Installation for granulation of fertilizers
(57) Abstract:Applications: granulation of multicomponent fertilizers from magmatic rocks from the ordinary brown coal and lime shell. The inventive device for granulating fertilisers contains mixer, disc granulator and dryer granules. When this unit is supplied on the front of the mixer coal hopper crusher for unoxidized coal and mill, silo lime and flour silo from rocks and United with the disk granulator using a closed screw conveyor for fine materials hopper for Shelly limestone. The tap is made in the form of a drum granulator and is connected with the disk granulator lotkov feeder. 11 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to an apparatus for granulating multicomponent fertilizers, especially formed from igneous rocks, from ordinary drilling coal and lime shell granulated mixture, consisting of a mill for grinding coal, mixer, disc granulator, grain dryers and silos containing separate materials.Fertilizers are organic and near is Thanks to these two actions can be increased crop productivity. Origin fertilizers are produced directly on the farm and artificial fertilizers, and farm fertilizer is understood primarily material derived from livestock buildings, manure, etc.Using fertilizers also introduced, in particular, the components of humus, which, among other positive properties also increase the water-holding capacity of the soil. They also contain substantial amounts of nutrients for plants.On-farm fertilizer in the past was increasingly supplanted by mineral fertilizers. Livestock effluents and other fertilizers are produced at present in such large quantities that they can no longer safely be introduced into the soil. Artificial fertilizers are commercially available fertilizers, particularly inorganic salts, but also organic substances, such as guano.The disadvantage of these artificial fertilizers is the fact that they may not again be introduced into the soil all the components removed from the soil due to intensification of agricultural and forestry land use. Due to the intensive cultivation of the soil from it t is stannah fertilizers these substances can not be reintroduced into the soil.For this reason, it was created so-called organic phase fertilizer on the basis of natural substances with mineral component and an organic component. Mineral component in the form of brown-coal dust and dust rocks, especially dust magmatic rocks, granulated, and then around this core to execute a shell of natural flour used for fertilizer lime waste. However, clearly it is difficult to provide such a structure in which, would always be provided with the necessary thickness of the shell of limestone powder, in particular of flour Shelly limestone.Studies have shown that the proportion of lime is desirable, at least 30% is still not achieved.Known device for the granulation of fertilizers containing mixer, disc granulator and dryer granules.However, in this installation is not uniform fabrication of multi-component granules.The objective of the invention to create a granulating plant which makes it possible to uniform the manufacture of multi-component granules with a compact outer shell.The task is solved in that the setting for granulirovaniem coal hopper crusher for unoxidized coal and mill, a tank for lime and flour silo from rocks and United with the disk granulator using a closed screw conveyor for fine materials hopper for Shelly limestone, and the tap is made in the form of a drum granulator and is connected with the disk granulator lotkov feeder.In this setup, granulating, firstly, there is the preservation of the natural water content submitted for use of the drilling coal, to thereby ensure uniform formation of granules in exactly adapted to this drum granulator.In this drum granulator rock flour, raw coal and limestone are mixed in a specified mixture, to form a dark wet granules, and on the structure of these granules may already have such an influence by feeding lime that in the final product, the proportion of lime in the granule guaranteed more than 30%
Then these dark and wet granules are carefully bin feeder disk granulator to here due to the remaining moisture to cover by "spraying" dry shell lime. It is particularly rationally that thanks to this technology the key, consequently, as a rule, from the subsequent drying can be waived.Dry lime captures residual moisture from the dark and the wet granules and forms a rational uniform and durable shell with optimum starting position for subsequent use as multi-component fertilizers. Chute feeder, which transports the dark and the wet granules from the drum granulator to disk granulator, made so that it can transport these granules without damage and also up.According to the expedient execution of the invention provides that the drum granulator equipped with scales for water, which is installed with the possibility of additional control nodes connecting scales with tanks for other liquids, such as animal waste. Using weights for the water is provided and regulated by the uniform water flow in a drum granulator, always guaranteed a uniform average humidity, especially wet outer shell for dark granules. This also applies when the pellets have already enriched the appropriate quantity of lime and stone flour.Instead of water can p the zoom at the same time provide additional impact on the regulated soil.Using scales for water can be precisely set and apply accordingly with the necessary amount of water or to change it if the moisture content especially in the original brown coal has changed or you have the appropriate difficulties with drainage, which primarily can affect the proper flow of water or other liquid.Device for granulating, according to the invention, makes possible the necessary fine adjustment due to the fact that the coal bunker is equipped with a humidity sensor. Thanks to this, can accurately maintained the moisture contained in the coal bunker source of brown coal, which has already been largely crushed, making a timely manner may change the amount of water or other liquid in a drum granulator.On the one hand, it is important that there is always humidity is necessary or it is to receive such granules, which then can be provided with a sufficiently thick shell of Shelly limestone.On the other hand, it is important rationally when the core of the granules also contain the corresponding optimal mix that is optimal for the corresponding note is ananny in the form of turbomachines, United with bunkers screw conveyors.Adjustable speed screw conveyors then served on the program or on another job the appropriate amount of brown coal or raw brown coal, flour rocks and lime turbomachine, which is obtained or stored corresponding to the mixture, and then to share it in a drum granulator, so that here again to get dark granules.Using weights can be accurately and efficiently reliably cured composition of the assigned mixture.Also suitable way with three pellets in the soil can be amended and seeds, which drum granulator is installed with the possibility of pairing it with a device for separator seeds, so that may be associated with a separate granule few seeds. These seeds are collected in separate granules to them together with their own kernel to provide lime shell.Wet and dark granules must be transported from the drum granulator to a separate disk granulator, where they get the final structure, in particular its shell of lime.To prevent damage to them when t is W what local feeder equipped with a plate-conveyor and has a closed housing.Thanks to the close of the case can be excluded harmful effects, for example from wind, etc. Then rationally retain individual granules, returning them previously contained moisture, which facilitates their subsequent processing. Additionally sealed enclosure provides the ability to save a specific temperature or etc.You can also perform the hermetic housing of the feeder and the upper horizontal section to equip aerosol spray. Thanks to the granules can bring additional moisture, if necessary or appropriate before spraying lime.According to the invention creates a quasi-continuous working device for granulating, and there will be one or several, mostly two, parallel disk granulator. These disk granulators alternately loaded, so guaranteed continuous release of three pellets sprayed with lime or provided with an appropriate coating.Distribution of incoming dark granules in the two disc granulator and installed with the loading of the dispenser from the top, moreover, the disk dispenser equipped with a discharge funnel for loading two disk granulators.Using disk dispenser and unloading hoppers granules evenly supplied to two or multiple disk granulators. The disk dispenser at the same time ensures that the obtained dark granules were not damaged.Thanks to the two disk granulators, you must also at the same time to bring Shelly limestone or lime to the disk granulators for spraying granules, which is ensured by the fact that the tank Shelly limestone is made in the form of a two-chamber of the hopper and each disk granulator is connected to one of the chambers is closed by a screw conveyor for finely ground mass.Thus, without mutual influence can evenly be downloaded and used both disk granulator.Thus obtained on a disk granulators granules have after sufficient encapsulating lime rational strength, because lime is largely captures moisture from the individual granules and she is hardened.Rationally if still "warm"the possibility of his connection with the second lotkov, feeder, equipped with stepless working drive, connected with a roar and installed for him sitereptile bags.Using bin feeder became white granules gently raise and then distribute crash into several classes according to the size of the granules to granules with reduced dimensions of the bottom product and granules with high top product do not get into the soil. These two groups of granules are separated in the crash, so that in the installed behind the roar of the installation for packing bags for the consumer, may only be submitted in substantially uniform granules.On the way chute feeder can, if necessary, drying, what is best sealed enclosure tray feeder. Speaking of the top, oversize product dropout and also about undersize, lower product dropout, speak about the pellets, which have a certain proportion of Shelly limestone or lime. For this reason, these component parts may again be fed, for example, to the raw (source) brown coal on its way to the coal bunker, either before or after him.According to the invention provides that the roar connected with the mill tape testwuide granules are loading on the conveyor belt. This transfer of pellets into the mill provides the grinding pellets that are too small to get the original parts that can be optimally mixed and processed.The invention differs in that the apparatus for granulating, which is particularly suitable for generating or receiving a multicomponent fertilizers in the form of granules. Still wet airman brown coal is pulverized in the installation or before a granulating so that moisture can be used for the subsequent process. If necessary with the addition of water, it is carried out in the first zone of formation of the mixture of granules, namely in a drum granulator.After that, wet and dark granules are transported further in the drum granulator equipped with lime shell, so that the core or pellet if you exit the installation has an average lime content of over 30%
Due to the high CaO content of the product can be considered within the destination fertilizers as residual lime. Especially rationally affects the high lime content and the content of silicic acid, which is obtained from received for use of the products is to alsowhat natural properties of the product. Thanks to this work uniform granules with uniformly thick and hard shell.In Fig.1 shows a device for granulating, side view; Fig.2 is a top view in a somewhat schematized version.Installation 1 for granulation (Fig.1) is mounted in the factory floor or similar if necessary it can be protected by an awning from the environment or, in particular, from climatic influences.Transported by trucks or other vehicles brown coal is fed into the hopper feeder 2, where the coal is automatically fed into the crusher 3 for non-oxidized coal. Here is the shock crushing and grinding, so connected mill 4 should only be carried out corresponding to the smaller grinding.After the mill 4 moist, but crushed raw coal conveyor 5 is transported to the coal hopper 6.In Fig. 2 shows that, along with coal hopper 6 is also mounted a hopper 7 for lime and the hopper 8 for flour rocks. Separate bins 6, 7, 8 have the same standard amount, but depending on specified weights of individual company conveyor 9, 11, 12 on which the relevant product is fed to the weighing machine 10 made in the form of tribesmates. With the help of turbospecial 10 is uniform dosing of the individual components, respectively) may change the quantitative proportion. In particular, can vary with the hopper 7 for lime and mated screw conveyor 11 the number of input lime in accordance with the scope or the wishes of the buyer.Adjusted or keep the number of components are then summed in a drum granulator 16, and with the help of weights 15 for water is the supply of water required or the required liquid. But water can also talk about the other liquid, as shown through the supply line, which leads to additional Baku, and here can be called a tank 44 for animal waste and tank 45 for whey.Libra 15 for water and turbomeeting 10 or scales 15 for water and the sensor 46 of the moisture in the coal hopper 6 work together. Thanks this may just be the moisture necessary for the manufacture of granules, or aims are necessary for the formation of granules drops repodata a belt conveyor 17 to the tray of the feeder 18.Chute feeder, usually a conveyor belt with plates, so that required him granules not be able to slide back when transporting up. Then the material through chute feeder is transmitted to the disk dispenser 19, having as its objective to bring the incoming granules in the discharge funnels 20, 21 to a separate disk granulators 24, 25 in equal amounts.Disk granulators 24, 25 have actually drives 26, and these actuators 26, 26'so installed and adjusted that a separate disk granulators 24, 25 if possible, always have the same speed.Thus, the disk granulators 24, 25 are optimized pellets, which are then supplied with shell lime powder or dry lime. To do this, screw conveyors 27, 28 for finely ground lime end above the disk granulators 24, 25. After that, lying on a disk granulators 24, 25 dark and wet granules opisivayutsya dry lime thus obtained thick granules which forcibly receive the appropriate shell of lime. Dry lime takes away moisture from the individual granules, shadinetovich conveyor 27, 28 for fine masses out of the hopper 29 for Shelly limestone, which in this case is made in the form of a two-chamber of the hopper, as shown in Fig.2. Each of the chambers 30, 31 are connected with the paired disk granulator 24, 25, or paired with a screw conveyor 27,28.Coming out of disk granulators and supply lime shell pellets fall onto the belt conveyor 32 and are served by this conveyor belt in a trough feeder 33, in which they served on the height connected classifier. Chute feeder 33 is supplied by the actuator 34.For the classification of the granules is crashing 36, which DECA electrically heated and which has two adjustable unbalanced engine, and built-in divider load brake for material, also built a pneumatic device for tension screens, providing a cleaning effect, and to which is attached a device 37 for packing bags with specially made pneumatic feeding and transporting (gentle material mode) device distributes the discharge funnel 38. The oversize of the 40 screens 36 and most of crushed underflow 41 is transmitted to the tape Tranovo crushing and again fed to the flow of material, and then the relatively high content of lime addition has a positive effect on the final product. However, it is important to note that the percent yield of granules with excessive or reduced sizes are relatively small when just running the installation.Earlier it was mentioned that along with water can also be used livestock wastewater and whey or similar initiators of the tank 44 for animal waste or tank 45 for whey, which scales through 15 for the liquid may be introduced into the process.These fluids perform the functions of water or complement them, so that can be rationally uniformly bound in the granules, and then by dissolving the layer of lime also uniformly incorporated into the soil.To be able to bind simultaneously in these pellets, seeds, drum granulator 16 connected device 47 for a single issue of seeds. This device 47 can evenly be submitted on disk granulator 16 seeds taken from different bins 51, 52 for the seeds, so that they can reliably be connected in separate granules.Chute feeder 18 can most efficiently be used for exactly horizontal section 49 of the aerosol dispenser 50, so here again can be fed liquid. Respective positions shown in Fig.2. 1. Device for granulating fertilisers containing the mixer, disc granulator and dryer granules, characterized in that the unit is supplied on the front of the mixer coal hopper crusher for unoxidized coal and mill, silo lime and flour silo from rocks and United with the disk granulator using a closed screw conveyor for fine materials hopper for Shelly limestone, and the tap is made in the form of a drum granulator and is connected with the disk granulator lotkov feeder.2. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the drum granulator equipped with scales for water, which is installed with the possibility of additional control nodes connecting scales with tanks for other liquids, such as animal waste.3. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the coal bunker is made with a moisture sensor.4. Installation under item 1, characterized in that it has established between the bunkers and drum granulator weights, made in the form of turbomachines and connect the bathroom granulator is installed with the possibility of pairing it with a device for separator seeds.6. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the chute feeder is equipped with a plate-conveyor belt and is made with a closed case.7. Installation according to p. 6, characterized in that the housing of the feeder is airtight and equipped with a spray nozzle on the top horizontal section.8. Installation under item 1, characterized in that it is configured to contain one or more, mostly two, connected in parallel disk granulators.9. Installation on PP.1 and 8, characterized in that the chute feeder is connected with the disk dispenser and installed with the loading of the dispenser from the top, and the disk dispenser is made with a discharge funnel for loading two disk granulators.10. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the tank Shelly limestone is made in the form of a two-chamber of the hopper and each disk granulator is connected to one of the chambers is closed by a screw conveyor to the fine mass.11. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the disk granulator is made with the possibility of connection with the second lotkov, feeder, which is equipped with stepless adjustable drive is connected to the eat, the roar connected with the mill, belt conveyor, while the output of the oversize of the screen and exit the smallest undersize fractions of the respective granules are loading on the conveyor belt.
FIELD: coal industry; municipal services; other industries; methods and devices for production of the grained solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of the grained composite fuel, which is intended for usage in the communal heating supply systems or in the household purposes. The method of production of the grained solid fuel with the help of the installation includes grinding of the coal fines, introduction in the composition of the fuel of the ground vegetable additive (for example, the sawdust or the beet press), their joint grinding in the rotary roller mill, sending of the part of the produced mixture in the volume near to 1/3 to mixing with the binder and formation of the seed grains in the turbo-blade mixer. Further route the received mass of seed grains and the remaining part of the mixture in the volume near 2/3 from the mixer for granulation into the plate granulator. The binding is also routed in the granulator to form the seed grains. The produced granules of the spherical shape in the narrow range of the dimensions within 15-30 mm are dried and cooled in the sectional dryer and packed by means of the weighing-and-filling machine into the tare having the form of the cardboard boxes of the different dimensions intended for usage in the capacity of artificial fuel wood. The technical result of the invention consists in the reduced power input for the production process, simplification of the production process, improvement of ecology, the increased efficiency of production of the final product.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced power input for the production process, simplification of the production process, improvement of ecology, the increased efficiency of production of the final product.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 8 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: granulation is carried out in two stages; first stage is humidification with binding performed to humidity 40-70 % of optimal humidity of mixture. Also, the first stage is combined with simultaneous granulation generating centres of granules formation; the centres are further introduced to area of a plate surface corresponding to 50-80 % of its total area. The second stage is granulation performed at rate exceeding critical velocity of plate rotation. Ratio of area of binding spray in contact zone to material is 0.4-0.7 of working surface of the plate. Angle of ascent of material on periphery region relative to surface of the plate bottom equals to 3-10°.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of granulator, of strength of granules and increased uniformity of granulometric composition of product.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Dish pelletiser with activator comprises inclined dish arranged to revolve in case with cover, dish drive, material loading and unloading branch pipes, nozzles, wall and bottom blades, driven activator arranged in cover perpendicular the dish bottom with clearance relative to dish bottom and wall. Activator drive is equipped with axial vibrator. Said activator is composed of a rod with frames arranged perpendicular to the flow of material being pelletised wherein radial plates are secured at two pints, that is, at the rod and at the frame.
EFFECT: faster pelletising, higher yield of 0,75-2,5 mm-fractions, uniform shape and density, reduced moisture content.
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out through the following consecutive steps: feeding, mixing, moistening with binder, preliminary granulation and granulation by pelletisation. The preliminary granulation step is carried out in a high-speed apparatus with mechanical activation of the initial mixture, to which the binder is added in an amount of 20-35 wt % of the total weight of the binder until establishing plastic strength of the mixture at a level of 20-30 kg/m2. The step for granulation by pelletisation is carried out by feeding microgranules obtained at the first granulation step onto the surface of a scuff plate rotating anticlockwise and at a rate higher than the critical rotation speed of the scuff plate. That step is carried out with simultaneous moistening by periodic fine spraying of the binder in amount of 4-15% of the total weight of the binder.
EFFECT: invention enables to granulate multi-component granular mixtures with particle size of 1-7 mm, and mixtures of enzymes and biologically active preparations.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder pelletizing. Multiple scrapers are arranged to abut on or to approach to cylindrical container bottom inner side, container keeping the powder to be pelletized are spinning of container bottom surface in horizontal plane.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and yield, ruled out sticking to container inner wall.
12 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for producing multicomponent mixtures with additives of viscous fluid and can be used in food, pharmaceutical, chemical and other industries, for example for production of instant products in food industry. Mixer-granulator consists of inclined plate diameter of diameter Dtar with adjustable inclination angle to horizon, a drive to adjust rotation speed n, an activator installed perpendicular to bottom of disc in its second quarter and rotating from own drive in direction opposite to rotation of plate, blades of activator are in form of crescent-shaped blades, and 12 hour zone is fitted with a disc with size of (0.5÷0.55) Dtar with a sharp edge. In upper part disc edge is spaced from side of plate with minimum clearance. Proposed knife and device for supply of liquid are located above plane of disc. Height of installation of disc from bottom plate sets layer thickness of scull on bottom plate by cutting with sharp cutting edge of rotating disc excess material stuck at bottom. During mixing of viscous liquid and loose components there is high degree of homogeneity and, consequently, high quality and homogeneity of size of obtained granules.
EFFECT: technical result is increased output of required size and density of fraction of granules, higher quality, faster granulation and drying of end product.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for producing granulated wood ash consists in pelletizing granule-forming particles while simultaneously feeding a powder component and a liquid component and subsequently drying the granules; according to the invention, as granule-forming particles, the screening of wood ash with the particle size up to 1.5 mmis used, pelletizing is carried out in a plate granulator, the plate being placed at an angle of 45-75° to the horizon, the plate rotation is carried out at a frequency of 27-29 rpm, the liquid component is represented by water, and as the powder component is represented by dry wood ash with a bulk density of 560-600 kg/m3, while the weight ratio of water/ash is maintained in the range of 0.27-0.29, the water and ash are continuously fed, allowing spontaneous rolling of wet granules over the plate flange of the plate granulator.
EFFECT: obtaining spherical granules from wood ash, with a specified particle size, having high static strength, with a high production volume and continuous equipment operation.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg