(57) Abstract:The use of machinery in the manufacture of pressure equipment and disassembly and Assembly of the devices. The invention: the total mass of the cylinder 9 and articulated with him supporting the hinge 8 of the flange 6 is balanced relative to the hinge 25 is temporarily fixed coaxially with the cylinder flange. In the initial position of the power shaft 10 of the cylinder 9 is installed horizontally, and the flange 6 rests on the surface 7 of the rack 2. When lifting screw 3 his shoulder 15 through the sleeve 13 and the hinge link 12 raises the hydraulic cylinder 9 and the flange 6. The upper edge of the flange 6 is increasingly retarded on the surface 7. The hydraulic cylinder 9 starts to rotate around the axis of the hinge 8 clockwise - head 23 interacts with the shank 18. The flange 6 is rotated relative to the lower edge counterclockwise excessive lockup is terminated. In the new position the axis of the rod 10 is installed horizontally, and the flange 6 is in contact with the surface 7 by balancing the total mass of the cylinder 9 and the flange. The accuracy of the new positions of the rod 10 and the flange 6 is adjusted when the loading rod in the self-flange 6 on the surface is 3 INTA. When lowering screw 3 excessive lockup lower edge of the flange 6 is prevented similarly to rise. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular to press the hardware and disassembly and Assembly devices.Famous stripper of the track roller caterpillar tractors, containing a frame with a horizontal clamping table and stand, with a screw equipped with a driving crank and screw on the screw is equipped with a driving crank and screw on the screw nut with ears placed through the slots of the rack, pad, mounted on the ears, and the cylinder is fixed in a horizontal level at the site [I]
The cylinder of the known device is able to be installed and to work at different levels relative to the clamping table, on which the invention is directed.A disadvantage of the known device is that it cannot be applied on horizontal press, for example, for removing the axis of swing of the carriage suspension crawler tractor, when the carriage is mounted rollers on the horizontal clamping table and rests external balancer on the vertical support table frame press, are receivable the donkey long-term operation of the tractor, values up to 600 kN. The design of the mounting cylinder of the known device determines the practical difficulty of ensuring the strength of the elements of such a mounting, which should see the effort of removing while using the device in the press.Closest to the invention by a combination of traits is a hydraulic unit for removing axes swing and sleeves equalizer included in the production line of ODA-1856, technological research Institute for dismantling carriage suspension crawler tractors DT-54, T-75, T-74, DT-75 
The unit is a horizontal press, containing a frame with a horizontal clamping and vertical reference tables, and the support rack pivotally connected with the rear cover of the power cylinder. When this cylinder is the front flap freely rests on the clamping table frame in the position of horizontal directional rod. The carriage rests rollers for clamping, and a balance weight on the supporting table, perceiving the effort of removing, with the tilt axis is coaxial with the rod of the hydraulic cylinder.A disadvantage of the known device is the inability of the job creation efforts of the power shaft at different levels relative to the base is acania occur at different levels, due to significantly different wear rims rollers of the carriages, or when different brands of tractors.A disadvantage of the known device is determined by the fixed position of the level of the hydraulic cylinder based on the level of the table frame.The objective of the invention change the fixed position of the hydraulic cylinder press, in which the axis of the power shaft is coordinated in a vertical plane at different ranks.The objective of the invention is solved by the following set of features of the proposed device.Offer to the press, as is known, comprises a frame with a horizontal clamping and vertical reference tables and the reference counter associated with the back cover of a cylinder.In contrast to the known, in the proposed device on the rack is made of vertical support surface, the hole is threaded with a screw, and a groove intersecting the bearing surface and the hole is threaded. While the back cover of the hydraulic cylinder associated with the stand by means of a flange resting on the supporting surface and articulated with the back cover cylindrical bearing hinge, the axis of which is mounted horizontally. At a through the groove, and screw the lower shank and the spherical head, placed in the groove and the hole of the shank flange, respectively. Also, the screw is made from the upper shank, forming the outer suplicio, addressed to the top. On the upper shank mounted sleeve with an internal shoulder, based on the last suplicio the top of the shank and connected to the housing of the hydraulic cylinder hinge link, articulated with the top and bottom hinges, respectively. With respect to the lower hinge total mass of the cylinder and dump him flange balanced at the position of the flange, temporarily, when the trim, fixed coaxially with the cylinder.The set of features of the claimed device allows to obtain a technical result solves the problem.In the original position (horizontally mounted power shaft) flange rests on the supporting surface of the rack in the aspirations articulated link to rotate around the axis of the upper pivot counterclockwise (when the position of the device according to the drawing). Occurs it under the action of the moment of the weight force of the hydraulic cylinder. Between the surface of the hole of the shank LAF is key, or, in particular, selected by one side or the other.When the rotation of the screw at the rise of the lower shank and the spherical head rotate the shank flange. And suplicio the top of the shank carries a sleeve through its internal suplicio to the top. With the latter via a hinged link acts on the hydraulic cylinder. The horizontal component of the force of this impact again causes the clamping flange to the supporting surface of the rack. And the vertical will be to raise the cylinder and its associated flange. The flange under the action of the friction force from the supporting surface tends to rotate around the axis of the support hinge clockwise. The friction force on the upper edge of the flange is becoming more and more have interaction that can lead to excessive retardation of the upper edge of the flange on the supporting surface and jamming. When excessive retardation of the flange of the hydraulic cylinder carried articulated link will be rotated clockwise around the axis of the support hinge (and then during the reverse rotation of the cylinder around the axis of the support hinge are respectively articulated link and its hinges, providing these turns of the cylinder). Turn hydrocele shank flange, selecting the gap relative to the latter. The gaps in the joints came out earlier, even when the initial position under the action of the weight of the cylinder and flange. Therefore, the influence of the spherical head on the tail flange will be in the General case with a delay relative to the beginning of rotation of the cylinder. Under the influence of the spherical head on the shank flange latest turn in the median plane counterclockwise. The rotation of the flange will occur around the point (line) supports its lower edge on a supporting surface (and also around the axis of the support hinge). The reference axis of the hinge will move away from the supporting surface, the cylinder will rotate around the axis of the support hinge clockwise. And the upper edge of the flange will fall off from the supporting surface excessive braking will disappear. When turning the flange spherical head (rotating) will shift the shank flange to the end of it. Lifting cylinder and flange will continue if the fracture their axes along the axis of the support hinge that will SAG. When this frictional force will be reduced, shifted to the lower edge of the flange, which "drags" on the supporting surface. The magnitude of this frictional force will determine the magnitude of the fracture ("microsome") axis of the cylinder and flange prepyatstvovali relative to the axis of the lower hinge, the cylinder and the flange of the stand to its original position. The flange will prevalite to the supporting surface, and the spherical head will move to the shank flange at its base. When resuming lifting all repeat unit, in response to excessive braking flange to preclude jamming. But at relatively high friction in the hinges (e.g., crack) flange will prevalite to the supporting surface incompletely. Then at the initial loading of the power shaft flange samostanowienia over its entire surface on the support surface of the rack. In the vertical plane the adjust to any misalignment bukovitsja the possibility of rotation of the flange about the axis of the support hinge, a horizontal rotatable sleeve and the shank flange around a common axis of the screw.When lowering screw the lower cylinder and flange occurs under the action of their weight. Excessive braking, leading to jamming, can now occur on the lower edge of the flange. The fracture axis of the cylinder and the flange is then in reverse, the occasion of the rise side of the axis of the support hinge to the top). And avoiding excessive braking and restore the original position of the cylinder and the flange is similar to the case of the rise.In particular, when in the initial position of the upper or lower radial clearance between the spherical head and the surface of the hole of the shank is fully selected, will not affect the final result. For example, if the selected upper radial gap and the lifting screw or does not occur excessive braking of the upper edge of the flange (the spherical head in advance "not allow" flange to rotate around the axis of the support hinge), or kink axes of the cylinder and flange will occur simultaneously when the top edge of the flange will meet with unevenness in the supporting surface.Thus, the set of features of the claimed device causes the following technical result:
when the rotation of the screw cylinder to move vertically without failures;
when the stop screw cylinder is fixed in position, coordinating the axis of the power shaft horizontally;
when the loading force of the rod is adjusted, the accuracy of the coordinate axis of the power shaft horizontally.Eventually solved delivered to the invention the task.In the private version of the device on the rack is made cylindrical shank mounted in the sleeve communicating with the CTL excludes the impact of the screw of the horizontal component of efforts transmitted hinge section through the upper hinge on the sleeve. This reduces friction forces on interacting threaded surfaces of the screw and the rack. The corresponding action of the horizontal component of force of friction is redistributed on the articulating surfaces of the sleeve and the shank of the rack, where due to the nature of education friction forces on the threaded surface they will be lower than if the screw.In another private version of the press on the upper shank of the screw is fixed a crank.This eliminates the need to use a separate tool to rotate the screw, causing the usability of the press.My private version press the hinge link is made of two halves connected by a threaded coupling, coupled with one half of the link in the right hand and the other left-handed, and the lower hinge fixed to the body of the cylinder by means of a yoke spanning the last.Movement of the clamp along the cylinder causes the ease of balancing the total mass of the cylinder and flange relative to the lower hinge. And the change via a coupling length of hinge link causes the ease of adjustment of the device is affecting the initial position of the power piston rod (installed horizontally), the flange is adjacent to the supporting surface over its entire surface and the screw head (placed in the hole of the shank flange).The drawing shows the press in longitudinal section.The device comprises a frame 1 with a horizontal clamping and vertical reference tables (the latter not shown), mounted on the frame support leg 2, a screw 3, is coupled with a thread 4 holes 5 hours, and the flange 6 resting on a vertical support surface 7 hours. With the flange 6 by means of a cylindrical bearing hinge 8 articulated hydraulic cylinder 9, the power shaft 10 which is mounted horizontally. The hinge 8 is formed by a trunnion mounted in the lug 11 of the flange 6 and the clevis on the back cover of the cylinder 9, while the axis of the hinge is installed horizontally. The cylinder 9 is pivotally connected by a link 12 with the sleeve 13, which is made of internal suplicio 14. The last sleeve 13 rests on suplicio 15 formed by the top tail 16 of the screw 3. On the rack 2 has a cylindrical shank 17 mounted in the sleeve 13. Last on the shank 17 is based right sidewall inner surface under the action of the weight of the cylinder 9 and the flange 6. The flange 6 is made shank 18, free raznoe hole 21. The groove 20 through a relatively holes 21. The screw 3 is made lower shank 22 and the spherical head 23, is placed in the groove 20 and the opening 21, respectively. The axis of the upper hinge 24 of hinge link 12 is placed in the median plane of the sleeve 13 in the middle part of its height (which the hinge pin 24 is made of a split, and the upper end of the link 12 in the form of a fork with the return pin holes). The lower hinge 25 of the link 12 is fixed on the housing of the hydraulic cylinder 9 by means of a clamp 26. When compared to the hinge 25 total weight of the hydraulic cylinder 9 and the flange 6 balanced by their common center of gravity 27 is located on the same vertical line with the axis of the hinge 25. When the trim flange 6 is temporarily fixed coaxially with the cylinder 9. To balance use the clamp 26 by moving it along the body of the hydraulic cylinder 9. The hinge link 12 is made of two halves connected by a threaded coupling 28, which is coupled with one half of the link in the right hand and the other left-handed. By varying the length of the hinge link 12 through clutch 28 is the adjustment of the original position of the device in its manufacture axis of the power shaft 10 is horizontal when resting on the supporting surface 7 of the flange 6. On the shank 16 grip the TWT operates as follows.During the rotation of the crank 29 of the screw 3 at the rise of his suplicio 15, acting on suplicio 14 of the sleeve 13, is seeking to raise the latter. The friction force transmitted rotating the shoulder 15 on suplicio 14 of the sleeve 13, to rotate the latter around its axis substantially unable due to their small relative to the forces of inertia of the mass of the cylinder 9 and the flange 6 and the stiffness of the link 12. The force in the element 12 increases and through the hinge 25 is transmitted to the hydraulic cylinder 9. The horizontal component of this force increases the clamping flange 6 through the hinge 8, the supporting surface 7. And the vertical component tends to raise the cylinder 9 with its associated flange 6. Even with the idle screw 3 radial clearances in the joints already selected under the action of the weight of the cylinder 9 and the flange 6 and the gap between the spherical head 23 and the surface of the hole 21 in the General case, there are (installation clearances position the head in the hole, besides increasing in the operation of the device). Therefore, in the initial lifting of the screw 3, the flange 6 is fond up only by a hydraulic cylinder 9 via a hinge 8. Under the action of friction forces from the supporting surface 7 of the flange 6 tends to rotate around the axis of the hinge 8 in a clockwise direction. Xu flange 6 and jamming between the reference surface 7 and the hinge 8, if not for the presence of the hinge link 12. When excessive braking flange 6 cylinder 9 will be rotated around the axis of the hinge 8 in a clockwise direction due to the rotation of the element 12 around the pivot pin 24 in a counterclockwise direction. The cylinder 9 is rotated around the axis of the hinge 8, until the head 23 by selecting the gap will not interact with the upper surface of the hole 21 of the shank 18. Then head 23 will rotate the flange 6 at its center plane counterclockwise. The rotation of the flange 6 will occur around the point (line) support the lower edge of the flange on the bearing surface 7 (and also around the axis of the hinge 8). The upper edge of the flange 6 will fall off from the supporting surface 7 of excessive braking flange will disappear. When turning the flange 6 cylinder 23 rotates, moves in the hole 21 to the end of the shank 18, the hinge 8 will move away from the supporting surface 7, respectively, increasing the rotation of the cylinder 9. The hydraulic cylinder 9 and the flange 6 will rise if the fracture ("microsome") of their axes along the axis of the hinge 8, which will SAG. The friction force on the flange 6 will be reduced, shifted to its lower edge, which "drags" on the support surface 7. This will decrease the fracture axis of the cylinder 9 and the flange 6 (because a value) is 17.When the stop screw 3 will trim relative to the hinge 25 of the total mass of the cylinder 9 and the flange 6. The axis of the latter "straight" in one horizontal line, the flange 6 will prevalite to the supporting surface 7 and the spherical head 23 will shift the shank 18 back to its base. When the stop screw 3 flange 6 will not fully prevalite to the supporting surface 7 at a relatively high friction in the hinges (for example, blur-free). Then at the time of loading of the power shaft 10, the flange 6 samostanowienia over its entire surface on the support surface 7. In the vertical plane the adjust to any misalignment bukovitsja can be rotated flange 6 around the axis of the hinge 8, and the horizontal movement of the sleeve 13 and the shaft 18 about the axis of the screw 3.When lowering the screw 3 the reduction of the hydraulic cylinder 9 and the flange 6 will occur under the action of forces on their severity. Excessive braking, leading to jamming of the flange 6, can now occur on its bottom edge. The fracture axis of the cylinder 9 and the flange 6 is then in reverse, the occasion of the rise side of the axis of the hinge 8 to the top). And avoiding excessive braking and restore the original position of the hydraulic cylinder 9 and the flange 6 is similar to the case of the rise.
In particular, when in the initial position of the upper or lower radial clearance between the spherical head 23 and the surface of the hole 21 of the shank 18 is selected completely, will not adversely affect the operation of the device.The device is applicable for forging and stamping and forging works in engineering and for disassembly and Assembly works in repair work, healthy and with a large roughness of the interacting surfaces of the flange and the rack.
1. Horizontal press, containing mounted on the frame horizontal clamping and vertical supporting tables supporting rack and the power cylinder, the rear cover is connected with the base, characterized in that it is provided with a screw shank at the ends, one of which is executed with a spherical head, and the second is with the formation of the shoulder stand is made with a vertical bearing surface and a threaded hole, in which the set screw, and a groove located on the support surface and communicating with said threaded bore, a link back cover cylinder with base made in the form of a flange, installed coaxially to the cylinder in contact with a vertical abutment surface is about is in the horizontal plane, when this flange is made with a shank having located along the axis of the flange hole and a longitudinal through groove, the spherical head and is coupled with the shank of the screw is placed respectively in the above-mentioned hole and the longitudinal groove of the shank of the flange and the sleeve is set on the screw in contact with his shoulder with the shoulder of the screw and connected with the housing of the power cylinder by means of a link coupled to the sleeve and the casing, respectively, the upper and lower hinges with capability of balancing the total mass of the cylinder and flange when recorded their aligned position.2. Press under item 1, characterized in that the rack is made with a shank mounted in the sleeve in contact with its outer side surface with the inner lateral surface of the latter.3. Press on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the screw is provided with a crank mounted on the shank, located by the sleeve.4. Press on the PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the link is made of two halves, connected by a threaded sleeve, paired with one half of the right, and another left-handed, and the lower hinge is mounted on the casing of the cylinder group is
FIELD: repairing equipment of shops, namely of locomotive depots of railway road transport vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: movable installation includes lifting table having lower wheeled platform and jointly mounted on it upper stand; mechanism for lifting and descending said stand; power hydraulic cylinder mounted on upper stand and communicated by means of hydraulic lines through control unit with high-pressure pump system; clamping device for mounting-dismounting bearing assemblies. High pressure pump system includes tank, pump aggregate, draining pipeline, suction pipeline connecting inlet of pump aggregate with tank. Lifting and descending mechanism is in the form of hydraulic cylinder and it is mounted on lower platform. Pump aggregate is arranged on upper lid of tank and it is in the form of displacement hydraulic pump with electric motor. Filter is mounted in suction pipeline. Control unit is in the form of body having two built-in safety valves, tap distributor and built-in non-return valve. Manometer and additional filter connected with draining pipeline and having pouring hole are connected with control unit. Hydraulic lines are in the form of flexible hoses. Installation is provided with additional power hydraulic cylinder that forms together with connected in parallel main hydraulic cylinder unit of power hydraulic cylinders. Said unit of power hydraulic cylinders is placed on supporting sheet-plate mounted on upper stand with possibility of rotation or removal from upper stand and with possibility of moving in range of length of flexible hoses. Similar cavities of hydraulic cylinders are mutually communicated. Clamping device includes movable and stationary plates mounted respectively on rods and back lids of hydraulic cylinders and designed for joining tie rods of attachment.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability, no-failure operation of installation.