The method of irradiation of fissile material monoenergetic neutrons

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of nuclear technology. Essence: the fission of fissile material monoenergetic neutrons carry out together with the fusion reaction. In this case, the fusion neutrons reduce the critical mass of fissile material and fission products provide additional heating of the hydrogen plasma, thereby providing a stable flow of fusion reaction. Due to the fact that the energy division is only a small part of the total released nuclear energy, a reduction in the release of radioactive fission products. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., table 1.

The invention relates to the field of nuclear technology and is designed for fission of fissile material monoenergetic neutrons.

It can be used to make nuclear chain fission reaction, obtaining large fluences of neutrons, gamma rays, as well as to generate light, heat and electric energy.

The prototype of the "Way of irradiation of materials monoenergetic neutrons", patent of Russian Federation N 2045101, G 21 K 5/00, 1995.

In the example of N functions in dividing the substance" is considered the irradiation of fissile material qcat: Command not found. in aqueous solution can be reduced with 460 g almost up to 2-3 g

In accordance with the prototype will consider reducing the critical mass of other fissile systems, such as spheres and planes.

[Critical system parameters with nuclear substances and nuclear safety. The Handbook. M Atomizdat, 1966, S. 214, PL.7.1] it is shown that a critical mass of spherical metallic Pu239surrounded by a moderator , equal to 2600 g, considering a similar (prototype), the reduction of a critical mass, will provide that it will become equal to 15, a specially developed software were calculated critical thickness of endless plates of metallic plutonium surrounded by light and heavy water (light water were used for comparison with the above-mentioned reference). The results of these calculations showed that the critical thickness of the metal plutonium, which is between 40 cm layers of heavy water, equal 7,91020poison/cm2(0.32 g/cm2that is of 0.017 cm metallic Pu239) with a stationary dividing the substance and 3,91019poison/cm2(0,016 g/cm2or 8,510-4cm metallic Pu239) when moving plutonium, when the interaction energy soo is luconia, surrounded by moderator) and 3,91019poison/cm2for an infinite plane are relatively large values, since a density of 1012.1015poison/cm3(typically used in plasma devices) need to take too large amounts of fissile material to achieve the critical parameters (for example, at a density of 1013poison/cm3the minimum radius of the sphere is approximately equal to 1000 cm).

From these data suggest that the main disadvantage of the prototype is too large critical mass of fissile material for realization of chain nuclear reaction resonance fission in a plasma state.

Another disadvantage of the prototype is that the fission of fissile substances produce large quantities of dangerous radioactive waste consists of radioactive fission products and radioactive and highly toxic, long-lived transuranic nuclides.

The technical task of the present invention is to reduce the critical mass of fissile material required for the emergence of a nuclear chain reaction resonance division, with a simultaneous decrease (Peres complete elimination of the formation of highly toxic, radioactive transuranic nuclides.

To achieve the objectives of fissile substance is converted into a gas or plasma, and is moved by rotation at a given speed in the field (thermal) monoenergetic neutrons, then in the Central region of rotation impose heavy isotopes of hydrogen, which are high-energy fission products of fissile material is heated to the temperature of fusion and an additional magnetic field to hold the inside region of the fission of fissile material. Formed by fusion of fast neutrons, as well as fast neutrons fission, into the retarder, slow to the energy of thermal neutrons and then partially returned to the area of fissile material and thereby reduce its critical mass. When this is necessary when calculating the critical mass of fissile material parameter describing the number of secondary neutrons from fission in one thermal neutron absorbed in the fuel [D. bell, C. Glaston. theory of nuclear reactors. Atomizdat, 1974, S. 460] in this case shows the average yield of fast neutrons per fission taking into account the education of fast neutrons fusion, which can be found p is amagosa substance;

Sintthe average number of fast neutrons fusion, the energy of one fission of fissile material;

W relative share of the energy division of the total energy of fission and fusion;

1 - W relative share of fusion energy from the total energy.

Moreover, the reduction of mass produced radioactive fission products compared with when no thermonuclear fusion reaction is determined by the value:

K = 1/W (2)

For maximum effect fissile material moving in the field of thermal neutrons with the rate at which energy collisions of fissile nuclei with thermal neutrons is equal to the resonance energy division.

With this irradiation completely eliminated the formation of highly toxic and radioactive transuranic nuclides.

Since the total power emitted in nuclear energy consists of the energy of fission and fusion, per unit of released nuclear energy radioactive fission products will be less than in the case when all nuclear energy due to nuclear fission. For example, if the energy division is 10% of the total is transuranium nuclides, that the proposed method not formed. Limit (maximum) decreasing the amount of released radioactive fission products would be the case when the reaction resonance fission is only used to support a stationary reaction of fusion. In this case, the increase in the power of fusion leads to a reduction in the power of the energy of nuclear fission (in the limit of very high power fusion, when it will be provided with a self-sustaining mode of burning fusion fuel, the energy of nuclear fission is not needed), than due to greater relative reduction of the radioactive fission products in terms of unit power spin-off of nuclear energy and reducing the release of radioactive waste (in the limit, the complete elimination of radioactive fission products).

The main objective of this method lies in reducing the critical mass of fissile material, is achieved by fast neutrons produced in the fusion process, which after a slow fall in fissile and thereby increase in its thermal neutron flux, i.e. Kaa reduce the critical mass of fissile material was determined by a specially developed software. In particular, the result obtained is a specific value of reduction of the critical thickness of fissile material when ascending" for stationary and resonant (Erez=65,5 eV) irradiation of fissile material by neutron. The calculations were performed for a system consisting of two 40 cm layers moderator (heavy water (D2O), between which was placed a layer of fissile material, the thickness of which (poison/cm2) was chosen such that began a chain nuclear fission (i.e., Keff=1,0). The results of the calculations are presented in the table.

In Fig. 1 shows the same data, but depending on the percentage contribution of the fission reaction in the total power of the reactions of fission and fusion. From these data it is seen that if "a" is increased from 2.8 to 28, the critical thickness Pu239reduced 200 times, with further increase "" 10 times, the critical mass is also reduced in 10 times (i.e., further reduction of the critical thickness is proportional to growth").

If a critical mass of spherical plutonium will decrease with increasing "" similarly, the average number of nuclei Pu239in the sphere of 1 m3will be equal to 41014poison/cm3(28) and 41013poison/cm3(n280), the school reduced.

That is, the kernel density of fissile material take acceptable values for plasma technology. Given that the kernel of fissile material will rotate with their drift velocity around the axis of the active zone, similar to the stationary plasma centrifuge [Babaeski A. I. and other Beam-plasma discharge in crossed electric and magnetic fields. DAN SSSR, I. 237, No. 1, 1997] due to the centrifugal force densities in the paraxial region can be further reduced by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and then the kernel Pu239practically will not have a harmful effect on the temperature of the hydrogen plasma, placed in pricebuy area, because they will be less than 0.1. 0.01% of the number of heavy hydrogen nuclei, which have become suppliers of fast neutrons fusion.

Consider how you can get in such large quantities additional neutrons from nuclear reactions of fusion.

In the synthesis of heavy nuclei vodorazdelnaya (D) and tritium (T)} the following reactions occur:

D+T=He4+n+17,7 MeV, (3)

D+D=T+p+4,0 MeV, (4)

D+D=He3+n+3,25 MeV, (5)

5D=He4+He3+2n+p+25 MeV. (6)

Reactions (3) and (4, 5) can occur separately, their / min net is e plasma.

The rate of reactions (4) and (5), as shown in Fig. 2 will exceed the rate of the reaction (3), if the temperature of the plasma will be more than one million degrees, that is their fault, their positive factor is that in these reactions produces 2.5 times more neutrons, the average energy of which almost coincides with the average energy of fission neutrons equal to 2 MeV [Yampolsky P. A. Neutrons of the atomic explosion. Gosatomizdat, 1961, S. 2] In this regard, their contribution to the coefficient "a" is almost similar to the contribution of fission neutrons, and since the energy of these neutrons is small and they take only 33% of the energy of synthesis, they will have much less effect on thermal regime of the active zone of the reactor, radiation resistance of structural materials of the active zone, as well as on the properties of superconducting magnets.

Mutual support of resonance reactions of fission and fusion will allow you to make steady course of these reactions.

Because a critical mass of fissile material in the reactor core, necessary for the implementation of chain nuclear fission reaction at the resonant neutrons, can be, as well as the mass of the heavy isotopes of hydrogen, neskolko constantly enter fissile and heavy isotopes of hydrogen.

The positive effect of joint implementation resonant nuclear reactions of fission and fusion is that:

less than 30% of released nuclear energy will remain in the reactor core, thus recycling the rest of the energy will be outside the active area;

at each point in time in the reactor core is several tens of milligrams of radioactive fissile material, which increases the safety of the reactor in case of complete destruction;

per unit of reactor power decreases significantly the release of radioactive fission products;

the capacity of the reactor is regulated by the amount of nuclear fuel supplied in its active zone, this has become possible due to the fact that a critical mass of fissile material and the mass of the heavy isotopes of hydrogen involved in the reactions was comparable with them every second burnout and the supply of fresh nuclear fuel in the reactor core;

any violations that occur when serving in an active zone of the nuclear fuel failure in the speed of movement of fissile material, the depressurization of the active zone, overheating of the retarder, etc. lead to immediate termination of reactances and resonant or nonresonant division needed a powerful impulse of an additional source of neutrons.

1. The method of irradiation of fissile material monoenergetic neutrons, which consists in the fact that fissile substance is converted into a gas or plasma and move at a given speed in the field of thermal neutrons released from the retarder, wherein the fissile move by rotation in the field of thermal neutrons at a given speed, then in the Central region of rotation impose heavy isotopes of hydrogen, which are products of the fission of fissile material is heated to the temperature of fusion, with the fast neutrons produced in the fusion process, as well as fast neutrons fission, into the retarder, slow to energy thermal neutrons, part of which returns to the area of fissile material and reduces its critical mass, the average yield of fast neutrons per fission, which is necessary to determine the critical mass of fissile material, determined by the formula

= (AffairsW +Sint(1 - W))/W,

where is the average yield of fast neutrons per fission;

Affairs- the average number of secondary neutrons in the fission of fissile material;

Sint- the average number of fast neutrons fusion Sinta a fraction of the energy division;

1 - W is the relative fraction of fusion energy,

when this ratio To the weight reduction of the resulting radioactive fission products compared with when no thermonuclear fusion reaction is determined by the value

K = 1/W,

where W is the relative share of the energy division.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the fissile material moving with such relative rate at which energy collisions of fissile nuclei with thermal neutrons is equal to the energy of the resonant interaction.

 

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