Wood fibrous material

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: mainly for the production of plates. The invention is: to improve the efficiency of production by simplifying and cheapening obtain a binder based on tall oil products while improving physical and mechanical properties and water resistance of wood fibrous materials as a binder used adduct sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals, such as sulphate of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron or aluminium, which is used in the amount of 1-14% of absolutely dry pulp. table 2.

The invention relates to woodworking, and more particularly to a technology for fibre materials, mainly used for the production of plates.

Known wood-fiber Board materials based on wood fibers and urea or phenol-formaldehyde resin when the resin content up to 10% of the Defects produced by conventional technologies plates are sufficiently high physical-mechanical properties, low resistance and highlight in the manufacture and operation of toxic jameschristie plate by adding a binder on the basis of oxidized tall oil or oxidized fatty acids, obtained by the distillation of tall oil. The method allows to increase, compared with the traditional methods, physical and mechanical properties of the plates, however, it requires the use of scarce tall oil.

Crude tall oil is a mixture of complex and fatty acids produced by the decomposition of sulfate soap with sulfuric acid or sodium sulfate. Is an oily liquid from dark brown to dark-brown color, odor, bitter taste. It is used for making Laundry soap, processed tall oil and tall oil rosin.

Actually tall oil is a refined product obtained from fractionated by distillation of crude tall oil in vacuum with superheated steam. Tall oil is a mixture of fatty (50-70%) and resin (30-40% ) of acid, an acid number 180-185, the number of saponification 187-190. In a double rectification receive distillirovannoi tall oil, containing mainly fatty acids (tall oil fatty acid). Used in soap manufacturing, production of binders, drying oils, lubricating oils, as emulsifiers, of fotoagentur.

Known solid driveable.

Known to increase water absorption and increase the impact strength of wood-fiber plates by impregnation composition containing 85-93 wt. tall oil and 7-15 wt. modified BMF, which is the waste oil production and represents hardly separated mixture of lipids, products of their oxidation and protein-lipid complexes. When this modification of the BMF maleic anhydride.

Known manufacturer of wet wood-fiber plates of high strength by processing wood fiber carpet before hot pressing 30-50% solution photoexciting substances larch wood. Additional binder in the mass does not enter, and after subsequent processing operations are performed by known methods. The disadvantage of this method is the difficulty of obtaining a concentrated solution photoexciting substances and the impossibility of implementing the technology in a wide industrial scale.

Know the use of manganese salts of resin and fatty acids in the composition of the impregnating composition to obtain ultra-hard wood-fibre boards, including 70-94,5 wt. tall oil, 0.5 to 10% manganese salts receive by interacting neutralized tall oil and salts of manganese. Therefore, this method requires prior receipt of tall oil, and it is known that in the process of getting tall oil by processing of sulfate soap concentrated sulfuric acid and neutralizing the obtained tall oil acid alkali irreversible reactions of esterification and saponification, therefore, the properties of radicals (due to changes in the functional groups of the resin and fatty acids of tall acids change.

Known compound for the treatment of wood-fibre boards, including 3-20 wt. linseed oil and 80-97% waste extraction refining of crude sulphate soap. However, its use requires the use of scarce linseed oil.

Sulphate soap call a by-product of the production of sulphate pulp, which is a mixture of sodium salts of resin and higher fatty acids, and unsaponifiable and extractives. The ratio of the major component groups of sulfate soap predetermined by the ratio of resinous extractive substances of the wood.

Sulphate soap is a semi-solid sticky mass of dark brown color. Sulphate soap consists mainly of sodium salts of fatty (l the lot and the products of their oxidation, and neutral substances.

Currently sulphate soap is almost completely processed tall oil which is a mixture of higher fatty and resin acids and neutral substances. The essence of the receipt of tall oil is reduced to the displacement of a weak organic acid from sodium salts of strong mineral acid. The composition of the tall oil, the balance of fatty and resin acids and neutral substances depends on the wood species from which it was obtained sulphate soap, i.e. on the composition of the resinous extractive substances in recycled into pulp wood.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved when using the result is a plate material and a method of manufacturing a wood-fibre boards, including the formation of the carpet from wood pulp, pressing, heat treatment and the introduction of a binder based on tall oil, whereby to increase the strength of the plates while enhancing their biostability, as a binder is used, the product of the interaction neutralized tall oil and copper sulfate in the amount of 0.7 to 1.5% by weight of absolutely dry plate in terms of the copper cation. This product vzaimodeistvie by impregnation pressed Board material.

This plate material has a high durability and biopersistence, but its production requires the consumption of expensive, scarce, and difficult to produce tall oil.

General shortcomings described above wood-fiber Board materials and methods for their manufacture using a binder based on tall oil products are the necessity of using short supply and expensive tall oil, and the complexity of the technology and equipment receipt of tall oil.

Thus, there is a inventive task, i.e. the task associated with the need to resolve technical contradictions, due to the fact that widely used in the production of wood-fiber plates phenol and carbamid resins are toxic and non-toxic binder based on tall oil products require the use of expensive and scarce, labor-intensive in the production of tall oil, for the production of which requires special equipment.

The aim of the invention (the required technical result is to increase the efficiency of production of wood-fiber plan nnom the improvement of physico-mechanical properties and water resistance of wood-fiber material.

This goal is achieved by the fact that wood fibrous material, primarily for boards containing wood fibres and a binder, the binder contains adduct sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals, mostly selected from the group consisting of water-soluble salts of zinc, copper, magnesium, tin, aluminum and iron, in the following ratio, wt.

Wood fibre 86-99

Adduct sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals - 1-14

Wood fibrous material according to the invention, for example in the production of plates, are made as follows.

Wood chips or other raw ground wood fiber by known methods. Then the fibre of pneumatic or mechanical injectors handle molten adduct interaction of sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals during its flow from 1 to 14% by weight of the absolutely dry wood fiber, dried composition to a moisture content of 10% form the dry method carpet, put his cold prepressing and serves the carpet on the hot press, which offers hot pressing. After the hot Preah subsequent processing, for example, the lamination of decorative materials and large format cutting. This adduct can be entered as described above in ground wood pulp by the method of pneumatic or mechanical atomization of the melt, and wood chips prior to refining or in the mill during the grinding of wood chips, as well as by impregnation of the formed plate material.

Adduct sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals are as follows.

Sulphate soap is separated from the black sulfate liquor by the method of sedimentation, aeration, flotation or vysalivaniya sulfuric acid or sodium sulfate, and then in a special container is treated at a temperature of from 20 to 90oC aqueous solution of polyvalent metals, such as solutions of sulphate of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron or aluminium. The consumption of water-soluble metal salt is 0.1-35% mainly 10% by weight of soap. The exchange reaction of interaction of solutions of fatty and resin acids of sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals at a temperature of 70oC is instantaneous with the deposition of a water-insoluble adduct. The resulting adduct sulfate soap and multivalent metal ions or aside the use of copper salts). After separation of the adduct is washed with water, dried under vacuum and in molten form (for example, at a temperature of 90-100oC) move in special collections, where served on the mixture with a wood lot or impregnation pressed material.

To confirm the possibility of realization of the invention industrially and experimental evidence of its effectiveness was carried out comparative tests of different modes of production of wood-fiber Board materials.

Example 1 (prototype). From the technological chips (GOST 15815-83) prepare wood fibre, dried it up and mixed with the product of the interaction neutralized tall oil with copper sulfate in the amount of 0.7 to 1.5% by weight of absolutely dry plate in terms of the copper cation. Thus the product of the interaction neutralized tall oil with copper sulfate injected into wood pulp before formation of the carpet or by impregnation of a pressed Board material. The fiber is dried to a moisture content of 8% is formed by the dry method carpet (height sufficient to receive the plate after hot pressing 10 mm) and placed it under hot pressing at a temperature of 190oC for 20 minutes Saadat and sent for further processing.

Qualitative indicators derived from such plates are shown in table. 1.

Example 2(prototype). Conditions of experience is similar to example 1, but as the binder used adduct is neutralized fatty acids tall oil pitch and copper sulfate at a flow rate of adduct 8% by weight of the absolutely dry fiber.

Qualitative indicators derived from such plates are shown in table. 1.

Example 3. Experiment condition analogous to example 2, but as a binder and use adduct sulfate soap and iron sulfate at a flow rate of adduct 8%.with. the fiber.

Qualitative indicators derived from such plates are shown in table. 1.

Examples 4-6. Conditions of experiments similar to example 3, but as a binder used adduct sulfate soap and water-soluble salts, respectively, of copper, aluminum, zinc and magnesium.

Example 7. Conditions analogous to example 3, but the binder is used in amounts of 1 wt. The test results of the material are given in table. 2.

Example 8. Conditions of experience is similar to example 3, but the binder is used in an amount of 14 wt. The test results of the material are given in table. 2.

Examples 9 to 12. Conditions experience similar is ovali chlorides of copper, iron, magnesium and aluminum.

The use of the invention allows to improve the manufacturability of wood-fiber plates with simultaneous improvement of physical and mechanical properties of wood-fiber material and water resistance.

Additional research Board material toxicity showed a complete absence of toxic chemical compounds, characteristic of traditional materials (e.g., phenol and/or formaldehyde, and others ). Therefore, the proposed wood fibrous material can be used as building and furniture material for residential premises, for example for the manufacture of decorative panels and built-in furniture, while the use of traditional wood-fiber plates, fabricated using conventional binders based on phenol-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde resins, are limited because of their low water resistance and toxicity.

The economic effect of industrial use of the invention can be obtained both due to cost in the production of non-toxic slab of material of high quality, so by utilizing sulfate, cellulo the Rial mainly for plates, containing wood fibres and a binder, wherein the binder material contains adduct sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals, mostly selected from the group consisting of water-soluble salts of zinc, copper, magnesium, tin, aluminum and iron, in the following ratio, wt.

Wood fiber 86 99

Adduct sulfate soap and water-soluble salts of polyvalent metals - 1 d

 

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FIELD: wood-working industry; production of pressed building items.

SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertinent to the field of production of pressed building items made out of plant roughage and may be used in wood-working construction industries and other branches of economy. The panel made by pressing out of a carpet without synthetic binding materials consists of a mixture of a birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns and a filler predominantly out of cellulose filaments at the following ratios in respect to the total dry solid matter (in mass %): a birchen bark - 60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. In an alternative version of the panel, which is made the same way as the above, the outer surfaces of the carpet are strengthened with lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound including an excelsior and the KF-EC resin with a hardener or an excelsior and triturated secondary polymer taken in amount of 10-12 mass % to the weight of the excelsior. At that the share of the lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound makes 20-40 % to the total dry weight of the carpet. The method allows to use a ground birchen bark without synthetic binding agents for shaping a carpet and its consequent pressing. At that for a carpet formation they use the birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns, and a filler mainly made out of cellulose filaments taken in the following ratio in respect to the total dry weight(in mass %): a birchen bark-60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. Before formation of the carpet the filler is moistened up to 18-20 % of absolute humidity and is mixed with ground birchen bark. The carpet is formed with a thickness equal to 200-300 % of the thickness of a finished panel. The group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.

EFFECT: group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.

8 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: woodworking industry, in particular composition for soft groundwood board.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): wood fiber 86.7-92.5; fiber-containing precipitate 9.6-3.8; paraffin emulsion 2.5; and sulfuric acid 1.2; wherein ratio of wood fiber and fiber-containing precipitate is 90-96:10-4, respectively. Fiber-containing precipitate used as wood raw material represents waste from wet method for production of soft groundwood board and sulfate method for production of cellulose.

EFFECT: method for production of soft groundwood board with reduced prime wood mass consumption without deterioration of characteristics.

2 tbl, 1 ex

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