors on the rear surface of the absorbing cone placed collectors entrance and exit of the refrigerant on the side and the back surface of the cone is made of the cooling channels, pipes with pockets for placement of temperature sensors attached to the reservoir inlet and outlet of the refrigerant absorbing cone and mirrors, and sensors installed in the nozzle and oriented in the direction the opposite movement of the refrigerant, and a pocket for placement of the sensor consists of fitting, hollow the second pipe end is rigidly connected with him, as the case with multilayer electrodes thermocouples placed inside the fitting.In Fig. 1 illustrates schematically an apparatus for measuring the absorption coefficient of the mirrors of Fig. 2 pipe with a pocket for placement of the temperature sensor.The device has cooled mirror 1, the nozzle 2 with pockets for the placement of sensors on the areas of the entrance of the refrigerant pipes with 3 pockets for placing sensors on the sections of the exit of the refrigerant, 4 pockets for placement of temperature sensors, thermal sensors /multilayer thermocouple/ 5, absorbing cone 6, collectors 7 logon refrigerant manifolds 8 output refrigerant, the cooling channels 9, the radiation source 10.To the input and output flanges of the cooling system of the mirror 1, the absorption coefficient which must be measured, join the pipes 2 and 3 with 4 pockets for placement of temperature sensors 5. Absorbing cone 6 meter energy of the reflected radiation has on the back surface collector entrance and exit of the refrigerant 7 and 8 and the cooling channels 9, performed on the side and rear surfaces of a cone. To the flanges of the cooling system of the cone 6 and the mirror 1, join the pipes 2 and 3 with 4 pockets, thermodata in the flow of the refrigerant. Mirror 1 and the cone 6 are arranged so that the reflected mirror surface radiation source 10 falls on the working surface of the absorbing cone.The pipe 2 with pocket for placement of thermal sensor includes a nozzle 11, a cover 12, a washer 13, a gasket 14, the nut 15.The pipe 2 on the side has a through hole into which is inserted the nozzle 11 and is rigidly connected with the pipe /for example, welding/. Inside the fitting is placed a hollow case 12, representing curly metal tube with open ends and with special soldered onto the tube by a sealing washer 13. The strip 14 with a nut 15 provides a sealed input of the cover 12 to the inside of the pipe 2. The junctions of thermocouple 5 overlook a few millimeters towards the flow from the open end of the case 12, and the electrodes thermocouples are inside the case. To ensure the integrity of the internal cavity of the case with electrodes filled sealing resin.The device operates as follows.Absorbed by the reflecting surface of the mirror 1 of the energy of incident radiation source 10 is given by the refrigerant pumped through the cooling system of the mirror at a constant flow rate and constant temperature of judgjudgment input-output mirror 1. Reflected by the mirror 1, the fraction of energy absorbed by the working surface of the absorbing cone 6 and with the amount of refrigerant pumped through the cone 6 at a constant flow rate and constant temperature of the refrigerant at the exit. The temperature difference at the inlet-outlet of the cone is using megaspine thermocouple 5. It can be shown that the absorption coefficient of the mirror A/taking into account the heat flux interaction between the mirror 1 and the cone 6 with the environment/ is calculated by the formula
and in the case of a stationary mode at the same refrigerants in cooling systems mirrors and cone
< / BR>GC,Gtothe flow of refrigerant through the mirror and cone, respectively;
the temperature drop of the refrigerant in the mirror and the cone under the action of radiation;
the temperature drop of the refrigerant in the mirror and the cone without load
time.The use of the device special nozzles with pockets for placement of temperature sensors, providing a sealed input sensor /megaspine thermocouple directly in the flow of refrigerant to meet his movement, provides low inertia and high precision measurements of the temperature of the refrigerant and therefore pohlad the Noah surfaces, and the use of collectors in the cooling system promotes good mixing of the fluid and precise measurement of the bulk temperature of the fluid. Connection nozzles directly with collectors entrance and exit of the refrigerant reduces the mean free path of the refrigerant to the temperature sensors and, accordingly, the heat loss to the environment.In addition to the above, a significant advantage of the proposed device before the device is /2/ that allows you to improve the accuracy of measurements of the absorption coefficient, is the absence of an electric heater providing the equivalent electrical heating after carrying out heat radiation. Measurement of the absorption coefficient /absorbed energy radiation/ performed by using the proposed device can be carried out in contrast to the prototype, for any a cooled mirror in operation. If the device /2/ required stability of the radiation power at a certain time of the radiation source, the proposed device does not impose any requirements on the stability of power in time of the radiation source, which significantly increases the accuracy of the measurement. Privlige is with, the error in the measurement of the absorption coefficient using the known device can reach 15-25% while using the proposed device 5-10% 1. Device for measuring the absorption coefficient of the mirrors containing a radiation source optically coupled through the mirror with absorbing cone, the cooling system of mirrors and cone with collectors entrance and exit of the refrigerant and the cooling channels, as well as sensors, characterized in that mirror and absorbing cone is further provided with nozzles placed in them by the sensors, which are made in the form of megaspine thermocouple and oriented in the direction opposite to the movement of the refrigerant, the reservoir inlet and outlet of the refrigerant absorbing cone is placed on its back surface, and the cooling channels of the cone is made on the lateral and rear surfaces, when this pipe is attached to the reservoir inlet and outlet of the refrigerant absorbing cone and mirrors.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that each nozzle is equipped with a pocket consisting of a fitting and installed in it a hollow case, inside of which is placed a thermocouple, and a fitting mounted on the side wall of the Sabbath.
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has receiving optical module placed in series with optic signal delay unit and radiation unit. Axes of receiving optical module and radiation module are aligned. Receiving optical module additionally has mesh with luminous radial lines and transparent diaphragm which is disposed in point of crossing of lines of mesh and mounted in focal plane of first objective. Device also has photoreceiver, measurement data control and registration unit, illuminator, optical unit, fiber-optic divider and fiber-optic adder.
EFFECT: improved precision of monitoring of non-parallelism of axes; widened range of application.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: testing of optical apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises feeding the standard optical signal to the light guide to be tested and measuring reflected signal. The oscillation of the signal power with the amplitude exceeding that of the initial level indicates the presence of a defect.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of testing.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises corner mirror with two mirror surfaces which define the right angle between them, flat mirror, and adjusting units. The optical axis of one of the channels to be tested passes through the corner mirror. The optical axis of the second channel to be tested passes through the flat mirror. The device is additionally provided with several corner and flat mirrors. Each pair of the mirrors defines a prism and used for testing one channel of the article with one wavelength. The adjusting instrument is made of a built-in collimator provided with several light sources having different wavelengths.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of testing.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fiber-optic data cables.
SUBSTANCE: to determine value of local introduced losses in fiber-optic data cable line, in case of which in current portion of line occurred or is possible a covert removal of data through side surface of optic fiber, by reversed dispersion method a reflection gram of losses in fiber-optic data cable line dependent on its length is received, which is used to find portions with local introduced losses, on which value of losses is measured and distance from start of line to portion with introduced losses. Maximal allowed value of losses is determined from formulae: for common fiber-optic data cable for systems with quantum noises where Wthr is a threshold of sensitivity of capture receiver with signal/noise relation equal to 1; Q - maximally allowed signal/noise relation for capture receiver, providing for impossibility of data interception; Kn - transfer coefficient, showing which portion of radiation lost in fiber-optic data cable line is received at input pole of interception receiver; Wn - power of optical signal at input pole of fiber-optic data cable receiver, providing for required transmission quality; α - value of introduced losses in fiber-optic data cable line average for a portion (L-1); L - fiber-optic data cable line length; l - distance from transmitter to place with measured value of locally introduced losses; e - electron charge; B - frequencies band of transmitted data signals; In - special integral value; S transfer characteristic of fiber-optic data cable receiver photo-detector. Measured value of losses is compared to calculated maximally allowed value, portions with increased side radiation are detected while measured value surpasses maximally allowed value.
EFFECT: higher security level.
FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable for identification of a damaged optical fiber in monitoring systems of optical fibers in communication network.
SUBSTANCE: for identification of a damaged optical fiber the control characteristic of the backward scattering of the optical fiber is preliminary measured, it is memorized subsequently with a preset time interval, periodically measured the current characteristic of the backward scattering of the same fiber at the same parameters of sounding, and the damaged optical fiber is identified as a result of comparison of the control and current characteristics of the backward scattering of the optical fiber, the matrix is calculated at this time , where - the covariation matrix of the control and current characteristics of the backward scattering of the optical fiber, and - the dispersion of the control characteristic of the backward scattering, and the optical fiber is identified as a damaged-one at a deviation of even one of the members of matrix from unity by more than the preset threshold value.
EFFECT: provided enhanced sensitivity and reduced number of errors of identification of damaged optical fibers in the systems of automatic monitoring.