(57) Abstract:The invention relates to flat heaters of the radiant type, in particular for film heaters used for heating of domestic and industrial premises. The device comprises a planar zigzag form resistive radiating element foil located between two flexible heat-resistant insulating films. Resistive radiating element is made of an amorphous alloy of metals or of metals (transition) with the metalloids. The heater has a high mechanical strength, high efficiency and reliability. 3 Il. Patentable invention relates to flat heaters of the radiant type, in particular for film heaters used for heating of domestic and industrial premises.Known heating and insulation module /see application EPO N 0116788, CL NW 3/14, 3/36, 1984/, which is designed to obtain ceilings, providing heating radiation. The module contains a heater formed by heating the film to be fixed to the surface of the insulating layer, which simultaneously performs the additional function is actionscene contacts connected to the power bus. In General, the module design is hard, which reduces its consumer properties, and the resistive element is made in the form of a conductive layer, almost completely covering the surface of the film, and is made on the basis of tin-armano-lead alloy, which leads to the high cost of the module.Known flexible electric heater, secure and. C. the USSR N 377977, CL NW 3/14, in which the conductive material is graphite cloth, protected by insulating rubber layer. The heater due to the flexibility of convenient to use, because they can cover not only a flat surface but with a more complex topography. However, carbon-graphite cloth poorly connected with a rubber membrane, which leads to the presence of air bubbles, significantly reducing technical characteristics of the heater. Enter in graphite fabric sulfur to increase the bond strength between the fabric and the rubber sheath with one hand significantly increases the cost of manufacture of the heater, because the necessary refined sulphur, on the other hand, a positive result is difficult to achieve because it is difficult to provide a homogeneous composition of carbon fabric. In addition to the>From the description to the Japan patent N 53-27496, CL NW 3/14, 1978 known flat heating element with radiation from one surface. It consists of a transparent heat insulating film /Teflon, polyester resin/, where zigzag resistive element made of aluminum or tin foil. The resistive element is faced with the "working" side of another film of synthetic transparent heat-resistant resin with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance /polyvinyl chloride, polyamide/, in turn, covered with aluminum or steel foil, which acts as a screen.The heater has good heat radiating properties, high efficiency, because energy loss radiation is minimized due to the successful combination of materials used. However, it is costly because first, the resistive element is made of tin, which also has a low strength, and secondly, because of the more complicated the design, including reflective screens. Their use increases the cost of production, complicates the technology of Assembly and increases the weight of the heater.As a prototype by the applicant accepted film heater for systemset a tape resistive element /foil/ from tin-lead-Sarmanovo alloy, which zigzag is located between two flexible insulating plates, each of which is double-layered. The inner layer adjacent to the resistive element made of plastic film and outside of the polyester. The resistive element has landroversnow form, its parallel sections /strips/ sequentially interconnected bridges. The heater is equipped with pins connect to the mains voltage of 220 C.Despite the fact that the heater is made of a composition with a low content of tin /52%/ and is cheaper than, for example, a film heater on the application Germany N 2705472, CL NW 3/14, which contains 61.5% of tin /mass/, the cost remains high.Another disadvantage is the low mechanical reliability of the resistive element of the device, due to the properties of the materials used for its manufacture. Foil based on tin and lead with an additive antimony has a voltage limit on the gap to 20 kPa/mm2when the thickness of the foil up to 0.45 mmIn addition, the alloy is very brittle and when it bends easily destroyed. Therefore, for protection from damage resistive element PR is awn known foil is reflected in the performance of the heater. In particular, for providing operating power, adopted in industry to 150 300 watts, when the thickness of the foil 7 25 microns module heater comes with the emission area of not less than 1 m2a series connection of resistive elements. Reduction of the overall dimensions of the module heater necessitates increasing the thickness of the foil to maintain the required power, hence the overuse of expensive metals.The goal in the famous film heater containing planar zigzag form resistive radiating element foil located between two flexible heat-resistant insulating film and is provided with leads for connection to the electrical network, is achieved by the fact that the foil is made of an amorphous alloy of metals, or transition metals and metalloids.By performing a foil of amorphous alloys of metals or transition metals metalloids, due to their higher strength /yield stress at rupture of the foil of an amorphous alloy 600 times higher than that of the foil of tin-lead-antimonic alloy/, the heater can be made with a thinner insulating films and the reliability and to reduce its cost.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of a film heater; Fig. 2 is a section along AA of Fig. 1; Fig. scheme 3 connect multiple heaters.Film heater contains two sheets of flexible heat-resistant insulating film 1, which can be used polyethylene terephthalate laminated film on THE 6-49-5761783-334-90, between which is placed resistive emitting element 2 foil of amorphous alloy metals or transition metals metalloids /for example, one of the alloys of amorphous ribbon on THE 14-1-4971-91/. Resistive element 2 has a zigzag shape, for example in the form of strips, sequentially interconnected by crosspieces 3, forming in the plan meander shape. The element 2 is provided with pins /in Fig. not shown/ to connect to the connecting wires 4, which are supplied with plug for connection to the mains power supply, or have a free end for connection in parallel of several heaters /Fig. 3/.The edges of the heater should be patched with tape 5. Experienced the heater size in terms 750x1450 mm and a thickness of 150 μm, formed from 2 sheets of the above-mentioned film thickness of 60 μm and with a resistive illocos/, has radiated power within 125 150 W/m2the surface temperature within 40 65oC, the resistivity 32040 Ohms, the specific weight of about 350 g/m2if the mass of the resistive element 95,When using film heater for heating, for example, offices collect a few heaters on the circuit of Fig. 3, forming the heating panel /ceiling, wall, sexual or other/. The panel is fixed on the ceiling /wall, floor/ glue, nails, screws, etc. and, if necessary, revet, for example, particle Board or gypsum boards, General electric output 6 panel supply or electrical connector, or connect to the switch /Fig. not shown/.The heater works as follows.When connecting it to the mains resistive element heats up and radiates heat into the atmosphere of the room. Loss of energy due to the reduced thickness of the insulating tape is minimized, which determines the high efficiency of the heater.Due to the increased mechanical strength of the resistive element increases the reliability of the electric heater and can the items of furniture, including three-dimensional form. Film heater containing planar zigzag form resistive radiating element foil located between two flexible heat-resistant insulating film and is provided with leads for connection to the electrical network, wherein the foil is made of an amorphous alloy of metals, or transition metals and metalloids.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flexible electric heater generating temperatures approximating to 150°C, which can be used to maintain preset temperature in spacecraft onboard instruments space, survival suits etc. Proposed heater comprises resistive element arranged between two flexible heat-resistant insulating films and is furnished with current conductors. Aforesaid resistive element represents a polymer film with metallised multi-layer coating made by ion-plasma deposition, thickness of every layer varying from 20 to 100 nm. Said metallised coating features specific electrical resistance making about (300-55) 10-8 Ohm·m and thickness of 3 to 25 mcm.
EFFECT: heating of various-shape objects.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: furniture, particularly heated furniture piece that may be used in home, possibly for medical-prophylactic purposes.
SUBSTANCE: furniture object includes support for engaging with user having on surface layer of mineral material selected from group containing ceramics and natural stone. Support is provided at least with one electric heating device mounted at least on part of its surface turned to user and placed under layer of mineral material. Said device is in the form of panel electric heater irradiating heat for heating layer of mineral material along its thickness in temperature range 30-50°C in order to generate in said layer elastic acoustic waves in ultrasound and hyper-sound bands. Support is provided with unit for controlling temperature of heating layer of mineral material under which respective panel of electric heater is arranged.
EFFECT: enhanced comfort, intensified process of metabolism of user, keeping healthy state of user and providing prophylaxis of diseases due to heat action upon organism of user.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: production of fabrics which generate heat by means of power source and may be used for manufacture of clothing, seats, quilts, etc.
SUBSTANCE: thermal fabric comprises non-conductive thread, heating thread with positive temperature coefficient, and two current-conductive terminals. Heating thread comprises core, enclosure made from matrix including embedded current-conductive particles, and isolating sheath.
EFFECT: provision for creating fabric free of wires and possessing the function of self-regulating heating.
29 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, electrothermics, concerns engineering of electro-heating fabric, which can be used in heating devices for home and industrial use, and also concerns method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread for said fabric.
SUBSTANCE: electro-heating fabric is a cloth formed of intertwined threads, consisting of main non-electro-conductive threads, having first direction, and electro-conductive resistive threads, having second direction, perpendicular to the first one, each one of which consists of central fiber with cover of polymer resistive material, containing carbon filler, consisting of technical carbon and graphite, and provided with conductive threads, main non-electro-conductive threads and electro-conductive resistive threads are intertwined in form of mesh, forming cells, value of step h between electro-conductive resistive threads is determined from mathematical expression. Technical result is also achieved, because method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread, including production of solution of polymer resistive material by diluting polymer binding agent in solvent and mixing of resulting solution with carbon filler, then applying of produced mixture in form of cover onto central fiber by drawing it through solution and draw plate, removing solvent from resistive cover by drying the thread in a flow of hot air, while as polymer binding agent, polyurethane resin is utilized, as central fiber, a thread of polyacrylnitrile fiber is utilized or combined fiber of basalt and polyester fibers, draw plate is mounted in vertical position with possible rotation around its axis and with possible inclination of its vertical position, while lower aperture of draw plate is dipped in solution of polymer carbon-containing resistive material and has larger diameter, than upper aperture, while drying of thread is performed at temperature 150-160°. Angle of inclination of draw plate from vertical position is 10-20°.
EFFECT: stable electrical resistance along whole length of product being produced, reliable electrical contact, method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread also provides for lower costs of product due to creation of continuous process.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: electrothermy, electric heaters such as fiber-plastic ones for medicine, agriculture, liquid and gaseous media heating devices for various industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed woven resistor unit has electricity conducting and heat liberating threads disposed in parallel with power electrodes made of tinsel threads and separated from them by insulating threads; uniformly distributed perpendicular to electricity conducting and heat liberating threads and tinsel threads of power electrodes throughout resistor unit length are additional and current-distributing electrodes made of tinsel threads. Manufacture of woven resistor unit involves cutting of resistor unit blank of desired geometry from current-conducting fabric followed by cutting peripheral zones of all current distributing electrodes and some of peripheral zones of additional electrodes in pack of insulating threads contacting power electrodes on one end and pack of electricity conducting and heat liberating threads, on other end; peripheral zones of additional electrodes are cut out of alternating sides of pack of electricity conducting and heat liberating threads for switching circuit of desired resistor unit; terminal current conductors made, for instance, from copper foil run over with tin and provided with power cord are attached to edges of power and additional electrodes of resistor unit.
EFFECT: enhanced electric safety and reliability of woven resistor unit.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; thermoelectric mats for heating concrete, soil, fillers, and the like.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermoelectric mat has layer-by-layer arranged external moisture-proof insulating coating contacting surface being heated in the course of mat operation, heating element made of at least two parallel strips of flexible nonmetal current-conducting material separated by insulating inserts and provided with electrodes at edges, internal insulating layer, heat-insulating layer, and moisture-proof coating; thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating where h is thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating; K1 = 0.01 - 0.03 is factor depending on kind of material being heated; K2 = 0.01 - 0.06 is factor characterizing strength of external moisture-proof insulating coating material; S is thermoelectric mat surface area; internal insulating layer is disposed under elastic conducting strips at distance of minimum 1 mm therefrom.
EFFECT: enlarged service life of thermoelectric mat.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of cure includes mode of magneto-therapeutic influence by single-directed magnetic field and/or mode of simultaneous influence of hyperthermia and magnetic therapy at values of magnetic induction of 30-50 mT and temperature of 40-55°C while temperature alternately changes within 40-55°C at temperature gradient of 0,1-1°C per second. Device has two plates for therapeutic influence. Plates are connected together by elastic connecting member and provided with cases made of plastic mass. Plastic mass tightly embraces magnetic filed sources, disposed in it, and heating wires. Heating wires are connected with electric power unit through current input member. Electric supply unit is made for periodical interruption of voltage supply onto heating wires made of Ni-Cr alloy. Magnetic field sources have to be permanent magnets embraced with turns of heating wires. Electric supply unit has voltage converter. First output of converter is connected with input of processor; output of converter is connected with first input of switch. Voltage converter has its second output connected with second input of switch; output of switch has to be output of electric supply unit for connecting to heating wires.
EFFECT: simplified design; improved efficiency of cure.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: flat electric heaters of emitting type, in particular, film electric heaters, used as a basis for creating radiation heating systems of industrial, social, cultural and inhabited rooms, and also in systems for heating young animals and birds.
SUBSTANCE: film electric heater contains meander-shaped thin resistive heating and emitting element made of foil in form of continuous ribbon of precision current-conductive material, positioned between two flexible thermo-resistant electro-isolating films and provided with contacts for connection to electric network. The electric heater is provided with emitting element in form of aluminum foil, mounted between external electro-isolation film and resistive heating and emitting element, and separated from resistive heating and emitting element by electro-isolating film, no more than 30 micrometers thick. The distance between adjacent edges of parallel stripes of resistive element equals 20-100 millimeters.
EFFECT: reduced flow of precision material and increased reliability due to reduction of total length of current-conductive section of heater.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to electric engineering, in particular to multilayer thermostatic pack for temperature control of complex geometric configuration products which contain outer and inner protective layers between which there are mated heat-insulation inserts and strips of current-conducting material with dielectric layers. Multilayer pack follows the geometry of temperature-controlled product. The case is made of separate sections whose layers are formed by dust-proof-and-moisture-proof fabric with textile fasteners interconnected along conjugation lines at joints of heat-insulating inserts which are additionally fixed by mechanical clamps. In this multilayer pack its top part consists of tapered portion and cylindrical portion made of separate sections in the form of a book consisting of two or more mechanically interconnected components where terminating component is fitted with apron with through holes in fabric. In this multilayer pack, resistive components in peripheral zone of current distributing electrodes are located in the array of insulating fibers with interlacing, are cut through alternately on one and on the other side of electric-conducting fiber band. Resistive components together with power electrodes form switching comb of specified resistive component. On tips of power and current-distributing electrodes, tinned foil copper tinned is soldered. Power cords are passed through multilayer pack mass. Each of separate sections along product generatrix are interconnected in series and in parallel by electric connectors.
EFFECT: improvement of operability and operation reliability of multilayer pack for temperature control of complex geometric configuration products.
3 cl, 11 dwg