(57) Abstract:Usage: in particular, in the hydrodynamic transmissions of vehicles. The invention is: to provide the switching stroke of the vehicle without a full stop, with the clutch change of direction with gears forward and reverse strokes is located on the primary shaft between the torque Converter and gears change gears and made in the form of bilateral hydraulically operated friction clutch, and the clutch gear used gear synchronized collars on secondary and intermediate shafts between the constant mesh gears to change gear mounted freely rotatably. 3 Il. The invention relates to the transport industry, in particular, to a hydrodynamic transmissions.Known hydromechanical transmission containing a torque Converter, primary and intermediate shafts mounted gear change-speed and reversing course. A pair of gears are in constant mesh with each other, and one of the pairs of gears mounted on the shaft firmly, the second denaut with the shaft through a friction clutch with hydraulic control. Two friction clutches exercise gear, the third friction clutch is used to enable reverse /1/.Specified hydromechanical transmission has a complicated supply control friction clutches, bulky, complicated structurally, has a low operational reliability and durability.Hydromechanical transmission /2/ selected as a prototype, less bulky due to the compact arrangement of the friction clutch. The transmission includes a torque Converter, clutch gear, clutch change of direction with gears forward and reverse moves, primary, intermediate and secondary shafts of the associated pairs of constant mesh gears. Clutch gear are hydraulically operated friction clutch, and the clutch changes the direction of motion of used gear coupling. On the primary shaft mounted freely rotatably relative to the shaft, two wheel gear change transmission, which are in constant mesh with two rigidly mounted on the intermediate shaft gears. On the same intermediate shaft rigidly mounted two gears included in the gear-this gear for forward travel is engaged with the gear of the intermediate shaft directly, and the reverse gear is engaged with the corresponding gear of the intermediate shaft through the intermediate gear. Freely mounted on the secondary shaft gears forward and reverse turn may be rigidly connected with the shaft by means of a toothed coupling. To promote the vehicle forward with a notched clutch is fixed on the secondary shaft gear for forward travel, include one of the three friction clutches depending on the desired speed. Thus, the engine power is transmitted through the torque Converter, input shaft, one of the two pairs of gears of the transmission primary shaft and intermediate shaft, the intermediate gear shaft and included it engages the gear forward stroke, a secondary shaft, a drive wheel of the vehicle. To enable the third transmission includes a friction coupling between the primary and secondary shaft directly, bypassing the gear change transmission. Opposite the entrance include when completely stationary vehicle. Coupling connected with the gear-reverse, include a friction clutch, the gear shift.The switching process of the progress described in the hydromechanical transmission requires a long podvigina car clutch teeth not immediately fall into depression gear because of their mismatch in space switching, that not only reduces the switching speed, but also leads to frequent breakage of the teeth of the coupling. The use of hydraulically operated friction clutches for gear causes significant design complexity hydraulic transmission, because it requires additional sealing of the channels for supplying the fluid, increasing the number of which decreases the reliability of the hydro-mechanical transmission and increases their size.The purpose of the invention to create a hydromechanical transmission with high reliability, providing the switching process running without a full stop of the vehicle for the implementation of the technological cycle of a vehicle Shuttle method that requires frequent switching of turn.This objective is achieved in that in the hydromechanical transmission containing a torque Converter, clutch gear, clutch change of direction with gears forward and reverse moves, primary, secondary shaft and at least one intermediate, which is associated with the primary and secondary shafts of the pair of constant mesh gears to change course and change gears and one gear of each pair is rigidly fixed on the shaft, yoga and backward moves is located on the primary shaft between the torque Converter and gears change gears and made in the form of bilateral friction clutches, managed working fluid under pressure, and the clutch gear is made in the form of a gear synchronized clutches located on the secondary and intermediate shafts between the constant mesh gears to change gear mounted freely rotatably.The use as a clutch changing the direction of movement of the friction, not toothed clutch allows you to change the direction of rotation of the output shaft, i.e. the direction of movement of the vehicle without supervision by a full stop last. Clutch switches when the vehicle is coasting in a particular direction, the switching is carried out quickly, easily, and without jolts and jerks, that provides the necessary conditions for the use of predlagaemoi hydromechanical transmission in vehicles running Shuttle method, for example, in trucks. Application timing synchronized clutch as the clutch gear eliminates the use of bulky sealing structures. Because hydraulically operated clutch in the proposed technical solution is one, not three, as in the prototype, for clutch requires three times less overapologize coupling changes the direction of motion of the primary shaft before the gear change transmission, and coupling gear on the intermediate and secondary shafts simplifies the layout, if necessary, to have a greater number of gears allows you to install an additional pair of gears on the secondary and intermediate shafts without fundamental changes in the kinematic transmission schemes.In Fig. 1 shows the kinematic diagram of the proposed hydro-mechanical transmission of Fig. 2 constructive implementation of bilateral hydraulically operated frictional coupling; Fig. 3 constructive execution timing synchronized clutch.Hydraulic transmission (Fig. 1) consists of an integrated torque Converter, a comprehensive mechanism for changing the direction of movement and transmission interconnected shafts, and provides four speeds forward stroke and four speeds reverse.The torque Converter includes a pump wheel 1, is connected to the drive shaft 2 of the motor M, the turbine wheel 3 mounted on a primary shaft 4, a stator 5, mounted on the reactive shaft 6 on the overrunning clutch 7, which allows the torque Converter to operate in the fluid coupling, when the stator rotates freely in the fluid flow (Fig. 1).The mechanism of change is on both sides of which are placed the gear 9 a forward stroke and a reverse gear 10. A friction clutch 8 (Fig. 2) consists of a body 11 mounted on the primary shaft 4, the two pistons 12, two of the leading packages of disks 13, the two supporting disks 14, fixed in the housing 11, two packets of the slave disk 15 mounted on the hubs of the gears 9 and 10, the forward and reverse strokes, the return spring 16. Between the housing 11 and the piston 12 has two cavities "a" and "b". Control of the friction clutch 8 is carried out through the longitudinal and radial channels "b" and "g" in the primary shaft 4 by means of the electromagnetic valve of switching the direction of motion (Fig. not shown). Gear 9 forward stroke mounted on bearings on the input shaft 4 and is in constant mesh with the gear 17 mounted rigidly on the intermediate shaft 18. The reverse gear 10 is also mounted on the primary shaft 4 in the bearing and engages in a rigidly fixed on the intermediate shaft 18 and the gear 19 by means of the intermediate gear 20 mounted in the housing 21.The transmission includes four pairs vzaimozavisimikh gears mounted on the intermediate shaft 18 and the output shaft 22. On the intermediate shaft 18 in addition to the gears 17, 19 backward and forward movement freely mounted on bearings to selalu 22 rigidly fixed gear 27, 28 the third and fourth gear and loosely mounted pinion 29, 30 second and first gear. Between the gears 23, 24 of the intermediate shaft 18 and gears 29, 30 of the output shaft 22 at pravomochnyi slots set timing synchronized clutch 31. The sleeve 21 (Fig.3) includes a carriage 32, moving the shaft splines (intermediate 18 or secondary 22) and contains a disk with three holes for locking fingers 33 and three holes for the locking fingers 34 and the teeth of the external gear with the left and right sides of the carriage 32. The locking fingers 33 are rigidly connected between the two conical rings 35 and in its middle part are conical surface "d". The holes in the drive of the carriage 32, through which the locking fingers 33, also have a blocking surface "e" in the form of chamfers on both sides of the holes. Cone ring 35 does not have a rigid connection with the carriage 32 and can be displaced relative to it.With the carriage 32 rings 35 are connected through the three locking fingers 34, consisting of two halves, inside which is placed the spring. Control gear couplings 31 is carried out manually using the gear located in the gearbox cover (Fig. mechanics is the matora to bilateral frictional coupling 8 for management is provided by an oil pump 36, mounted in the front wall of the transmission housing and driven by the gear 37 mounted on the control shaft of the pump 36, which is engaged with the gear 38 mounted on the hub of the pump wheel of the torque Converter 1.Work hydromechanical transmission on the respective speeds of transport is as follows.In the neutral position in cavities "a" and "b" clutch 8 pressure is absent, the solenoid valve switching direction (Fig. not shown) is deenergized. Torque from the shaft 2 of the motor M through the pump wheel 1, the turbine wheel 3 integrated torque Converter rotates the drive shaft 4 connected with the turbine wheel 3. Gears 9, 10, freely mounted on the primary shaft 4, with a fixed, stationary intermediate shaft 22. If necessary, the vehicle is moving forward with the electromagnet includes a spool of the direction switching movement, feeding working fluid from the pump 36 into the cavity "a" of the friction clutch 8 under the piston 12. The piston 12 moving, squeezes between a rotating along with the primary shaft 4 wheel disks 13, the driven discs 15 and the support disk 14, forms a food, bringing it into rotation. Gear 9 through the gear 17 with which it is in constant engagement, transmits rotation to the intermediate shaft 18 and gears 25, 26, rigidly connected with the intermediate shaft. The gears 23, 24, sitting freely on the intermediate shaft 18, thus remain stationary. Gears 29, 30, vzaimostsepljaemost with gears 25, 26, rotate and do not transmit the rotation of the output shaft 22, as installed on it freely.For first gear, the gear lever is moved from itself (Fig. not shown), translate the carriage 32 is synchronized gear clutch 31, which is located on the secondary shaft 22, to the right. When this tapered ring 35, moving together with the carriage 32 is supplied to the conical surface of the hub of the gear 30. Due to the difference of the peripheral speed of the carriage 32, associated with the secondary shaft 22, and the gear 30, the rotating shaft 22 freely, shift cone ring 35 relative to the carriage 32 to contact the blocking surfaces "d" of the fingers 33 with the locking surface "e" of the carriage 32. As soon as the speed of the conical surfaces of the carriage 32 and the gear 30 will be equal (synchronized), the blocking surface of the stop to prevent further is upity gear 30 and rigidly connect the gear 30 with the secondary shaft 22. Transfer is included without noise and shock.When you enable the second gear, the gear lever is moved by itself, translate the carriage 32 of the toothed clutch 31 of the output shaft 22 to the left, enter engages the outer teeth of the left side of the carriage 32 with the internal teeth of the hub of the gear 29, i.e., rigidly connect the freely rotating gear 29 with the secondary shaft 22, causing it to rotate.The third gear is engaged by moving the lever to the right and on themselves. The carriage 32 of the toothed clutch 31, which is located on the intermediate shaft 18, moves to the left, pushing the left cone ring 35, the left locking surface of the carriage 32 and the fingers 33, connect the external teeth of the left side of the carriage 32 with the internal teeth free the installed gear 23. When the gear 24 is rigidly connected with the rotary shaft 18 and rotates together with it, passing the rotation of the output shaft 22 through a rigidly mounted thereon the gear 27, which is in constant mesh with the gear 23.The inclusion of the fourth transmission requires translation of the lever to the left and from themselves. The carriage 32 of the toothed clutch 31 of the intermediate shaft 18 is moved to the right, the soybean is om the shaft 18 of the gear 24. The gear 24 is in constant engagement with the teeth rigidly seated on the output shaft 22 of the gear 28 and through the latter transmits the rotation of the output shaft 22 and further to the drive wheels of the vehicle.Reverse motion of the vehicle is carried out by feeding the working fluid through the solenoid valve switch in the cavity b of the friction clutch 8, connecting while rotating together with the shaft 4, the body 11 of the coupling 8 with hub gears 10 reverse and causing the gear 10 to rotate. The gear 10 through the intermediate gear 20 connected to the gears 10 and 19 at the same time, transmits rotation to the intermediate shaft 18 in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation for forward travel. Hydromechanical transmission containing a torque Converter, clutch gear, clutch change of direction with gears forward and reverse moves, primary, secondary shaft and at least one intermediate, which is associated with the primary and secondary shafts of the pair of constant mesh gears to change course and change gears and one gear of each pair is rigidly fixed on the shaft, and the second set freely with the possibility vraalsen on the primary shaft between the torque Converter and the gear change of the transmission and is designed as a two-way friction clutch, and the clutch gear is made in the form of a gear synchronized clutches located on the secondary and intermediate shafts between the constant mesh gears to change gear mounted freely rotatably.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.