# Functional converter (and its variants)

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used in analog, analog, specialized devices and computers. The purpose of the invention is the decrease in size while increasing accuracy. Functional Converter contains two sets of reference voltages, three comparator unit job gain, operational amplifier, the unit set the initial coordinates, the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input, the switch unit reference voltages, two elements - XOR and reversible counter. The Converter implements a given functional dependency by simulating n independent of the approximating line segments. Variants complete functional inverter, including playing a unipolar output voltage. 3 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention can be used in analog, analog, specialized devices and computers.Widely known functional converters, built to replace the original function polyline curve (method piecewise linear approximation) (ed. St. N 100152, 273532, 568057, 781838, 107�the researchers carried out or on the diodes, or, to eliminate the effect of diode characteristics on the amplifiers in the feedback circuit which includes diodes, or StabiliTrak, or Comparators, connected to the logic elements and keys.Output voltage, within each plot approximating polyline is defined by the expression (Smolov Century B. Diode functional transducers. Energy, 1967)< / BR>

or expressions (ed. St. N 1076917)

< / BR>

where n is the number of the approximated line segments;

K

_{n}the coefficient equal to the tangent of the slope of this line segment approximation to the x-axis;

U

_{initial ad}voltage initial coordinates.The disadvantages of functional transducers realizing expressions 1-3 should include the availability for each of approximating a segment of its scheme of approximation, containing a nonlinear element (diode, stabilitron, a comparator, and so on) with a set of radioelements. This increases not only the mass-dimensional characteristics, but also to increase the accuracy of reproduction of a given nonlinear voltage due to variation of characteristics of nonlinear elements.Known devices of functional transducers the closest is the size while increasing accuracy.This device is based, as the prototype, on the playback n independent of the approximating line segments, according to the dependencies, 2 or 3, the origin of which is given by U

_{initial p.}.In Fig. 1 shows a schematic functional diagram of the Converter.In this diagram:

1 unit reference voltages for increasing voltage. On his entrance with increasing input voltage formed by the voltage U

_{op.p.}at which switching occurs from one approximating segment to another;

2 block reference voltages for descending voltage. At its input when the descending order of the input voltage generated reference voltage U

_{op.n-1}at which switching occurs from one approximating segment to another;

3 block job gain of the input signal;

4 unit job stress initial coordinates;

5 and 6 Comparators, respectively, for ascending and descending voltages;

7, the comparator of the sign of the input voltage. He gives a signal about the change of sign of the input signal into blocks of reference voltages, set the initial coordinates and the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input signal;

8 and 9, the elements of the other address approximating segment. The counter works from the clock pulses when the input "+" or "-" signal resolution. Depending on this, it increases or decreases the address.12 summing operational amplifier, the output of which is reproduced nonlinear voltage;

13 block offset initial coordinates of the input signal (for example, Elevator, and so on).To play a given nonlinear voltage source function replace broken curve.Piecewise linear approximation can be performed analytical or graphical way depending on the required accuracy. In the calculation results (graphically) receive n, U

_{Ref.n}U

_{op.n}U

_{o.n}, K

_{n}U

_{start n}that is , the main data piecewise linear function. Next, in blocks of reference voltages specify the respective U

_{op.n}when you switch to another approximarely plot reproducible curve set for each segment corresponding gain in unit 3 and the voltage of the initial coordinates in the block 4, and so onIn Fig. 2,a and 2,b shows the schematic construction of thrust blocks.In Fig. 2: 14 of programmable permanent memory (EPROM what about the counter 11. Program EPROM is made so that each code input address matched U

_{op.n}DAC output.In Fig. 2, b: 16.1-16n voltage dividers, which are set to the reference voltage U

_{op.n}; 17 and 18 switches voltages of the n inputs into one, the outputs of which are connected respectively with the comparator ascending or descending input voltage.The output of each of the dividers 16.1-16n is connected with the corresponding input 1, 2, n of the switch 17. Simultaneously, the output of the divider 16.1 connected to the second input of the switch 18, the output of the divider 16.2 with the third entry, and so on, the output of the divider 16(n-1) log n switch 18, the input 1 is connected to the shared bus.Consider the operation of the circuit of Fig. 1

Put in blocks 1-4 according to the data voltage U

_{op.n}U

_{op.n-1}U

_{start n}and the corresponding gain K

_{n}. At time t 0 comes the reset pulse and the output of the reversible counter is set to zero address. At the output of block 1 will be U

_{op.1}(e.g., 1b), the output of block 2 U

_{op.0}0

_{b}, block 3 exhibited a gain of K

_{1}equal to the tangent of the angle of inclination of the first section of approximation. When changing wodnerful 5-7 will be 0, therefore, at the output of the counter 11 will remain 0 address.With further increase of the input voltage, for example, 1bU

_{I}<2b at the output of the comparator 5 will appear 1 and summing the input counter will appear 1. With the arrival of the clock pulse the counter will increment the address by 1, which will switch block addresses 1, 2, 3, 4 to the playback of the next segment. At the entrance of block 1 will appear a voltage U

_{op.2}(2b), and the output of block 2, respectively, U

_{op.1}(1b), etc.If you want to play unipolar nonlinear voltage, it is possible to reduce the weight and dimensional characteristics, which is particularly important in specialized computing devices.Schematic diagram of this device is shown in Fig. 3

In Fig.3 1 unit reference voltages, where R

_{1}-R

_{b}the divider reference voltage; 19 switch voltage 8 _ 1; comparator 5; 11 - meter; unit 3 job gain of the input signal voltage and the initial coordinates, where R

_{9}-R

_{16}the resistor that sets the gain in each of the segments; R

_{17}-R

_{23}the resistor sets the voltage of the initial coordinates U

_{start n}for each segment; 20 switch voltage 8-L 1; 12 sums the In Fig. 4 offered the option of complete functional inverter, in which the initial coordinates and unit assignments, the gains are combined into one unit 21, based on the block circuit 3 in Fig. 3. 1. Functional Converter comprising first and second blocks of the reference voltages, the first, second and third Comparators, the unit job gain, the output of which is connected to the input of the operational amplifier whose output is the output of the Converter and through feedback resistor connected to the input of the operational amplifier, characterized in that it contains the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input, the switch unit reference voltages, the unit set the initial coordinates, the first and second XOR and reversible counter, and the output unit set the initial coordinates connected to the input of the operational amplifier, the output of the first block reference voltages connected to the first input of the first comparator, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first EXCLUSIVE OR element, the output of which is connected to a summing input of the reversible counter, the output of the second block reference voltages connected to the first input wego counter input with a clock bus of the inverter, the output of the third comparator is connected to the second inputs of the first and second XOR, with the control input of the switch unit reference voltages and the first input of the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input, the input data switch unit reference voltages are connected to the inputs of the task positive and negative reference voltages of the Converter, the output switch unit reference voltages connected to the data inputs of the first and second blocks of the reference voltages, the unit set the initial coordinates and the second input of the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input information input functional Converter connected to the third input of the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input, the first output of which is connected to the data input unit job gain of the input signal, to the second inputs of the first and second Comparators and the first input of the third comparator, a second input connected to the zero potential bus, a second output unit for shifting the initial coordinates of the input is connected to prohibit a unit set the initial coordinates of the unit job gain of the input signal and a reversible counter whose output coedine job gain of the input signal.2. The Converter according to p. 1, characterized in that each block of the reference voltages includes serially connected flash memory device and a digital to analog Converter, an analog input connected to the data input unit, and the output is the output of the block address input reprogrammable storage device is an address input unit.3. The Converter according to p. 1, characterized in that the block set the initial coordinates contains serially connected flash memory device and a digital to analog Converter, an analog input connected to the data input unit, the input of the ban with the locking unit, and the output is the output of the block address input reprogrammable storage device is an address input unit.4. Functional Converter comprising a block of reference voltages, a comparator and an operational amplifier whose output is the output of the Converter and through feedback resistor connected to the input of the operational amplifier, characterized in that it contains a counter and block set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal, the output KDU comparator, the output of which is connected to the control input of the counter, a counting input connected to the clock bus of the inverter, the output of the counter is connected to the address inputs of the block reference voltages and block set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal, the information input to the Converter is connected to a second input of the comparator and the input data block set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal.5. Functional Converter comprising first and second blocks of the reference voltages, the first, second and third Comparators, operational amplifier whose output is the output of the Converter and through feedback resistor connected to the input of the operational amplifier, characterized in that it contains the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input, the switch unit reference voltages, the unit set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal, the first and second XOR and reversible counter, and the output unit set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal connected to the input of the operational amplifier, the output of the first block reference voltages connected to the first input pen is on connected to a summing input of a reversible counter, the output of the second block reference voltages connected to the first input of the second comparator, the output of which is connected to the first input of the second EXCLUSIVE OR element, the output of which is connected to the subtractive input of the reversible counter connected to a counter input with a clock bus of the inverter, the output of the third comparator is connected to the second inputs of the first and second XOR, managing input switch unit reference voltages and the first input of the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input, the input data switch unit reference voltages are connected to the inputs of the task positive and negative reference voltages of the Converter, the output switch unit reference voltages connected to the data inputs of the first and second blocks of the reference voltages, the reference input voltage set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal and the second input of the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input information input functional Converter connected to the third input of the block offset of the initial coordinates of the input, the first output of which is connected to the input of a data block set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input sigo connected to the bus zero potential, the second output unit offsets the initial coordinates of the input is connected to prohibit a unit set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal and a reversible counter whose output is connected to the address inputs of the first and second blocks of the reference voltages and block set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal.6. The Converter according to p. 5, characterized in that the block set the initial coordinates and the gain of the input signal contains a switch and two sets of voltage dividers, the inputs of the voltage dividers of the first group are United and connected to the input of the reference voltage unit, the inputs of the voltage dividers of the second group are combined and connected to the data input unit outputs the same voltage dividers of the first and second groups United in pairs and connected to the corresponding information input switch, output switch is the output of the block, and the address input and the input of the ban are respectively address and prohibiting the inputs of the block.

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