Thermoplastic polymer composition and its preparation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to thermoplastic polymer compositions containing starch, at least one synthetic thermoplastic polymer and a plasticizer, in which the plasticizer is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of: a) polyols containing 1-20 repeating hydroxylated units each of which contains from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, provided that when the polyol contains one duplicate link, it contains at least 4 carbon atoms, with the exception of sorbitol; (b) ethers, thioethers, inorganic and organic esters, acetals and derivatives of polyols containing 1-20 repeating hydroxylated units each of which contains from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, with the exception of acetic acid esters and glycerol, triethylcitrate and tributyltin; (c) reaction products of a polyol containing from 1 to 20 repeating hydroxylated units each of which contains from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, with extension chain; (d) oxidation products of polyols containing from 1 to 20 repeating hydroxylated units each of which contains from 2 to 6 osmesa. 2 C. and 14 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table. The invention relates to thermoplastic polymer compositions containing starch and thermoplastic polymers, which is applicable for manufacture by known technologies for thermoplastic polymers products, biodegradable, essentially, under the action of bacteria and having satisfactory physical and mechanical properties.Known thermoplastic polymers of the above-mentioned type [1, 2, 3] typically, such compositions obtained by mixing starch with one or more thermoplastic polymers in the process, which may deteriorate the crystallinity of the starch and to form a structure, in which there is interpenetration or at least a partial interpenetration of starch and synthetic polymers. These processes can vary depending on the chemical, physical and rheological characteristics of the synthetic component and types of additives present.Known examples of such processes 
In particular, it is used in such pharmaceutically acceptable compositions of low molecular weight plasticizers such as glycerol esters of glycerol and oxynitride.It is found that due to changes in temperature and humidity, which affect the products made of such plasticized compositions is wypadanie (migration) and/or evaporation of the plasticizer, which sometimes forms an oil film, and sometimes forms a crystalline coating on the surface of the product, resulting, thus, limit the use of products both for aesthetic reasons and from the point of view of their operation.The aim of the present invention is to prevent sweating, which occurs when using conventional known plasticizers.To achieve this object of the present invention is a thermoplastic polymer composition comprising starch, at least one synthetic thermoplastic polymer and the plasticizer, and the starch and the polymer form a structure in which they at least partially penetrate into each other at the molecular level, characterized in that the plasticizer in the composition is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of:
(a) polyols containing 1-20 repeating hydroxylated units, priceusa link it contains at least 4 carbon atoms, with the exception of sorbitol;
(b) ethers, thioethers, inorganic and organic esters, acetals and derivatives of polyols containing 1-20 repeating hydroxylated units each of which contains from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, excluding esters of glycerol and acetic acid, triethylcitrate and tributyltin;
(c) products of interaction of a polyol containing from 1 to 20 repeating hydroxylated units each of which contains from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, with extension chain;
(d) oxidation products of a polyol containing from 1 to 20 repeating hydroxylated units each of which contains from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, and containing at least one aldehyde or carboxyl functional group, or mixtures thereof.Preferred compounds with vapor pressures at ambient temperature (25oC) lower than that of glycerol, and which dissolve in water.Aliphatic polyols of type (a) include compounds of formula OH CH2-(CHOH)n-CH2OH (1), in which n is from 2 to 4, such as aritra, Arabic, adonit, xylitol, mannitol, edit, galactic and allisoninlove alcohol with 3-20 repeating elementary links and polyglycerins, educated 2-10, preferably 2-5 Monomeric units, including mixtures of different oligomers.Derivatives of aliphatic polyol section (b) preferably have the structural formulas that can be obtained by substitution of at least one alcohol functional groups of the polyol, referred, and which is preferably chosen among the compounds mentioned in the previous section, including sorbitol, a group selected from
-O-(CH2)n-H, where n=1-18, preferably 1-4,
-O-CH=CH-R1where R1=H or-CH3,
-O-(CH2-CHR1-O)n-H, where R1=H or CH3and n=1-20
-O-(CH2)n-Ar, where Ar is a simple, substituted or heterocyclic aromatic radical, and n=0-4,
-OCO-CR1R2R3where the group R1, R2and R3are the same or different and are selected among H, Cl and F,
-OCO-(CH2)n-H, where n=2-18, preferably 2-5,
-OPO3M2where M may be H, an ammonium, alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or organic cation, in particular ammonium, pyridinium or picoline,
-SO3-Ar, where Ar is a benzene, oligo metal, alkaline-earth metal, ammonium or an organic cation, particularly pyridinium, picoline or methylamine,
-OCO-B-COOM, where B is a group (CH2)nwhere n=1-6, or group (-CH=CH-); M may be H, alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, a group -(CH2)nH, where n=1-6, or an aryl group,
OCONH-R1where R1can represent-H or an aliphatic or aromatic radical,
-O-(CH2)n-COOM, where n=1-6 and M is H or alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, ammonium or an organic cation, in particular pyridine, ammonium or picoline,
-O-(CH2)n-COOR1where n=1-6, R1=H(CH2)m-, where m=1-6, -NR1R2where R1and R2H, CH3-, CH3CH2-, -CH2-CH2OH, or formed salt of the amino group,
-O-(CH2)n-NR1R2where n=1-4, R1and R2= H, CH3-, CH3CH2- or-CH2-CH2-OH, and where the amino group may be present as a salt,
< / BR>-O-CH2-CHOH-CH2-NR1R2where R1and R2are the same or different and are selected among H, and H(CH2)nwhere n=1-6, and where the amino group can prisutstviuyuschih, pyridine or picoline,
-O-(CH2)nR1Cl-where n=1-6 and R1is trialkylamine, pyridine or picoline,
-O-(CH2)nCN, where n=1-6,
-O-(CH2)m-SO2-(CH2)n-H, where m and n=1-4,
-O-SiX3and-O-SiOX3where X is an aliphatic or aromatic radical.Simple mono - and diesters and complex mono - and diesters of the above polyols of the formula (I) are particularly preferred, and most preferred derivatives representing monoethoxylate, monopropylene and monoacetate derivatives, in particular sorbitol.Connection section (c) are formed in the result of joining two or more molecules of the polyol with the help of chain extenders, in particular, such as dicarboxylic acids, aldehydes and isocyanates.Preferred are the compounds of formula
in which n and m have the same or different values from 1 to 6 R groups are the same or different and represent a hydroxyl group or have installed the UB>n-, where n=1-5 (acetals),
-(CH2)n- where n=1-6,
-(CH2CH2-O)n-CH2CH2- where n=1-20,
-OC-Ar-CO-, in which Ar represents an aromatic radical, which is heterocyclic,
and the compounds of formula
in which m and n have the same or different values and are integers from 1 to 6 R groups are the same or different and represent a hydroxyl group or have installed the above values, and in which A is chosen from the group consisting of-NH - and-NH-(CH2-CH2-NH)n- where n is an integer from 1 to 6.Of the above compounds, preferred are compounds in which only one of the R groups is a group, forming a simple or complex ether.The term "polyol" includes mono - and polysaccharides containing up to 20 monosaccharide units.In particular, it addresses the following monosaccharides:
pentoses and their derivatives of the formula
< / BR>the updated values are higher.Examples of such compounds are arabinose, licosa, ribose and xylose, and preferably simple and complex monetary:
hexoses and their derivatives of the formula
< / BR>and ketohexose and their derivatives of the formula
< / BR>in which R groups are the same or different and represent a hydroxyl group or have the above values.Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, mannose, allose, altrose, galactose, gulose, idose, Inositol, sorbose and tallit.From simple or esters of these compounds are preferred monoethoxylate and nonprobability, and complex monetary, especially acetic acid.Polysaccharides include compounds having up to 20 repeating units of formula (II), (III) or (IV) with a molecular mass to the molecular weight of the dextrin.R is a functional group can be introduced into the main polyol as one structure known reactions, for example, as described in Chapter 9 and in "Polyvinyl alcohol", edited by C. A. Finch.The oxidation products of polyols section (d) is produced by interaction of polyols with iodine acid, hypochlorite or leads to compounds, which lead.The starch used in the initial starch, but the term "starch" includes physically or chemically modified starches 
As the synthetic polymer component in the compositions according to the invention can be used hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers. Of them, in particular, are considered copolymers of ethylene containing by weight more than 50. ethylene and having a melting point between 80 and 130oC, in particular copolymers of ethylene with acrylic acid, vinyl alcohol, vinyl acetate and mixtures thereof.However, especially preferred are polyvinyl alcohols and copolymers of ethylene with vinyl alcohol when the ethylene content is less than 40 wt. with different degree of hydrolysis obtained by hydrolysis of the corresponding polyvinyl acetate or, respectively, polyethylenterephtalate. Preferably the degree of hydrolysis of a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol ranges from 100 to 50%
Alcohol units of the above-mentioned polymers can be partially or completely modified to obtain the following compounds:
1) ethers, formed by interaction with ethylene oxide, with ethylene oxide, substituted alkyl radicals to C20or aromatic radicals, Acrylonitrile (initiator Dreams;
2) a complex of inorganic and organic esters, such as sulfates, nitrates, phosphates, arsenate, xanthates, carbamates, urethanes, borates, titanates;
3) complex organic esters, are formed in interaction with aliphatic or aromatic acids, anhydrides of the acids, in particular fatty acids, or anhydrides of the acids;
4) acetals and ketals are obtained by interaction with aliphatic aldehydes containing up to 22 carbon atoms, unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes containing up to 22 carbon atoms, chloroacetaldehyde, glyoxal, aromatic aldehydes, cyclic aliphatic aldehydes, aliphatic ketones, arylalkylamine, alkylcyclobutanones.The reaction of obtaining organic and inorganic complex Efimov and acetals mentioned above can easily be implemented in accordance with the order, as described in Chapter 9 and in the literature cited in "Polyvinyl alcohol" edited by C. A. Finch.It is also possible to use polyvinyl alcohol and a multifunctional copolymers of ethylene with vinyl alcohol (with an ethylene content of 40 wt. and a degree of hydrolysis of the acetate groups from 100 to 50%), in which up to 50% of ethylene may be substituted SOMO is Rostik vinyl ethers of the formula CH2= CR-OR' in which R is hydrogen or methyl group and R' represents an alkyl group with the number of carbon atoms from 1 to 18, cycloalkyl group or easy polyester; Acrylonitrile, Methacrylonitrile, vinylketones formula CH2=CR-CO-CH2-R', where R represents hydrogen or methyl group, and R' represents hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl group, acrylic or methacrylic acid or their esters of the formula CH2= CR-COOR' in which R is hydrogen or methyl group and R' represents hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl group, and salts of alkaline or alkaline-earth metals, of these acids, vinyl derivatives of the formula CH2=CR-OCOR' in which R is hydrogen or methyl group, and R' represents hydrogen, a methyl group, a mono-, di - or tri-substituted by chlorine or fluorine, a methyl group, or (C2-C6)-alkyl group, vinylcarbenes formula CH2=CR-CONR'R" in which R is hydrogen or methyl group, and R' and R" are identical or different and represent hydrogen or (C1-C3-accelgroup, maleic anhydride, fumaric anhydride, vinylpyrrolidone, vinylpyridine or 1-vinylene peroxosulfates and benzoyl peroxide, as described in Chapter "Polymerisation processes of vinyl esters and in the literature cited on pages 406 and forth, in volume 17 of the "Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering".The above-mentioned plasticizers can also be used in compositions containing starch, the first polymer component selected from the group of: a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol, possibly modified polyvinyl alcohol and mixtures thereof; and the other polymer component representing one or more polymers, such as hydrophobic polymers: polyethylene or copolymers of ethylene with vinyl, as mentioned above, or complex aliphatic polyesters (e.g., polyvinyl acetate, polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and polyhydroxyvalerate, polyamide acid, polyethylene - and polybutadiene or Sabatini), polyethers (for example, Polyoxymethylene, polyoxyethylene, polyoxypropylene, Polyphenylene oxyde), polyamides (nylon 6, nylon 12, etc.,), polyacrylonitrile, polyurethanes, copolymers of complex polyester with polyurethane, copolymers of complex polyester with polyamide, polyglycolide, or hydrophilic polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyoxazoles, acetates and nitrates of cellulose, regenerated cellulose, alkylaryl the n and alginates, chitin and chitosan.The ratio of starch and a synthetic polymer in the composition may vary within wide limits and is generally between 1:99 and 99:1 (anhydrous starch synthetic polymer), preferably between 1:9 and 9:1.As for the properties of the resulting polymer compositions to decompose under the action of bacteria preferred are compositions with a high content of starch and especially compositions in which the content of the anhydrous starch is from 20 to 80% of the total number anhydrous starch and a synthetic polymer.When a mixture of synthetic polymers containing the above-mentioned first and second hydrophobic or hydrophilic synthetic component, the weight ratio of the above components is preferably from 1:6 to 6:1.The concentration of plasticizer may vary within wide limits, depending on the mechanical properties, which will have products produced using the polymer composition. The concentration of the plasticizer is preferably from 1 to 50%, and most preferably from 5 to 40% of the total weight of the composition.The polymeric material may also contain substances which metals, which add to the mixture of starch and copolymer in an amount of from 0.5 to 20% by weight of the entire composition.The polymeric material may also contain cross-linking agents such as aldehydes, ketones and glyoxal, additives, activating process, lubrication and oil, which are usually injected into the composition during injection molding or extrusion, such as fatty acids, esters of fatty acids, higher alcohols, polyethylene waxes, fungicides, nutrients, giving the fire, herbicides, antioxidants, fertilizers, substances that make the material opaque and stabilizers.The polymer composition is preferably produced by mixing the above components in the extruder, usually heated up to 100 to 220oC. the Composition is loaded into the extruder contains water due to the presence of water in the starch, which is used (9-15 wt.), and water can be added if required.To injection molding or extrusion of the polymer composition to obtain products with suitable mechanical properties, water content in the overall composition preferably is reduced by the intermediate obezvozhivanija during extrusion to water content, which isPressure, which is subjected to the mixture during the heat treatment, are typical for extrusion in single and twin screw extruders. Although the process is preferably carried out in the extruder, the starch and the synthetic polymer and the plasticizer can be mixed in any apparatus which will provide temperature and shear stress, suitable for combining starch and used a polymer rheological point of view.If you are using synthetic polymers with high melting points, such as, for example, polyvinyl alcohol and a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol, in particular, containing ethylene, not more than 40 wt. described plasticizers also serve an important function in the process that leads to the formation of the composition with (at least partially) vzaimopronikayut structure. The melting temperature of these polymers (160-200oC) is so high that a complete interpenetration of the molecules of starch impossible; adding plasticizers usually starch and polymer components reduces the melting temperature of synthetic polymers, and at the same time change their rheological behavior.Only for the implementation of this function is row 160-200oC, can be used conventional plasticizers such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sorbitol and glycerin, alone or in mixtures of these plasticizers.The preferred method of obtaining the compositions of the present invention includes the following stages:
the swelling of starch and synthetic polymer due to plasticizer and possibly water at a temperature of from 80 to 180oC with a dynamic change in their melting and rheological behavior; this effect can be achieved, for example, during the initial stage of transportation of the components in the extruder for a time of about 2-50;
the impact on the mix of effort shift, corresponding to the values of viscosity of both components in order to cause the interpenetration of the molecules of the two components;
free outgassing mixture under controlled pressure or under reduced pressure with the formation of a melt at a temperature of 140-180oC, so fluid, so that the bubbles were not formed at atmospheric pressure, i.e., for example, at the outlet of the extruder;
cooling of the end product in a water bath or in the air.In the implementation of the method requires a pressure of 0.5 to 10 MPa, will be directly mixing the aforementioned components; however, the starch may be pre-treated in the presence of plasticizer, possibly with the addition of water, at a temperature of from 100 to 220oto get thermoplastic starch. This starch can be mixed with a synthetic polymer and an additional amount of plasticizer in the next stage. In the case of polyvinyl alcohol and a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol, to make a polymer compatible with the starch component of the total amount of plasticizer added in the beginning of mixing the pre-treated starch and a synthetic polymer, the plasticizer is capable of changing the temperature of melting and rheological behavior of the polymer.When a mixture containing the first synthetic polymer and the second synthetic polymer as defined above, the method of producing compositions corresponding to the invention can also be carried out by mixing the first synthetic polymer with starch and a plasticizer to obtain granules, and further mixing of these granules with a second synthetic polymer at a subsequent stage of the extrusion process.Example 1 (comparative). 37 parts of starch Glooe 3401 (11 wt. water), 37 parts of a copolymer of ethylene in the ethylene acrylic acid content of acrylic acid of 20% and a melt viscosity of 2 (125oC and load 0,325 kg), 0.3 part of ArmidE, 5 parts of urea, 15 parts of glycerin and 2.7 parts of water are mixed in a single screw extruder MLA with a diameter d of 20 mm and L/d of 30, with a working temperature profile 90-180-150-140oC, and has a section for intermediate removal of gases. Extruded and granulated product, the water content of which is 3.2 wt. placed in a press for injection molding, and cast plate HH mm, which are then placed in a climatic cell, programmed to perform climatic cycles from the 20oC and 30% relative humidity to 30oC and 80% relative humidity for 6 h when the total number of cycles 20.After this treatment, the plates become oily.Example 2. In the composition corresponding to the composition of comparative example 1, replacing glycerol with polyglycerol obtained by condensation and secondary glycerin content of 4 mole.Plate, obtained and processed as described in example 1, while aging does not show any noticeable sweating or loss of plasticizer.Example 3 (comparative). Use a composition identical to the composition of example 1, but instead of glycerin used with the CLASS="ptx2">Examples 4-12. Use of a composition identical with the composition of example 1, in which the glycerol is replaced by the compounds shown below.In all cases the appearance of the plate after cycles of heating remains aesthetically good, as they do not become oily and doesn't leave fingerprints, and the plate does not show any loss of plasticizer during the test.The plasticizer N example
Monoacetate sorbitol 4
The diacetate of sorbitol 5
Monoethoxylate sorbitol 6
Diethoxylate sorbitol 7
Dipropoxy sorbitol 8
Lexapro.paxil sorbitol 9
Glucose/PEG (20 moles PEG), the product of the reaction of glucose with ethylene oxide 12
Some of the songs mentioned above, get film extrusion injection blow.The mechanical properties of the obtained films are generally good and in some cases better than for mixtures with glycerol (see table).Other plasticizers include: monoethoxylate of trimethylolpropane, monoacetate mannitol, monoethoxylate mannitol, butylglycol-methylglucoside, monoethoxylate glucose, sodium salt of carboxymethylated, monoethoxylate podporovanych of these compositions, starch and synthetic polymer to form a structure which at least partially is vzaimopronikayut at the molecular level. In particular, in the case of compositions in which the synthetic polymer component includes a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol, at a ratio of starch and polymer is from 1:4 to 4:1 is considered, which takes place at least partially vzaimopronikayut structure when one or more of the following phenomena:
starch phase cannot be separated from the phase of the ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EMU), using the solubility of starch; it occurs not only in cold water, but also in water at 100oC; in this case the sample has a tendency to collapse, but individual particles retain the same ratio of EMU and starch (FTIR method);
the microstructure observed by the method of transmission electron microscopy, can show a complete lack of phase or the presence of phases with a size less than 0.3 microns; phase are mixed with each other in the absence of clear contours;
the presence of tg-d spectrum with dynamic mechanical analysis of one b-transition associated with mobility-OH groups of both components, with a modification of the peak, compared with a peak of starch;
the tavern is atrasheniya comparable with the values achievable for PE. These properties are far removed from the properties of both the original products.In addition, phase separation led to a decrease in the ductility and the energy of destruction.This set of characteristics can be explained as resulting from "weave" chains of starch and EMU, which is more powerful than the branches of amylopectin, and stabilization of the structure by hydrogen bonds. This explanation is not a limitation of the scope of the invention.Molded articles, films, coatings and fibers obtained from the polymer compositions methods of injection molding, extrusion, pneumoperitoneum, thermoforming and other methods of thermoplastic materials that are included in the scope of the invention.Special uses include films for diapers, bedding, packaging films, films for protective coatings or films, extruded together with polymers, collapsing under the action of bacteria and polymers are not decomposed by bacteria:
injection molded parts syringes, tampon applicators, flower pots, etc.termoformowanie trays, cups, packaging for water;
combination with Alu is s for thermoforming, stationery folders, etc.products, extending only under the action of water or gases such as CO2to apply for packaging and sectors of trays of hamburgers, etc.fiber for stuffing, nonwovens and pneumaturia;
bottles and containers received by pneumoperitoneum. 1. A thermoplastic polymer composition containing destructively starch, at least one synthetic thermoplastic polymer and the plasticizer, and the starch and the polymer form a structure in which they at least partially penetrate into each other at the molecular level, characterized in that as a plasticizer composition contains a compound of General formula I
< / BR>where n is 1 to 5;
R is hydrogen or lower alkyl, or lower acyl, and when n is 2, at least one of the substituents R is not hydrogen,
and as thermoplastic polymer composition comprises a compound selected from the group comprising hydrolyzed copolymers of the lower 1-alkenes with esters of vinyl alcohol and a lower carboxylic acids containing unsubstituted alkylene links to 40% by weight of the polymer and the degree of hydrolysis is difficult eternalone when the acid content of links to 20 mol. moreover, the composition has the following composition, wt.The plasticizer 5 40
Synthetic thermoplastic polymer 0,5 20,0
Water 5 15
Destructively starch the Rest up to 100% of the total weight of the composition
moreover, the mass ratio of thermoplastic polymer anhydrous starch is 1 99 99 1.2. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains plasticizer, monoethylamine, monopropylene or monoacetylated sorbitol.3. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains as a plasticizer derived aliphatic polyol containing 4 to 6 carbon atoms, in which at least one alcohol functional group substituted by a functional group R selected from the group-O-(CH2)n-N, where n is 1 to 6, -OCO-N or-O-CO-CH3.4. Composition under item 1 or 3, characterized in that as a plasticizer, it contains hydrophilic compound of General formula I under item 1, in which one of the substituents R is selected from the group-O-(CH2)n-N, where n is 1 to 6, -O-CO-N or-O-CO-CH3and for the rest of the substituents R are hydrogen.5. Composition according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that it contains a plasticizer in an amount of 5 to 40% of the second polymer contains a compound selected from the group comprising polyvinyl alcohol containing 3 to 10 Monomeric units, copolymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate or ethylene vinyl alcohol content of ethylene in the copolymer to 40 mol. and a copolymer of ethylene with acrylic or methacrylic acid with the acid units in the copolymer to 20 wt.7. The composition according to p. 6, characterized in that it contains a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol obtained by hydrolysis of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with a degree of hydrolysis of the acetate groups of 50 to 100% and the ethylene content of 40 wt.8. The composition according to p. 6, characterized in that it contains a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol or polyvinyl alcohol in which the hydroxyl group, at least in part, tarifitsirovana lower linear acids.9. The composition according to p. 6, characterized in that it contains a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol or vinyl alcohol having ester groups formed by the interaction of the alcohol functional groups with lower aliphatic acids, their acid chlorides or anhydrides.10. The composition according to p. 6, characterized in that it contains a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol when you provide is of tolisa acetate groups 50 100% to 50% ethylene replace the comonomers, selected from the group of propylene, isobutylene, simple vinyl esters of General formula
where R is hydrogen or methyl;
R' is an alkyl group WITH1-C6,
and acrylic or methacrylic acid and their esters of the General formula
where R and R' above,
derivatives of vinyl General formula
CH2CR-OCOR', where R is hydrogen or methyl;
R' is hydrogen, methyl or alkyls2-C6.11. The composition according to p. 6 or 10, characterized in that thermoplastic polymer contains hydrophobic copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol and/or aliphatic ether complex.12. A method of obtaining a thermoplastic resin composition containing destructively starch, at least one synthetic thermoplastic polymer and a plasticizer at a mass ratio of starch polymer, equal to 1 9 9 1, and provided that the starch and the polymer form a structure in which partially penetrate into each other at the molecular level, by mixing components of the composition at elevated temperature and pressure, characterized in that the mixed starch, a thermoplastic polymer, a plasticizer, if necessary with the addition of water is aktirovanie starch and polymer, next, lead free removal of gases from a mixture in terms of regulatory pressure or under reduced pressure with the formation of the melt and then cool the final product, and support the qualitative and quantitative composition as specified in paras.1 12.13. The method of obtaining the composition according to p. 12, characterized in that it comprises a stage a) mixing starch, a synthetic polymer and plasticizer in 80 180oWith and within such time, in which the plasticizer causes the increase of the starch and polymer b) impact on the mixture of the efforts of the shift corresponding to the values of viscosity of starch and synthetic polymer component, so that there is an interpenetration of the two components at the molecular level.14. The method according to PP. 12 and 13, characterized in that the mixture of stage (a) add water and carry out the removal of gas from the mixture obtained in stage b), at 140 180oWith, you get a molten mixture containing such liquid, in which almost no bubbles at atmospheric pressure.15. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that the mixture of stage a) is carried out in the next 2 to 50 C.16. The method according to p. 1
FIELD: general mechanical rubber goods and tires.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides impregnating compound serving for attachment of textile materials to rubbers, which compound contains combination of latexes including butadiene/methacrylic acid latex and butadiene/vinylidene dichloride latex with 5-10% chlorine content taken at ratio between 70:30 and 50:50; resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, formaldehyde, aqueous ammonia, sodium hydroxide, and water.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of impregnating compound including adhesive characteristics thereof.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: there is disclosed application of the composition containing at least one fluorohydrocarbon foaming agent and non-halogenated polar organic oxygen-containing compound of boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure within 30°C to 150°C for making polystyrene foam by plastic foam equipment designed so that to be applied with a foaming agent containing at least one chlorfluorohydrocarbon. Besides there is disclosed method for making foam polymers, implying application of said composition. There is also disclosed polystyrene foam composition containing at least one fluorohydrocarbon foaming agent and non-halogenated polar organic oxygen-containing compound of boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure within 30°C to 150°C, where content of non-halogenated polar organic compound is within 10 to 15 wt %.
EFFECT: simplified production process of high-quality product.
13 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to making a moulded product for handling clean-room materials, intermediate products or end products, such as a container, a tray and a tool. The moulded product is made of resin compound prepared by mixing in melt cycloolefine polymer (A) 100 weight fractions chosen from the group including bicyclo[2.2.1]-2-heptene and its derivatives, tricyclo [4,3,0,12,5]-3-decene and its derivatives, and tetracyclo[4,4,0,12,5,17,10]-3-dodecene and its derivatives of vitrification temperature within 60 to 200°C, and amorphous or low-crystalline elastic copolymer (B(b1)) 1 to 150 weight fractions. Copolymer (B(b1)) is polymerised from at least two monomers chosen from the group including ethylene and a-olefin with 3 to 20 carbon atoms and vitrification temperature 0°C or lower. The compound contains radical polymerisation initiator 0.001 to 1 weight fractions containing peroxide, and polyfunctional compound (D) 0 to 1 weight fractions. The compound (D) has at least two radical-polymerised functional groups chosen from the group including vinyl group, allylic group, acrylic group and methacrylic group in a molecule.
EFFECT: clean-room moulded product is characterised with good chemical stability, heat resistance and dimensional accuracy, it prevents volatile component release in the surrounding space, has good abrasion resistance and prevents particle formation.
19 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyethylene moulding composition having multimodal molecular-weight distribution for making tubes. The composition contains the following in wt %: a first low-molecular weight ethylene homopolymer A 45-55; a second high-molecular weight copolymer B 20-40 containing ethylene and one more olefin with 4-8 carbon atoms; a third ethylene copolymer C 15-30. The composition further contains an organic polyoxy-compound in amount of 0.01-0.5 wt %. The composition is obtained in the presence of a Ziegler catalyst using a three-step suspension polymerisation method.
EFFECT: producing a polyethylene-based moulding composition characterised by improved processability without formation of drops.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to activating solutions containing a complexing agent. Described is use of the activating solution for curing unsaturated polyester (UP) resin or acrylic resin, said solution containing a complexing agent selected from a group consisting of complexing agents having a nitrogen atom and a hydroxyl group, and bipyridine, a metal salt selected from a group consisting of a transition metal, magnesium and lithium, and optionally a solvent, wherein if the complexing agent has a nitrogen atom and a hydroxyl group, the amount of the complexing agent in the activating solution is at least 5 wt % with respect to the total weight of the activating solution, the amount of the solvent is less than 50 wt % and the amount of diethylene glycol as a solvent is less than 25 wt % with respect to the total weight of the activating solution. Described is an activating solution containing a complexing agent selected from a group consisting of monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, dimethylaminoethanol, and bipyridine, a metal salt selected from a group consisting of a transition metal, magnesium and lithium, and a solvent, wherein if the complexing agent has a nitrogen atom and a hydroxyl group, the amount of the complexing agent in the activating solution is at least 5 wt % with respect to the total weight of the activating solution, the amount of the solvent is less than 50 wt % and the amount of diethylene glycol as a solvent is less than 25 wt % with respect to the total weight of the activating solution.
EFFECT: wider range of activating solutions having improved characteristics, particularly for curing unsaturated polyester (UP) resin or acrylic resin.
17 cl, 12 tbl, 27 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a bituminous composition for use in the field of bitumen, road construction and industry. The bituminous composition comprises a larger portion of at least one bitumen and a smaller portion of at least one chemical additive. The additive is an organogelling agent which creates a network of hydrogen bonds between gelling molecules of the organogel which have molar mass less than or equal to 2000 g·mol-1. Said agent includes at least one hydrogen bond donor group D, at least one hydrogen bond acceptor group A and at least one compatibility enhancing group C which makes the organogelling agent compatible with bitumen chemical compounds. Said agent makes up at least 0.1 wt % of the total weight of bitumen. The invention also relates to a method of producing and using these bituminous compositions in road construction, particularly in producing road binding substances, as well as in industry.
EFFECT: obtaining bitumens which are harder at application temperatures without increasing their viscosity in hot condition.
37 cl, 2 dwg, 14 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: resin contains methyl nadic anhydride and/or hydrogenated methyl nadic anhydride and imidazole of formula , where R1, R2, R3 and R4 are given in claim 1.
EFFECT: obtained resin has significantly higher glass transition temperature with high quality mechanical characteristics and tracking resistance.
3 dwg, 7 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to functionalised diene caoutchoucs with trimethylolpropane and a fatty acid, to a method of their obtaining and to their application for the production of automobile tyre treads. A vulcanising mixture of caoutchoucs contains the diene caoutchouc, functionalised with carboxyl and/or hydroxyl groups and/or their salts. The functionalised diene caoutchouc contains 40-100 wt % of 1,3-butadiene and 1-60 wt % of styrene. The content of bound functional groups and/or salts constitutes 0.02-5.0 wt % counted per 100 wt % of the diene caoutchouc. The mixture contains a light filling agent, trimethylolpropane, a fatty acid and other additives to caoutchoucs.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain automobile tyres which have an improved complex of properties: wet skid resistance, low rolling resistance and high wear resistance.
9 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition consists of a mixture and includes components (A), (B) and (C). Component (A) includes an epoxy-resin based composition which includes a mixture (A1) of epoxy resin and (A2) divinylarene dioxide. Component (B) includes a curing composition and component (C) includes a reinforcing material. Viscosity of the curable composition is in the range of about 0.15 Pa·s to about 1.5 Pa·s. The curable composition is intended to provide a cured composite product made from the curable composition. The curable composition provides a cured composite product having Tg which is about 5°C higher than that of a curable composition containing a reaction diluent. The disclosed composition can be used to produce transparent cast products, composite materials, coatings and adhesives.
EFFECT: invention provides high chemical resistance, high solvent resistance and improves other properties, such as high strength and high hardness.
15 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex