The method of joining parts of the shaft-bush
(57) Abstract:Usage: in mechanized production when building connections with tension longitudinally-pressing method. The inventive in the sleeve over its entire length on the side opposite injected shaft injected with a gap of the auxiliary shaft. In recent excite longitudinal ultrasonic oscillations with an amplitude of providing compensation for the sum of the values of tightness in the connection gap, which is introduced into the sleeve supporting the shaft, and the amplitude of ultrasonic vibrations injected shaft. Then to the auxiliary shaft apply axial force to ensure its removal from the sleeve, which is produced simultaneously with the injection. The speed of the shot and the auxiliary output shaft set equal. 3 Il. The invention relates to a mechanical Assembly production and can be used to build connections with tension longitudinally-pressing method.One of the problems of modern engineering is to increase the contact stiffness of joints, which is defined as a deformation of the surface layer under the action of external loads. Large deformations lead to a loss of accuracy of the bones of the compounds displace the beginning of deformation in a zone of higher loads by applying a hardening technology for example, surface plastic deformation (SPD), in which the contacting surfaces reinforce ball, roller, diamond smoothing, thereby introducing additional operations in the process.Known methods of joining parts, which increases the operational characteristics of the compounds, including the contact stiffness. A known method according to which after the shaft and bushing affect the shaft ultrasonic vibrations, producing friction hardening of surfaces  the Disadvantage of this method is the low productivity related to the fact that the hardening lead after Assembly of the connection, increasing the time for the operation.The closest in technical essence is the way in which the details of the report in the Assembly of ultrasonic vibrations, creating a shock due to a change in the diametrical sizes of the connected components and producing due to this hardening of the mating surfaces 
The downside of it is uneven hardening of the surfaces of the parts, because with the passage of the shaft into the hole of the sleeve inner surface, located on the injected side of the shaft, will receive and the speed of pressing 1 mm/s and the length of the bushing 10 mm bore-side injected shaft will be subjected to shock loads during the whole time of fitting (10), and the opposite side is just 1 that when the frequency of ultrasonic vibrations 2000-1respectively 20000 200000 and shock.The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is directed, is to increase productivity and contact stiffness of joints in the Assembly.This goal is achieved by the fact that after centering parts opposite injected the shaft into the sleeve with a gap introducing auxiliary shaft the full length of the sleeve, the sleeve serves transverse ultrasonic vibrations (ultrasonic testing), and on the longitudinal shafts, and the amplitude of the ultrasonic inspection of the auxiliary shaft is prescribed such that a change in its transverse dimensions compensated the sum of the values of tightness in the connection gap, which is introduced into the sleeve supporting the shaft, and the amplitude of the ultrasonic inspection injected shaft, injected to the shaft make the effort and make the injection, simultaneously applying force to the auxiliary shaft, remove it from the hole, and the velocity of the shot and the auxiliary output shaft are equal.These steps allow you to obtain a uniformly hardened surface of the bushing at the moment of Assembly operations that results in the and circuit, explaining the proposed method, where the following notation: 1 bushing, 2 injected shaft, 3 - auxiliary shaft; Fig. 2 change in strain hardening along the length of the sleeve when the Assembly according to the method of Fig. 3 the change in the degree of hardening along the length of the sleeve on the proposed method.The method is as follows (see Fig. 1).1. Produce the centering of the shaft 2 and the shaft 3 relative to the holes in the sleeve 1.2. The shaft 3 is injected with a clearance hole for the entire length of the sleeve.3. Served on the sleeve transverse ultrasonic oscillations, and on the shafts of the longitudinal oscillations, and the amplitude of oscillation of the shaft 3 is set to
< / BR>where d is the gap between the sleeve and the auxiliary shaft;
D tightness in the connection;
x the amplitude of ultrasonic vibrations of the shaft;
m Poisson's ratio.4. Applied to the shaft 2, the force P1and to the shaft 3, the force P2and produce movement of the shafts at the same speed.The analysis of the distinctive characteristics and mechanism of way.1. The use of the method according to ed. St. N 1344566 leads to uneven hardening the surface of the sleeve (Fig. 2). This is due to the fact that zapressovana. When this shock loads caused by cross-resize shaft and bushings under the action of ultrasound, are provided in the upper surface of the sleeve more often than the bottom.To address this we used the auxiliary shaft 3 is entered with a gap over the entire length of the sleeve, which are communicated to the ultrasonic vibrations with an amplitude of:
< / BR>where d is the gap size;
x the amplitude of the ultrasonic vibrations injected shaft;
D tightness in the connection.This amplitude changes the diameter of the auxiliary shaft to the value:
Dd =1= ++
The necessity of keeping this ratio is associated with creating a uniform contact pressure on the surface of the sleeve from both injected shaft, and auxiliary.2. The speed of the auxiliary output shaft must be equal to the velocity offset for each point of the inner surface of the sleeve have the same number of strokes as you resize the shafts, which contributes to the same degree of hardening (the frequency of oscillation of the shafts and bushings with 20000-1).Were pressing shaft diameter 10 mm of soft steel 45 in the sleeve of the same material. The tightness in connect the oscillation sleeve was 0.01 mm, and pressed the shaft of 0.005 mmAuxiliary shaft was reported oscillations amplitude
.The speed of the shot was 1 mm/sMeasurement of the microscopic irregularities of the surface of the sleeve after fitting allowed us to obtain the results shown in Fig. 3. Surface microproject of the sleeve hole increased by 25% compared to pressing by a known method, and the entire length of the sleeve it was constant and amounted to 240 MPa. Thus, the application of the method not only managed to get a uniformly hardened surface, but also to increase the degree of hardening, which leads to higher contact stiffness of the connection. The method of Assembly of the connection parts of the shaft-sleeve method of pressing, including centering connected details, message them of ultrasonic vibrations and the application of axial force to one of the components, characterized in that the sleeve opposite injected shaft, with a gap introducing auxiliary shaft the full length of the sleeve, inform him of longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations with an amplitude of providing compensation for the sum of the values of tightness in the connection gap, which is introduced into the sleeve spanogle apply axial force to ensure its removal from the sleeve, produced simultaneously with the pressing, and the speed of the shot and the auxiliary output shaft set equal.
FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of sealing envelopes of corrosion resistant steels of metal-plastic high-pressure bottles.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of separately making metallic convex bottoms with cylindrical collar and backing ring. Thermal expansion factor of backing ring exceeds that of bottoms; outer diameter of backing ring provides close fit of bottoms onto it at 20°C; cooling preliminarily assembled backing ring with bottoms until cryogenic temperature; sliding bottoms on backing ring in cooled state until mutual touch of cylindrical collars of bottoms; heating assembly up to 20°C in order to provide close fit of backing ring in cylindrical collars of bottoms; welding bottoms along butt of assembly and then removing backing ring by chemical milling.
EFFECT: simplified process of making envelopes with enhanced mass characteristics.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine engineering, namely equipment for dismounting press-fit joints, possibly restoration of electric machines.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes housing with platforms for horizontal and vertical motions. Part to be dismounted is placed on horizontal motion platform and it is fed to stripping mechanism. The last is joined with vertical motion platform by means of fastening members and it is provided with adjusted grips supporting heating members with possibility of their axial movement. Heating members are in the form of nozzles for alternating feed of hot and cooled air.
EFFECT: reduced axial errors between dismounted part and stripping mechanism, lowered efforts for stripping parts.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering, possibly restoration of articles operating at large cyclical loads and high temperature values.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of cooling male part in liquefied nitrogen and introducing it into female part. Male part is made of refractory nickel alloy similar to that of female part. After equalizing temperature of assembly, it is heated till recrystallization temperature and subjected to isothermic soaking. It causes creation of structural and phase conversions in assembled parts.
EFFECT: improved quality of joints of parts.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in shaft-bushing interference. According to invention, shaft and bushing are made of material with similar physical and mechanical properties with projections in form of laser hardened paths. Pitch of parts is twice as great as their width. Paths are arranged at angle of 0-90° to axis of joint. Opposite paths of shaft and bushing are displaced relative to each other by width of part. In particular cases, paths can be arranged along ring lines lying in planes square to axis of joint, in starting lines parallel to axis of joint, or helical lines.
EFFECT: increased load-carrying capacity of joint.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises flexible measuring member mounted concentrically with respect to the bearing race and having strain gauges covered with casing and set on its surface. The device also has split bushing with conical outer side mounted for permitting cooperation of the inner side of the flexible member with the outer side of the bearing race to be tested. The flexible member is sectional and composed of two step thick-walled races provided with strain gauges, mounted on the bushing, and interconnected by means of a thread joint. The bushing has ring cylindrical recess centered in its outer surface. The inner surfaces of the smaller steps of the thick-walled races are conical, with cone bases arranged from the side of the large steps.
EFFECT: enhanced convenience of testing and reduced metal consumption.
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely processes for forming butt welded seams on tubes at making tube studs of U-shaped tube bundles using effect of localized hot plastic deforming of welded seam and near-seam zones.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily working tube ends by expanding them from cylinder to cylinder; assembling tubes with use of mandrel and placing intermediate member of additive material between joined end surfaces of end portions of tubes sized by expansion and end surfaces of step ring. Welded seams are formed by argon-arc welding due to melting material of intermediate member at its both sides adjacent to tube ends. The intermediate member is heated up and it is subjected to hot radial squeezing while concentrating its initial deformation in surface layers according to position of ring steps, welded seams and near-seam zones on mandrel for providing size of their outer diameter equal to initial outer diameter of tubes.
EFFECT: improved quality of welded seams.
FIELD: railway transport; repair of rolling stock.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to repair of load-bearing parts of vehicles, particularly, to repair of overspring beams of car bogies with inserts press-fitted into step bearings. According to proposed method, step bearing of overspring beam is heated, together with insert, to temperature exceeding 250°C. Inner surfaces of insert are cooled by blowing at velocity 1.1 times higher than velocity of heat exchange through surfaces in contact with step bearing to eliminate negative allowance between insert and outer bead of step bearing. To extract insert, it is expanded from inside by applying force. Device for implementing the method has body in form of disk to be arranged in step bearing with slots on side surface in which bellcranks 9 are fitted being driven by pneumatic cylinder, with claws for gripping the insert, central hole through which rod 16 of pneumatic cylinder passes to extract insert 40, with inner space designed for distribution of cooling compressed air among nozzles pointed to surfaces of insert.
EFFECT: increased efficiency when repair overspring beams, reduced energy consumption and labor input in process of repair.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: processes and apparatuses for assembling parts at tightness, possibly production and restoration of sleeves of sealing unit of turbo-compressor.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing sleeve into embracing part at technological tightness; performing electric-contact heating of inner surface of sleeve and then deforming it by drifting for creating mounting tightness of sleeve and embracing part joint; smoothing roughness of inner surface of sleeve. Electric-contact heating and drifting of inner surface of sleeve are realized with use of duplex tool in the form of contact- heating tool and arranged behind it deforming- calibrating tool. Contact-heating tool provides heating of inner surface of sleeve in annular zone of contact with said contact-heating tool. Deforming- calibrating tool is mounted at tightness equal to 0.8 mm. In the result during one operation sleeve is pressed-in to embracing part, roughness of inner surface of sleeve is smoothed and inner surface of sleeve is strengthened at hardness 48 - 54 HRC3.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of assembling parts.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to machine building and instrument making, and may be used in performance of machine assembly works. Method for interference fit of parts by means of press fitting with application of material that strengthens the joint includes partial press fitting of parts with measurement of press fitting force and their further additional press fitting. According to method partial press fitting of parts is carried out. Then material that strengthens joint is applied on free sections of joined surfaces of one or both parts. After that their further additional press fitting is realised.
EFFECT: simplification of assembly process and reduction of costs for joint strengthening.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: external part inner surface is furnished with 2 to 5 mm-pitch teeth. Assembly is carried out to make a clearance between external and internal parts. Internal part is subjected to upsetting.
EFFECT: higher quality and strength of joint, simplified assembly.
4 dwg, 1 ex