Device for measuring deviations from straightness
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to measuring equipment, namely, laser interferometry, and can be used to control the deviations of the form. The technical result is greater accuracy and a wider range of measurements. The result is achieved that the device comprises a source of monochromatic radiation and optically associated angular reflector mounted on the carriage, an acoustic modulator, the collimator and the photodetector, between the input of the photodetector and the electrical input acoustic modulator cascaded system-locked loop and a delay line with a variable delay value. 1 Il. The invention relates to measuring equipment, namely, laser interferometry, and can be used to control deviations form guide elements of machine tools and measuring instruments.A device for controlling the straightness /1/ (analog), which consists of a monochromatic source, the collimator, the beam splitting unit, triple-prism mounted on the measuring carriage, diaphragm, acoustic modulator emitter and the ultrasonic generator display.The disadvantage of this device is to limit the measuring range defined by the periodicity of the static characteristics of the device. The maximum value of the measuring range does not exceed the length of the ultrasonic wave
A device for measuring deviations from straightness /2/ (analog), which contains a monochromatic light source and optically associated with the collimator, the beam splitting unit, triple-prism, mounted on a measuring carriage, acoustic modulator emitter and the ultrasonic frequency generator, the afocal optical system and located in its focus two of the photodetector is electrically connected to the outputs of the two phase detectors, the second inputs of the detectors associated with the generator output ultrasonic frequency, the outputs of the detectors associated with the computing and display devices.This device allows you to increase the measurement accuracy by eliminating the component of the error determined by the instability of the chart axis direction of the light source. But the measurement range is also less than the ultrasonic wavelength L, which is a disadvantage and limits the scope of primetrust for the implementation of the method of measuring the displacement of the object /3/ (prototype), which contains a monochromatic light source, a collimator, a beam splitter, shaper radiation, the measuring reflector, the reference reflector, the optical wedge, bounding the aperture, sitemodule, optical system, three of the photodetector, three narrow-band amplifier, fotometricheskoe device, two meter frequency electronic generator and key.This device allows the measurement of the spatial displacement with high accuracy due to the formation of acoustoelectronic feedback (AOC) and the frequency display input lateral movement. However, measurement accuracy is a function of measurement range and improved accuracy of measurement requires a reduction of the measurement range. This measuring device is a significant disadvantage and limits its use.The invention is directed to the achievement of the technical result, which is to improve the accuracy and extend the range.This result is achieved in that the proposed device for measuring deviations from straightness contains a monochromatic light source and optically coupled what od collimator, a sensor with electrical outlet, between the output of the photodetector and the electrical input acoustic modulator cascaded system phase-locked loop and a delay line with a variable delay value.Obtained a new quality from this set of features previously was not known and can only be achieved in this device.The drawing shows a diagram of the proposed measuring device.The device includes a monochromatic light source (laser) 1, mirror 2, the triple-prism 3, the sliding carriage 4, the acoustic modulator (AOM) 5, system 6, the collimator 7, the photodetector 8, the system phase-locked loop (PLL) 9, a line with a variable delay value signal (hereinafter delay line) 10.The device operates as follows.The laser light 1 is reflected from mirror 2, sent to triple-prism 3, mounted on a movable carriage 4.Reflected from triple-prism 3, the laser beam passes through the AOM 5, where dirigeret three diffraction order E(+1), E(0) and E(-1). Collimator 7 there are two diffraction order E(+1) and E(0), spatial owls is nick keywords. optical flow leads to the appearance at the output of the photodetector 8 electric signal U1= U1mcos(2fmt +a1) This signal is fed to the input of PLL 9. The output frequency signal of the PLL 9 should the delay line 10, after which enters the electrical input of the AOM 5.The operation of the device is as follows.The functionality of the system PLL enable to implement this mode of operation, in which for a particular frequency range of the phase change modulator AOMcan be compensated for by changes in the phase delay lines Cin accordance with the expression
AOM+C= 0 (1)
The first component of formula (1) is determined by the offset of the laser beam relative to the system, and the expression for it can be written in the following form:
< / BR>where LAOMchanging the distance between the laser beam and a system modulator;
vSVthe velocity distribution of ultrasonic waves.This device before electrical input acousto-optic modulator is used, the delay line. The feature of her work is that the phase characteristic isC() depends on the frequency of the signal /4/
C() =o+C() = to-2K (3)
whereo= toon the belt component, which defines the different phase shifts for the individual spectral components of the frequency signal;
To the proportionality coefficient that depends on the internal properties of the delay line.Equation of expression (2) and the variable component of the expression (3), we get
< / BR>After simplifying the expression (4) This expression shows that between changes in the frequency and displacement of the laser beam there is a linear relationship.Thus, the accuracy improvement is achieved by eliminating the nonlinear components in the expression between the output frequency and offset of the laser beam. Range expansion is implemented by changing the value of the proportionality coefficient K.As a line with variable signal delay can be used as an electronic device, and a separate discrete elements.As electronic devices can be used in filters (active or passive), phase-frequency characteristic which is in a certain range is a linear or quasi-linear) function of /4/.In discrete elements with variable signal delay often use the physical phenomenon of dispersion of elastic is RSNA the delay line can be created by ultrasonic waves, and surface acoustic waves in smokeproof. In the first case, as Zvukovaya can be applied to plates of steel, aluminum and magnetic alloys, fused quartz and other materials. For the second case are typically used plates of quartz, lithium niobate /4, 5, 6/.Sources of information used in the preparation of the description:
1. A. S. N 1464037 (USSR), class. G 01 B 11/00. Acousto-optical device for measuring deviations from linearity. Telesetsky C. I. Ignatov S. A. Yakovlev N. A. //Publ. in B. I. -1989, N 9. (similar).2. A. S. N 1717957 (USSR), class. G 01 B 11/26. Device for measuring deviations from linearity. Telesetsky C. I. Yakovlev N. A. //Publ. in B. I. 1992, N 9. (similar).3. A. S. N 1765691 (USSR), class. G 01 B 11/26. A method of measuring the displacement of the object. Telesetsky C. I. Yakovlev N. A. //Publ. in B. I. 1992, N 36. (prototype).4. Baskakov, S. I. Radio circuits and signals: Textbook. for universities on special. "Radiotekh. -2nd ed. Rev. and additional M High. SHK. 1988 448 S.5. Electronics: Encyclopedic dictionary. /CH. edit Century, Kolesnikov,) Owls. encyclopedia, 1991. 688 S.6. A receiving device. /Under the editorship of Professor A. P. Zhukovsky, Uch. ed-E.-M. "Higher school", 1989. 342 C. Ostrowski associated angular reflector, mounted on the carriage, acousto-optical modulator with optical and electrical inputs, a collimator, a sensor with electrical outlet, characterized in that between the output of the photodetector and the electrical input of the acousto-optic modulator cascaded system phase-locked loop and a delay line with a variable delay value.
FIELD: measuring arrangements.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the X-axis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Z-axis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement of object shape.
SUBSTANCE: the device has two luminous radiating systems located relative to the measured surfaces of the object, each of them forms luminous lines at the preset sections of the object, a photoreceiver with an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input is connected to the output of the photoreceiver. The photoreceiver is made in the form of a matrix and is optically coupled to each luminous radiating system. In addition, the device has mirrors located relative to the measured surfaces of the object at an acute angle to its surface and is optically coupled to the photo-receiver through the objective lens, whose optical axis is positioned in the plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement, capacity and simplified construction of the device.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.
EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be controlled on the movable traverse gear having two extent of freedom, illuminating the surface of the article by light, receiving the light reflected from the surface of the article with the use of a photodetector, moving the article parallel to the X-axis, determining coordinates of the light spots on the photodetectors of the current values of the heights of the article shape, locking the position of the table, scanning the main section of the article shape, comparing it with the reference one , and determining the quality of the article shape. The main section is scanned by moving the article parallel to the Y-axis, when the traverse gear is in a position determined from the formula proposed. The device comprises unmovable horizontal base, vertical cantilever secured to the base, unit for measuring the article shape mounted on the vertical cantilever, two carriages that define a traverse gear and provided with the individual drives controlled by a computer, and pickup of linear movements. The first carriage moves parallel to the X-axis, and the second carriage is mounted on the first one and moves parallel Y-axis.
EFFECT: improved quality of control.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring devices.
SUBSTANCE: device for controlling blade stylus profile contains immobile base, held on which is vertical overhanging support, rotary table, provided with rotation drive, angular movements sensor and blade holding device, range finder, consisting of a source of narrow light beam, integration multi-element photo-detector and objective, and personal computer. Device additionally contains a carriage, mounted on vertical overhanging support and provided with drive for movement along overhanging support along coordinate Z of coordinates system of device, connected to output of personal computer, and linear movement indicator, connected to input of personal computer, means for moving distance meter is made in form of two-part mechanism with movement plane, parallel to XOY plane of device coordinates system. Rotary table is mounted on immobile base and is made with possible rotation of blade being controlled around axis, parallel to axis Z of device coordinates system.
EFFECT: increased precision of measurements and increased trustworthiness of profile control results.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring the angles of inclination of the members of the surface of the sheet in each of the belt longitudinal sections of the strip selected by the measuring device. The angle defined by the lines of intersection of the plane tangent to the surface of the sheet at the point of measurements and plane tangent to the bearing members are measured. The flatness of the sheet is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: electro-optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: electro-optical device for controlling profile of blade runner has motionless horizontal base, two vertical posts disposed onto base at opposite sides of runner to be controlled, first carriage disposed onto motionless base for movement between vertical posts in parallel to X axis and provided with first linear movement detector and first drive. Device also has second and third carriage mounted onto vertical posts for movement in parallel to Z axis and provided with second third linear movement transducers correspondingly, contrivance for mounting blade disposed onto first carriage which provides strict positioning of blade runner in vertical plane. First and second electro-optical heads are disposed onto second and third carriages and formed each of narrow light beam sources of multi-element photoreceiver, which is provided with sweep-out and code forming unit. Device also has objective. Objectives of electro-optical heads are mounted for triangle optical communication of photoreceivers with narrow light beam sources through corresponding surfaces of runner of blade to be controlled. Device also has second drive and computer. Inputs of computer are connected with outputs of linear movement detectors and of multi-element photoreceivers; outputs of computer are connected with drive of device. Device has joist which connects vertical posts; it forms the first portal and second portal which has vertical posts disposed at opposite sides of blade to be controlled. One post of second portal is attached to second carriage. Light radiation source and receiver, conjugated optically, are provided with corresponding objectives and are fixed at different posts of second portal. Flexible cinematic coupling connects second and third carriages. Second drive is disposed onto joist of first portal and it is provided with driving roller which communicates with flexible cinematic coupling. Output of light radiation receiver is connected with input of computer. False parts of contour of runner are eliminated out of memory of computer.
EFFECT: improved truth of results of control; reduced number of drives.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of design of three-dimensional profiles of the object, including generation of sounding pulses of laser radiation for step scanning of the object in the plane transverse to the direction of the radiator movement, with consecutive processing of the reflected from the object signal to design profiles of objects, differs from the other methods by the fact, that before reflected signal gets processed a laser beam is generated in a discontinuous mode, generated beam is broadened, transformed into light beam of annular cross-section; generation of sounding pulses of laser radiation for step scanning of the object is conducted by successive alternative fragments cutting out from the cross-section of the received light beam of annular cross-section.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of measurement and article technological efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: profile of roller surface is geometrically limited with first zone corresponding to relief facet of roller, with second zone corresponding to interface of cylinder part with relief facet of roller and with third zone corresponding to cylinder part of roller. The procedure consists in measuring profile of roller surface. On base of calculated results of the first derivative of measured profile, segments of straight line, modelling the first derivative of measured profile, are calculated for each of geometric zones of the roller. Radii of curvature of roller surface profile are calculated by means of determination of the first derivative of straight line segments. Calculated radii of curvature are compared with preliminary determined threshold values to control continuity of the said radii.
EFFECT: facilitating control of interface of cylinder and relief parts of roller of rolling bearing.
2 dwg, 4 cl
SUBSTANCE: apparatus, method and system for measuring thread parameters at the end of a tube or a threaded pipe, comprising: an optical sensor which measures a first thread parameter by detecting light from a light source lying on the opposite side of the axis of the tube or pipe, and essentially passes parallel the thread groove; a contact sensor which measures a second thread parameter through contact of contact probe with the thread lateral surface and detection of spatial coordinates of the contact probe during contact; and processor which calculates thread parameters from the combination of the first thread parameter and the second thread parameter. High-precision measurements can be taken even for a thread parameter associated with hook lateral surfaces, which is susceptible to considerable measurement errors when measuring only optically since they are almost completely hidden in the shadow of the thread crest. Using the disclosed system of measuring thread parameters, the height at which a threaded tube is placed can be adjusted using a height adjustment mechanism so that the reference measurement axis of the thread parameter measuring device can be level with the central axis of the threaded tube.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring thread parameters associated with thread lateral surfaces.
9 cl, 12 dwg