A method of measuring the parameters of gas-liquid flow
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention is intended for use on metering tank oil to measure the volume fraction of free gas and the density of pure oil with no gas in the flow of oil. The inventive method consists in irradiation of the gas-liquid stream is narrow and at least one wide beam of ionizing radiation, registration direct and scattered radiation that has passed through the controlled environment, the formation of the corresponding signals in the form of discrete samples and the grouping of samples and a sample of a given size. The sample corresponding to the backscattered radiation, determine the density of the gas mixture. The samples corresponding to the direct radiation, determine the values of the autocorrelation function, and these sample group from the original sample sequence by sliding it with a fixed-width box, shifting the window by one sample for each sample. Next, form an additional sequence of samples on the condition that the values of the autocorrelation function of all samples, including the reference, does not exceed the threshold value and the sequence determined is the means of measurement of parameters of gas-liquid flows, such as the density of the gas mixture, the density of the liquid, the volume fraction of free gas, and can be used in the oil industry in the metering tank oil and other industries for research and monitoring of parameters of two-phase gas-liquid flows in various technological processes.Known methods of measuring the density of liquid media, the average density of the mixture, the volume fraction of free gas (true volumetric gas content) gas-liquid flows, based on irradiation of a controlled volume of a narrow (wide) beam of ionizing radiation and reception held through a controlled environment direct (diffuse) radiation. With the measured parameters of the controlled environment is judged by the amount of flow of the detected radiation. (HART, Radioisotope density measurement of liquids and binary systems. M Atomizdat, 1975, 106-109 C., Goldin M. L. Theoretical basis of the measurement technique of photon radiation, M. Energoatomizdat, 1985, S. 60-64, 69).When using a narrow collimated beam of radiation and detectors with small in comparison with the controlled object sizes scattered gamma quanta virtually no registriruyushchei.The advantage of radioisotope methods of control parameters of gas-liquid flows in their non-contact. If their application is not disrupted the flow pattern of gas-liquid mixture.However, the known methods have disadvantages. For example, when measuring the volume fraction of free gas, you must know the density of the liquid and to monitor its changes during measurements. A variety of structures of gas-liquid flows result in different spatial distributions of the gas and the liquid in the pipeline and entails the need to control the entire cross-section. In addition, density fluctuations controlled environment, typical for gas-liquid flows, create additional measurement error due to the so-called "dynamic offset".These circumstances taken into account in the measurement of true volumetric gas content in gas-liquid flows  which is based on aggregate characteristics closest to the claimed method. In it, as well as in the claimed method, is exposed to the controlled environment in pipe cross section by a narrow beam of ionizing radiation, register direct radiation passing through the controlled environment, form, accordingly, the aqueous volume, determine the values of the structural function, uniquely associated with the autocorrelation, and compare them with a threshold value. In this way a controlled volume (cross section of the pipeline) are divided into elementary volumes (chord), while the operations described above are performed for each of the monitored volume and the density of the liquid phase is defined as the average density of the controlled environment in the elementary volumes, in which the structural function is equal to zero.As can be seen from the above, in this way need to scan gamma radiation each elementary controlled volume. For this purpose, the measurement source and the radiation detector is moved relative to the cross section of the pipe. This is acceptable when single measurements in the research process liquid flow, but is not suitable for continuous measurements in the process of industrial implementation of the method.In the oil industry for metering oil pump stations must be measured as the density of the oil, the volume fraction of free gas in the flow of crude product. Moreover, the measurement method must provide the radiation relative to the cross section of the pipe, a long measurement time, and greater complexity significantly reduce operational characteristics known way.Required technical result consists in increasing performance, is achieved in the proposed method of measurement of parameters of gas-liquid flow by irradiation controlled environment by a narrow beam of ionizing radiation, registration direct radiation transmitted through a controlled environment, the formation of the corresponding signal in the form of discrete samples at fixed time points, the grouping of samples in a sample of a given size, the determination of the values of the autocorrelation function of received samples and comparing them with a threshold value, as well as additional exposure controlled environment by at least one beam of ionizing radiation directed at an angle to a narrow, registration of radiation scattered controlled environment, and the formation of the corresponding signal, which determines the density of the gas mixture. In this sample, which determine the values of the autocorrelation function, are grouped from the original sample sequence by sliding on her window formiruyut from the initial sequence additional condition the values of the autocorrelation functions of all samples, including the reference, does not exceed the threshold value and this sequence determines the density of the liquid.The angle between the narrow and wide beams of ionizing radiation is selected based on the specific measurement conditions and design requirements.In the proposed private case controlled environment is irradiated along the chord of the cross section of the pipeline two colliding wide beam of ionizing radiation, and the narrow beam is directed to the diameter of the cross section perpendicular to a given chord.The position of the specified chord determined during calibration of the device that implements the method, based on the conditions for obtaining the required type conversion functions.Additional training in the controlled environment of a wide beam of ionizing radiation and registration of the scattered radiation measure the density of the gas-liquid mixture in the entire cross section of the pipe without movement source and radiation detector.When determining the fluid density to weaken the narrow beam of the direct radiation and the application of the proposed transactions signal processing, the CE measurements.The ability to measure fluid density of the proposed method follows from established authors experimentally and confirmed theoretically flow patterns of gas-liquid mixtures with a low content of free gas. This feature is that when the movement of the mixture through the pipeline, with no local hydraulic resistances, free gas is grouped in the cluster of small bubbles. These clusters are separated by plugs clean gas from the liquid.The proposed procedure of signal processing allows to detect tube fluid and to measure the density of the liquid at the moment of passage of such traffic.Thus, the inventive method of measurement allows you to refuse the transfer source and the radiation detector. Due to this reduced measurement time, reduces the complexity of the method, i.e., improve its performance, and that is the desired effect.Regarding the third measured parameter of gas-liquid flow - volume fraction of free gas, then knowing the density of the gas mixture and the density of the liquid without gas, it is determined by the known value
< / BR>where the volume fraction of free same shows a block diagram of the device, implements the inventive method.This device contains blocks radiation sources (bija) 1-3, a detection unit (DB) 4 and the computing device (WS) 5. Bija 1 and the database are located on opposite sides of the pipe 6 along its diameter. Bija 2 and 3 are also located on opposite sides of the pipeline along the chord perpendicular to the specified diameter.Using the bija 1 controlled environment is irradiated by a narrow beam of ionizing radiation. For this bija 1 includes a collimator that forms a narrow beam. Simultaneously controlled environment irradiate a wide beam of ionizing radiation from the bija 2, covering the whole cross-section of the pipeline.In the particular case to create a more uniform field exposure and increase measurement accuracy controlled environment irradiate counter a wide beam of ionizing radiation from the bija 3. From bija 2 and 3 at the detector, the database gets radiation, ambient controlled environment and the pipe walls.Using the database of direct and diffuse radiation register and generate corresponding signals. To do this, in the database there are several, at least two energy Windows registration of ionizing radiation. When the new Cesium-137, registered direct radiation is carried out in the energy range above 550 V and registration scattered in the range from 30 to 550 V. The database has two outputs, marked on the figure "30" and "550", which receives signals in the form of a sequence of electrical pulses, normalized in amplitude and duration.The sequence of pulses from outputs of the database of enter the WU 6. Using WU perform the following operations:
form the corresponding source signals in a sequence of timing pulses at fixed time points;
group the counts in a sample of a given size, while sampling from the original sample sequence corresponding to the direct radiation, grouped by sliding it with a fixed-width box, and a slide carried out by shifting the window for each sample by one sample;
the samples are grouped from samples corresponding to the backscattered radiation, determine the density of the gas mixture calibration dependence;
the samples are grouped from samples corresponding to the direct radiation, determine the values of the ACF;
compare the value of the ACF with the threshold value defined billing purposes, what is the ACF of all samples, including the sample and the number of which is determined by the width of the window, do not exceed the threshold value;
sample grouped from the reading of additional sequences, determine the density of the liquid in the calibration dependence;
determine the volume fraction of free gas at a known value (1).If there is a specific implementation of the method on the pipeline with a diameter of 250 mm controlled environment is irradiated with three standard bija, charged radionuclide Cesium-137 activity order 6,0109Bq. In collimation channel bija, located on pipe diameter, inserted additional collimator forming a narrow beam of gamma izlucheniya. Bija intended for exposure to a wide beam, placed on opposite sides of the pipeline along the chord perpendicular to said diameter, and spaced from the edge of the pipe 70 mmDirect and diffuse radiation is recorded by a database that includes a scintillation counter gamma radiation on the basis of the crystal NAJ(T1) size h and the photomultiplier tube PMT-115. Setting the counter corresponding thresholds, gamma-ray quanta recorded in energy what it was a specialized microprocessor-based device series To 580. Discrete samples are generated from the input pulses DB duration of 0.5 MS at intervals of about 6 msec in 1 msec. Sample size to determine the ACF (fixed window width) were chosen in the range from 30 to 70 times. The size of the array of samples, which carried out the slide 250. Volume to determine the measured value is determined depending on the required accuracy of measurement.Experimental testing of the method that is listed on the bubbling metrological installation in the range of the volume fraction of free gas from 0 to 0.03 Rel.ed. confirmed its efficiency. Evaluation of reduced error of measurement of the volume fraction of free gas was 0.2% 1. A method of measuring the parameters of gas-liquid flow by radiation in a narrow beam of ionizing radiation, registration direct radiation transmitted through a controlled environment, the formation of the corresponding information signal in the form of discrete samples at fixed time points, the grouping of samples in a sample of a given size, determine the values of the autocorrelation function of received samples and comparing them with a threshold value, different teenie, directed at an angle to a narrow, registered radiation, ambient controlled environment, generate a corresponding signal, which determines the density of the gas mixture and the sample, which determine the values of the autocorrelation function, are grouped from the original sample sequence by sliding it with a fixed-width box, and a slide carried out by shifting the window for each sample by one sample, then formed from the original sample sequence additional condition that the values of the autocorrelation functions of all samples, including the reference, does not exceed the threshold value, and the sequence of samples to determine the density of the liquid.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the controlled environment is additionally irradiated along the chord of the cross-section of piping two colliding wide beam of radiation, and the narrow beam is directed to the diameter of the cross section perpendicular to a given chord.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: sample is taken and is allowed to settle, after it the hydrostatic pressure is measured. Time for which ultrasonic pulse passes through layer of settled water is measured additionally. Mass concentration W of water is defined from ratio W = g ρw Cw(t1-t0)/2ΔP, where g is free fall acceleration, ρw is density of water after temperature and pressure reached the steady state, Cw is speed of sound in water medium, ΔP is hydrostatic pressure, (t1-t0) is time interval during which direct and reflected ultrasonic pulses pass. Device for measuring content of water has water-tight casing (vessel for taking samples) provided with pressure, temperature and hydrostatic (differential) pressure detectors. Acoustic transformer intended for receiving and irradiating ultrasonic pulses should be mounted at bottom side of casing.
EFFECT: increased precision of measurement.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring flow and density of liquid, used for preparation of mixture for hydraulic fracturing of bed, measuring flow and density of mixture of liquid with proppant at output from mixture preparation machine. Current value of mixture density is measured in some time after delay, equal to time of passing of a portion of liquid through mixture preparation machine. On basis of results of measurements of these parameters current value of volumetric concentration of proppant C and mass share of proppant X in the mixture are calculated using formulae:
where ρpr - mineralogical density of proppant; ρl - current value of liquid density; ρpil - piled density of proppant; ρmix - current mixture density value; Θ - mixture volume increase coefficient during mixing of liquid with proppant and chemical reagents.
EFFECT: higher precision.
4 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: aviation industry.
SUBSTANCE: device helps to get real pattern of liquid pressure distribution which flows about "blown-about" object in water tunnel. Device has driven frequency pulse oscillator, frequency divider, control pulse counter, longitudinal contact multiplexer which connect capacitors with shelves, lateral contact multiplexer which connect the other output of capacitors, matching unit, analog-to-digital converter, indication unit, water tunnel, blown-about object, grid with capacitive detector.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: oil and gas industry, particularly survey of boreholes or wells.
SUBSTANCE: device has working chamber, pressure and temperature control means, impulse tube to which differential pressure transducer is connected. Impulse tube is filled with reference fluid and connected to above working chamber in points spaced apart in vertical direction along working chamber. Upper part of working chamber is connected to access hole of wellhead. Lower end thereof is communicated with atmosphere.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and accuracy of water content determination.
FIELD: technology for determining moisture load of solid materials, possible use for construction, chemical and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: UHF method for determining moisture load of solid materials on basis of Brewster angle includes positioning researched material into high-frequency electromagnetic field with following registration of parameters alternation, characterizing high-frequency emission. Ring-shaped multi-slit antenna with electronic-controlled direction diagram excites electromagnetic wave, falling onto dielectric material. Direction diagram inclination angle is measured until moment, at which minimal power of reflected wave is detected, wave length of UHF generator is determined and Brewster angle is calculated. Then on basis of normalized mathematical formulae moisture load value of surface layer of Ws is calculated for measured material. Further, power of refracted wave is stabilized by changing power of falling wave, temperature of subject material T1 is measured, and after given time span - temperature T2 and moisture level are determined for volume of material from given mathematical relation. Device for realization of given method includes UHF generator, UHF detector, wave-guiding Y-circulator, input shoulder of which has generator block controlled by voltage, attenuator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, UHF watt-meter with output to central microprocessor unit device for controlling and stabilization of output power, diode pulse modulator and video pulse generator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, peak detector. First output shoulder of Y-circulator has absorbing synchronized load, and second output shoulder has complex cone antenna, consisting of emitting portion in form of ring-shaped multi-slit antenna and cone-shaped receipt portion, to which gate is connected as well as second UHF watt-meter, connected to extreme digital controller for searching and indication of power minimum of returned wave and resonator indicator of wave meter. UHF generator is powered by central microprocessor unit controlled power block, video pulse counter is connected to digital wave meter, and thermal pairs block is connected to central microprocessor unit device.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity, increased precision of measurement of moisture load of surface layer, expanded functional capabilities due to additional determination of integral moisture load on basis of interaction volume and decreased parasitic UHF emission.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of determination of acetic acid concentration.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method of determination of acetic acid concentration in a broad band of temperatures. The technical result is an increased accuracy at determination of concentration of acetic acid within the range of temperatures from 0° up to 40°C. The offered method allows using the linear interpolation to determine dependence of density on the concentration and the temperature in 1°C within the range of temperatures from 0°C up to 40°C according to the known dependence of density from concentration over the range from 0 up to 100 % and on the temperature - from 0°C up to 40°C in 5; 10°C. Then they homogenize the solution and determine the temperature of the solution in the pressure tank with accuracy 0.1°C and the density. At the integer values of the temperature using the received dependence determine two values of density that are the most close to the experimental values and two values of concentration corresponding to them and determine the first derivative from concentration according to the density. If |dc/dp | ≤ 3.3*10, the concentration is determined by the linear interpolation method according to the received dependence of density on concentration with accuracy up to 0.1 %. If |dc/dp |> 3.3*103, then into pressure tank inject water in a such amount that to get into the zone of |dc/dp | <3.3*103 for determination of concentration of the acetic acid. In the case of non-integral values of the temperature it is necessary to conduct the following operations: for the most close to the experimental integer value of the temperature select two values of density the most close to the experimental value of density and corresponding to them two values of concentration. Using the received dependence of the density on the temperature find two values of density at the temperature of the experiment and determine the first derivative from concentration on the density, and then the operations are iterated as for the integer value of the temperature.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased accuracy at determination of concentration of acetic acid within the range of temperatures from 0° up to 40°C.
5 ex, 4 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: possible use for determining water presence level in product of oil wells.
SUBSTANCE: method for measuring mass concentration of water in water-oil-gas mixture includes taking of a sample of water-oil-gas mixture in hermetic cylinder-shaped vessel with given volume V and height H and measurement of hydrostatic pressure P1 at fixed values of temperature T and pressure Pa in aforementioned vessel. After measuring of hydrostatic pressure volume of vessel hollow is decreased until full solution of gas and hydrostatic pressure P2 is measured, and mass concentration of water W in water-oil-gas mixture is determined in accordance to mathematical expression , where g - free fall acceleration.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurements of mass concentration of water in liquid due to prevented influence of gas separation.
FIELD: the invention may be used for automated control of humidity of soil, seeds of grain cultures and other granular materials.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement for measuring humidity of granular materials has a high frequency T-piece connected with its first branch pipe with the input of a stroboscopic reference arrangement, its synchronizing input is switched to the first output of a synchronizer; another branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected to the output of a generator of outgoing impulses, its launching input is switched to the second output of the synchronizer; the third branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring transducer. The output of the stroboscopic reference arrangement is attached to a regulated threshold arrangement whose output is switched to the inputs of the first and the second blocks of detecting impulse fronts; the output of the first detecting block is connected with launching inputs of a timer and a program-time arrangement and the output of the second detecting block - with the input of the initial installation of the program-time arrangement and a stopping input of the timer whose output is connected to a calculating arrangement with an indicator; the output of the generator of outgoing impulses is switched to a peak detector of impulses with memory connected with its output to the first input of a multiplier whose output is connected with the controlling input of the regulated threshold arrangement and the second input is switched to the output of the program-time arrangement.
EFFECT: allows automated measurement and control of humidity of granular materials.
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for example in industry, medicine, agriculture for definition of humidity of grain in a flow at its drying.
SUBSTANCE: a sensor-moisture meter for a drain drying machine has two parallel metallic plates 1 forming a condenser and a measuring block transforming values of condenser capacities into an analog signal according to the specified grain culture. The metallic plates 1 provided with dielectric columns 2 fastening it to the body of the grain drying machine in the grain flow subjected to drying with the aid of a cover 3 to the body 4 which in its turn is fixed to a flange 6 with a washer. At that the values of grain humidity are defined in accordance with the meaning of the analog signal of the sensor-moisture meter according to the formula: Vi = K (WI - WMIN), where Vi - a current value of the analog signal, B; K - a coefficient of transferring humidity into an analog signal, B/%; WI - a current value of humidity of a measured culture, %; WMIN -a minimal value of humidity of a measured culture, %. The sensor- moisture meter is characterized with correlation of the width of the "B" flow of grain subjected to drying to the width of the " b" coverage of the flow of grain with the metallic plates 1 equal for example , B/b= 10/1.
EFFECT: increases reliability characteristics of a sensor-moisture meter and provides possibility of using it in a grain flow and also increases accuracy of measuring humidity in a grain flow.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating the heat-shield structure from one side up to a high temperature, cooling the structure, applying marker dots on the section of the outer surface under study, cutting the axisymmetric specimens of the heat-shield structure, applying marker dots on the side of the specimen at a given distance from the inner surface, cutting the specimen over the planes perpendicular to its longitudinal axis and passing through the marker dots into pieces, subsequent heating of the pieces in the atmosphere of an inert gas, recording the change of weight of the pieces, recording the temperature of the beginning of the decrease of weight of each piece, and judging on the spatial temperature distribution from data obtained.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.