How to determine the strains and stresses and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in the measurement of strain and stress. The technical result of the use of the invention is to improve performance. The result is achieved that the two optical channels are managed optical banners for discrete remembering information prior to the change in the object and after it. In the third banner occur the comparison and storing the mapped information, i.e., formed of strips Jung described in the invention is an electronic circuit that allows to estimate the resulting value. 2 S. p. f-crystals. 9 Il.

The invention relates to the field of nondestructive testing (stress and strain) of structural elements (pumps, vessels, etc) and allows high performance to estimate the parameters of stress and strain.

Known methods and apparatus for registration of deformations arising from the application of deforming forces, containing the light source illuminating the object with coherent light, the focusing and shifting optical element, which accepts reflecting from the object coherent light, generates interest the attachment device to record the interferogram, the resulting interference is focused images [1] the principle of the method and device based on the analysis splinterfaction images taken prior to the impact of efforts and after them.

The disadvantage of this method and device is that you cannot fast (rapid) assessment of deformations and stresses due to the need for pre-memory (commit) images on the film.

The closest technical solution of the invention is a method and apparatus for determining stress and strain of pipelines, pressure vessels and structural elements containing the source that directs a beam of light on the surface of the test object, the optical receiver (television camera) which receives the reference dot pattern, deformable when light is reflected, the interface with the connected monitor, the computer (with display), performing a comparison of the stored and current paintings [2]

A disadvantage of the known method and device is in a low speed because of the need to process all incoming information to the microcomputer.

The purpose of the invention improve performance defined what about:

1. In a known method for determining the strain and stress of structural elements, including the formation of a light image of the object before deformation and after that convert the optical image into an electric signal, a light image of the original object is incremented and stored in the first optically controlled transparency, and a light image of the deformed object is incremented and stored in the second optically controlled transparency, are synchronous reading of the image and forming images of bands Jung, read it, and on the analysis of the size and spread of the bands are determined by the strain and stress;

2. In the known device containing a laser for illuminating the object and connected in series television camera and interface, one output connected to the monitor, the other two with the television camera, and a bidirectional bus with the microcomputer, the output is connected to the display, between the object and the optical input of the television camera is connected in series United microscope, the first semi-transparent mirror, a first optical shutter, managing input connected to the output have been added to the interface, the first is Tania optically controlled transparencies, the first block is read, a second input connected to the output of the control unit and synchronization, the first mirror, the second semitransparent mirror, the input is connected through an additionally introduced laser to separate the output of the control unit and synchronization, the third optical shutter, a second input connected to a separate input of an additional interface, the third driven banner, two inputs are connected to separate outputs of the controlled power supply optical managed banners, the third block is read, a second input connected to the output of the control unit and synchronization, and the lens, and between the output of the first mirror and the second input of the second semi-transparent mirror enabled connected in series, the second optical shutter, a second input connected to the output of an additional interface, the second optical controlled transparency, two separate inputs connected to the output of the controlled power supply optical managed banners, and the second block is read, a second input connected to a separate output of the control unit and synchronization, and the output signals of the first, second and third block read is connected to the individual the additional interface connected to the bidirectional bus of the microcomputer, and another separate input interface connected to the inputs of the controlled power supply optical managed banners and control and synchronization, the first output connected to the input of the first laser, another exit through the additionally introduced a second laser with a second input of the first semi-transparent mirror.

The introduction of the microscope, the first and second mirrors, the first and second semi-transparent mirror, the first, second and third optical gates of the first, second and third optically controlled transparencies, first, second and third blocks read, a control unit and a timing-driven power optically controlled transparencies, lenses, additional interface and two additional lasers allow high performance to determine the required characteristics of the investigated area of the object due to the formation in the optical range of the resulting image in bands Jung.

Comparative analysis of the prototype and the proposed technical solution allows to conclude that the technical solution meets the criterion of "novelty".

In known devices, solving the problem of determining the voltage and generate the result image. The presence of distinctive features is not known in the technical solution allows to make a conclusion about conformity of the proposed solutions to the criterion of "significant differences".

In Fig.1 shows a structural diagram of the device of Fig.2 main (optical) of the device; Fig.3 images (reference and current) generated in the speckle effect; Fig. 4 use case managed optical transparency; Fig.5 electrical diagram of a variant of the controlled power supply unit optically controlled transparencies; Fig. 6 is a block diagram of the optical shutter of Fig.7 version control and synchronization, and Fig.8 chart of operation control units and synchronization, and Fig.9 block diagram of computers.

The device (Fig.1) contains the following elements: 1 laser (with collimator); 2 laser (lens); 3 object (research); 4 microscope; 5, the first semitransparent mirror; 6 first optical shutter; 7 managed the first optical transparency (POUT); 8 the first block read (CBE); 9 first mirror; 10 second semi-transparent mirror; 11 third optical shutter; 12 third optically controlled transparency (TOUT); 13 the third block read (TBS); lens 14; 15 camera (TC); 16 the first and POUT); 21 power management and synchronization (BEADS); the second mirror 22; 23 of the second optical shutter; 24 - second managed optical transparency (PLANES); 25 second block read (VBS); 26 second interface; 27 laser (lens).

From a structural diagram (Fig.1), it follows that the output of the laser 1 is connected through serially connected object 3, the microscope 4, the first semi-transparent mirror 5, the first optical shutter 6, PART 7, CBE 8, the first mirror 9, the second semitransparent mirror 10, the third optical shutter 11, TOUT 12, TBS 13, a lens 14, TC 15 and the first interface 16 to the input (via a bidirectional bus), the microcomputer 17; the output of the microcomputer 17 is connected to the input of the display 18; separate output interface 16 is connected to the monitor 19; two separate output interface 16 is connected to the inputs TC 15; a separate output of the first semi-transparent mirror 5 is connected through serially connected second mirror 22, the second optical shutter 23, the second optically addressable banner 24, the second block read 25 to separate the input of the second semi-transparent mirror 10, a separate output of the second interface 26 are connected to separate inputs of the BEADS 21, ABOUT 20; three separate output interface 26 is connected to the inputs of the first optical shutter 6, the second the Azer 2 and laser 27; the output of the laser 2 is connected to a separate input of the first semi-transparent mirror 5, a separate laser output 27 is connected to a separate input of the second semi-transparent mirror 10; single exit CBE 8 is connected to a separate input of PART 7, private entrance TBS 13 separate entrance TOUT 12 and a separate exit VBS 25 separate entrance PLANES 24.

The device operates cyclically: 1) preparation of optical managed banners to work; 2) recording the reference image (EI); 3) record the current image (TM); 4) establishing and recording the total image (SI); 5) formation and analysis of interference fringes.

At the first stage of the cycle is the preparation of optically controlled transparencies 7, 12, 24 to record the image. For this to corresponding inputs of PART 7, TOUT 12, VOI 24 from ABOUT 20 is energized polarization. Simultaneously, from laser 2 (containing the collimating lens capable of diverging the light beam through the first semitransparent mirror 5, the second mirror 22, through the open first and second optical gates 6, 23 on PART 7 and PLANES 24 and with the same laser 28 through the second semitransparent mirror 10, an outdoor third optical shutter 11 to TOUT 13 served (active for the fot. 68-69] the device is ready to receive the reference current and the total image (EI, TI, SI).

In the second phase of the cycle with the help of laser 1 (containing the collimating lens capable of radiating a beam of light) is illuminated region of the investigated object 3. When the illumination of the object 3, containing an optically rough surface when changing the height of the relief is of the order of the wavelength of the incident light is observed speckle effect, which represents the image in the form of a granular structure [4, S. 60-61] Each portion of the object 3 with a speckle image. This image is perceived and reinforced by the microscope 4 (which is PME-1 or STS-9). After that, through the semi-transparent mirror 5 and the optical shutter 6, the first read image (i.e., EI) is supplied to PART 7. At the same time on PART 7 served with ABOUT 20 U Zap.please take the voltage records are read. After recording the image in PART 7 optical shutter 6 is closed.

After recording EI similarly formed and is written T, which corresponds to the same portion of the object 3, but in a deformed state. TI is obtained by reflection of the laser light beam by the object 3 when it passes through micro served with ABOUT 20 voltage recording-reading. After recording the TEE is closed, the second optical shutter 23 and starts the reading process TI and EI. Moreover, EI is read from PART 7 using PBS 8 and t PLANES 24 using VBS 25. Read image (EI, TI) are fed through the respective mirrors 9, 10 and open the third optical shutter 1 and the third optically controlled transparency 12 total reference image (EI) and the current image (TI). Simultaneously with ABOUT 20 is energized write read, write the total image (SI). After recording C closes the third optical shutter 11.

The next step is reading the total image using TBS 13 TOUT 12, a lens 14 of its Fourier transform (the image), then the formation of interference fringes in the focal plane, which sees the camera 15.

After the formation of the interference bands (bands Jung) further image processing is performed on the microcomputer 17, which via the interface 16 is connected with a television camera 15. Recall that further define the magnitude of the strain and stress of the portion of the object.

It is known that the magnitude of the stress and strain of the surface can be calculated at any point and the gate of the deformable area is relatively undistorted. For this purpose it is necessary to determine the direction of the strips on halo and measure the distance between them:

< / BR>
where Qx, Qythe relative displacement of TI and EI along the axes OX, OY;

m zoom lens (14);

dxdyoffset deformable portion of the object along the axes OX, OY in the coordinate system XOY, associated with the plane of the examined object;

x, ythe angular displacement of the deformable portion of the object along the axes OX, OY;

the angle of inclination (with respect to axis OY) of interference fringes is proportional to the reversal of the investigated area of the object;

l the wavelength.

Stress components are determined from the strain components on the ratios of stress and strain from the formula:

< / BR>
where E is the modulus of elasticity;

the Poisson's ratio;

a coefficient of thermal expansion;

DT is the temperature change of the object;

ijthe distortion tensor;

Qijmatrix deformation;

ijthe tension.

Thus the computer, determining values of Qx, Qyevaluates the components of the strain and stress of the investigated area of the object.

The image of interference fringes displayed on the monitor 19. The microcomputer 17 also controls through storedata on the display 18.

In Fig. 2 shows the optical part of the device. The device contains the following elements: 1 laser (with collimator); 2, 27 - laser; 3 object (research); 4 microscope; 5, 10 first and second semi-transparent mirror; 6, 11, 23 first, third and second optical shutter, respectively; 7 managed the first optical transparency (POUT); 8, 13, 25 and the first, third and second blocks are read, respectively; 12 third managed optical transparency; 9, 22, the first and second mirror; 14, 31 - 34 lens; 15 television camera; 24 the second optical controlled transparency (PLANES); 28 beam splitting element (prism, Glan-Thomson); 29 - laser; 30 extender (reflector).

As mentioned, first, the preparation of the optical managed banners 7, 12, and 24 to record the image. To do this, from blocks high voltage ABOUT 20 is the polarization voltage to the corresponding electrode PART 7 and PLANES 24, TOUT 12. At the same time from the laser 2 through a lens 33, a semitransparent mirror 5 and the mirror 22, through the open optical gates 6, 23, and laser 27 through the lens 34, the second semitransparent mirror 10 through the opened third optical shutter 11 is supplied uniform light output, which is active for fotop is bhakta 3, illuminated by the laser 1, and perceived increases the microscope 4 and through the semi-transparent mirror 5 and the first (open) optical shutter 6 is supplied to PART 7. Similarly recorded TEE coming through the microscope 4, the semi-transparent mirror 5, the mirror 22 and the second (outdoor) optical shutter 23 on PLANES 24. Next is the reading of EI and TI with banners 7, 24, performed by the blocks read 8, 25. PBS 8 and VBS 25 are identical and are as follows [5, S. 99-100]

Reading is performed in the mode to "reflection", which is the separation of the input and output of the readout light beam splitting element 28 (e.g., prism, Glan-Thomson). For the formation of a reader uses a laser beam 29, the light beam which passes through the expander (reflector) 30 and the lens 31 on the input plane of the element 28. Then the light through the element 28 is supplied to POUT and PLANES 24, is reflected from the mirror electrodes, reproducing the geometrical relief EI and TI, and passes through the element 28 to the lens 32. At the same time on PART 7 and PLANES 24 is energized write-read through the electronic switches of the power supply 20.

Then EI is supplied through the mirror 9 and the semi-transparent mirror is rculo 10.

Image of EI and TI are received through the open optical shutter 11 in the third managed optical transparency 12, which together with ABOUT 20 is energized write-read and write the total image. After recording controlled optical shutter 11 is closed. The reading is the same as that described above, this enables the third block read (TBS) 13, with which the image falls on the lens 14, generating a Fourier transform of the total image.

In Fig. 3 presents EI and TEE (part of image elements shown by arrows). As you can see, the speckle images are bitmap images, the relative shift which has to be determined.

In Fig. 4 shows the structure of an optical guided transparent [5, S. 201, 202] Banner operates as follows.

Modulation of light based on the use of deformation magnetoterapia when reorientation of the domains that have been applied to the design of the device Ferricon (Ferroellectric Iconoscope). Magnetoterapia 37 on both sides of the superimposed layers of photosensitive semiconductor 36, over which is applied a conductive electrodes with the input side of the translucent 35, and with wihp to obtain the saturated residual polarization normal to the surfaces and evenly shining device on the input side through the translucent electrode 35.

The parameters of semiconductor and ferroelectric chosen so that no clipping voltage was applied mainly to the layers of the photoconductor. Then to the electrodes connect the voltage recording with the polarity opposite to the voltage polarization, through the input transparent electrode using the active to the photoconductor light recording on the structure of the projected image surface 3 (through the microscope 4 and the semi-transparent mirror 5) and the total image. In lit areas, there is a transfer voltage so that the external bias was applied to the ferroelectric. On these sites is a local reorientation of the domains, the direction of which depends on the magnitude of the applied voltage at this point. Reorientation of domains is accompanied by the emergence of local mechanical stresses causing deformation of the surface of the ceramic plate, and hence the deformation of the output conductive mirror electrode. Formed on its surface geometric relief will be made uniform illumination patterns active for the photoconductor with light while applying to the electrodes a voltage of the pre-polarization.

In Fig. 5 shows a circuit diagram of a managed power supply managed optical transparency.

ABOUT consists of the following elements [8, S. 31] 39 scheme And; 40 - scheme, OR; 41 switch (relay); 42, 53, 67 74 diode; 44, 51, 54 - transistors; 43, 45, 47, 52, 55, 75 resistors; 46, 48, 49, 50, 58 66 - capacitors; 81 transformer; 76 80, 82 of the relay contacts.

ABOUT contains an electronic key, assembled on the transistor 44 (V TI), the generator voltage transistors 51, 54 (V T2 V T3)), transformer 81 and the voltage multiplier circuit assembled on the elements 58 and 74, in addition, ABOUT includes schemas AND, OR (39 40), is used to activate the mode "Write" or "Erase" EI or T, and the switch 41 (with corresponding groups of contacts K1.1 K. 2.3) used to enable (disable) high-voltage power supply.

ABOUT consists of three identical blocks for power POUT 7, TOUT 12 and PLANES 24. Works of ABOUT as follows. The inclusion of the power supply occurs on signals "Write EI", "Erase EI, Write T", "Erase T", "Account C", "Erase C" coming from the interface 26. Upon receipt of any of these signals enables the generator to be built on the transistors 51, 54, primary winding of transformer is moved multiplier (elements 58 and 74). In case of arrival of a signal Entry "EI" (or "Record of the YEAR" or "Account C") the relay coil 41 (K1) is de-energized and the first half of the multiplier. Voltage recording-reading the appropriate polarity to PART 7.

When the signal "Erasing EI", "Erase T", "Erase C" through the key switches on the relay 41 (K1). It enables the multiplier (the second half) and switching the polarity at the output. This provides automatic switching of polarity and increase the voltage for erasing the image recorded on PART 7, PLANES 24, TOUT 12.

In Fig. 6 shows a variant of the optical shutter 6, 11, 23. The optical shutter consists of the following elements [6, S. 183] waveguides 82; 83 electrodes.

The optical shutter is a waveguide modulator. Feeding him with interface 26 logical "1" (control voltage Upanelmodulator transmits the optical signal is fed to the input (II). Otherwise, the modulator interrupts the optical signal (optical signal-Iois missing).

In Fig.7 shows a variant of the control unit and the synchronization 21. This unit is made for the case-control lasers, have not had the s switches 84 89, including the appropriate lasers 1, 2, 27 according to the control signals passing from interface 26.

Each of the switches 84 89 contains the following elements: 90, 93 - resistor; relay 91; 94 transistor; diode 92; 95 condenser; 96 - relay contacts.

The operation of such a switch is simple. The control signal coming from the interface 26, opens the transistor 24 (V T1), which applies a voltage to the coil of relay 91 (K1), including their contacts 96 (K1.1) corresponding to the laser 1, 2, 27 or lasers in blocks read 8, 13, 25.

BEADS performs the following sequence of operations:

1) enable laser 1 when the signals from the second interface 26 "Entry EI, Write TI;

2) inclusion of lasers 2, 27 when the signal "Erase";

3) activating the laser in PBS 8, VBS 25 and TBS 13 when the signal "Read".

It should be noted that the specific implementation of the BEADS depends on the type of lasers. If they can manage (enable) signal U 5B, the necessity in this part of the BEADS no: management will occur directly from the second interface 26.

An embodiment of the first interface 16 is described in [3, S. 202 206] the Interface 16 is a buffer storage device (BLT), allowing zaa screen of the monitor 19. The interface 26 provides control of the BEADS 21, ABOUT 20 and optical gates 6, 11, 23.

As the interface 26 can use the standard interface I2 [9]

In Fig. 8 shows time diagrams of the blocks of the device (electrical and light signals in the optical part of the device) in accordance with the control signals of the microcomputer. All necessary explanations are given in Fig.8.

In Fig.9 shows the block diagram of the algorithm of computers, allowing to estimate the width and angle of the interference fringes (which is determined by the displacement of the deformed portion of the object relative to the undeformed area).

The algorithm starts with memorizing images of the interference fringes at the interface 16 and rewriting it in the memory of the microcomputer (block 97). Then there is an estimation of the width of the interference fringes (block 98) and the pitch angle measurement (block 99). Having these data on the well-known relations [4] determines the magnitude of the displacement (deformation) (block 100).

The proposed device has a higher performance compared with the known. We will show this. The performance of the proposed device will be higher in n times compared to Izvestia.y determining the deformation of the known device.

We define the performance of the proposed device

< / BR>
where t1the time of passage of the light flux from the laser 2 to PART 7 and PLANES 24;

t2preparing PART 7 and PLANES 24 to record images (erase information stored in the optical managed banners);

t3the time of passage of the light flux from the laser 1 to PART 7;

t4the recording time of the reference image in PART 7;

t5time mechanical deformation of the object of research;

t6the time of passage of the laser beam 1 to PLANES 24 (record the current image);

t7the recording time of the current image PLANES 24;

t8the readout time of the image carried out by the CBE 8 and VBS 25 with appropriate banners 7, 24, the passage of the rays from PART 7, PLANES 24 to TOUT 12 and write the total image TOUT 12 (this performance is due to the technical characteristics of PART 7, PLANES 24, TOUT 12, ABOUT 20, BUS 21);

t9the readout time of the image TBS 13 TOUT 12;

t10the time of passage of the light flux of the laser from TBS 14 to the television camera 15;

t11the recording time of the optical image and the me, spent the microcomputer 17 and the interface 26 to control the optical gates 6, 11, 23.

Insert specific data into the formula (3). It should be noted that the time t1, t3, t6, t10you can ignore because of their smallness in comparison with times t2, t4, t5, t7, t8, t9, t11, t12, t13(this is due to the passage of the rays at the speed of light between the respective blocks of the device). Thus, t1t3t6t100. In addition, the time t5deformation of the object can also not be ignored, because it does not depend on the realization of devices and is a constant value.

Times t2, t4, t7, t8, t9when used as a ferroelectric lithium niobate doped with iron is 3 to 10-9s and more [6, S. 69] Time t1120 10-3for images of size 256 x 256 [3, S. 211] and time t11+ t131,2 10-5C. Thus, tpru(3 of 10-9) 5 + 2 10-2+ 1,2 10-50,02012 C.

The performance of the known device is defined by the following expression:

< / BR>
where the transit time of the light flux from the laser 1 to 3 and further body>/BR>the time required for the deformation of the object;

processing time information to the microcomputer 17 (forming mutually-correlation function, estimation of linear coordinates defining the deformation of the object).

Time can be ignored because of the flow at the speed of light. Times [3, S. 211] the Time can not be considered as time t5. Time 15 s (for images of size 256 x 256) and more.

Substituting the data into the formula (4), we get

tWPI.y= 20 10-3+ 20 10-3+ 15 with 15,04 C.

finally by the formula (2), we obtain

.

Thus, the proposed device in 745,5 times faster defines the deformation of the portion of the object.

Literature

1. Optical method and device for the analysis of deformation. U.S. patent N 4690552, M CL3G 01 B 9/02, 11/16.

2. Method and device for determining stresses and deformations in pipelines, pressure tanks, structural elements and other deformable objects. A PCT application N 87/07365, M CL3G 01 B 11/16.

3. Korikov A. M. syryamkin C. I. Titov, C. S. Correlation of the visual system of the robot. Tomsk: Radio and communication, Tomsk Department, 1990, s.

4. Jones R. Uix K. Holographic and with the market of the world. Tomsk: Publishing house of Tomsk state University, 1983, 264 S.

6. Akaev A. A. Mayorov, S. A. Optical methods of information processing. M High school, 1988, 238 S.

7. Andreev, Y. A. and other Correlation-extreme videosonline system for robots. Tomsk: in TSU, 1986, 240 S.

8. Rubinstein I. the voltage Converter to power the meter Geysir-Muller. Radio, N 9, 1991, S. 31.

9. Of microcomputers: 8 kN. Practical guide./ Edited by L. N. Presswhen. KN.1. Family computer electronics-60". M High school, 1988, 172 C.

1. The method of determining the strain and stress of the structural elements, including the formation of a light image of the object before and after deformation, converting the optical image into an electric signal, characterized in that the light image of the original object increases and remember in the first optical managed transparente, and a light image of the deformed object increases and remember the second optical managed transparente produce simultaneous read images, storing the resulting image and the image formation in the form of strips Jung, read it, and on the analysis of the size and spread of the strips define the strain and tension which, illuminating the object, connected in series television camera and interface, one output connected to a monitor, the other two with the television camera, and a bidirectional bus with the computing unit, an output connected to the display, characterized in that it introduced the first additional laser microscope, the first semi-transparent mirror, a first optical shutter of the first optical managed transparent, the first block is read, the first mirror, the second semi-transparent mirror, a lens, a second mirror, the second optical shutter of the second optical managed transparent, the second block is read, additional interface, the third optical shutter, the third optical managed transparent, the third block is read, the managed unit optical power managed slogans, power management and synchronization, second additional laser, and to the input of a television camera, optically associated with the object, connected in series United microscope, the first semi-transparent mirror, a first optical shutter, managing input connected to the output of the added interface of the first optical managed transparent, two separate inputs are connected the speed is connected to the output of the control unit and the synchronization the first mirror, the second semitransparent mirror, a second input connected through a second additional laser to separate the output of the control unit and synchronization, the third optical shutter, a second input connected to a separate input of an additional interface, the third optical managed transparent, two inputs are connected to separate outputs of the controlled power supply optical managed slogans, the third block is read, a second input connected to the output of the control and synchronization, and the lens and between the output of the first mirror and the second input of the second semi-transparent mirror is in series connected second mirror, the second optical shutter, a second input connected to the output of an additional interface, the second optical managed transparent, two separate inputs connected to the output of the controlled power supply optical managed slogans, the second block is read, a second input connected to a separate output of the control unit and synchronization, and the output signals of the first, second and third blocks read are connected to separate inputs of the first, second and third optical managed transponder optical power managed slogans and control unit and synchronization the first output connected to the input of the laser, and the other input through the first additional laser with a second input mirror.

 

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FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: digital multi-component motion sensor comprising a body, a recording unit, a sensitive element with motion sensors, connected into an electric circuit, differing by the fact that the elastic body of the sensor is made in the form of a monoblock from a composite material by winding of a tape of a thermoplastic material with further polymerisation of layers, with placement of deformation strain sensors in its layers, current-conducting elements and contact groups, mounted in layers of the body, the above monoblock of the body has the following structure of the layers differing according to performed functions within the body, counting from outside to inside, a protective layer, which protects elements of the sensor against environmental impact, a layer that levels thickness, comprising holes and grooves for protruding parts of the next layer, an instrumental layer comprising strain sensors, current-conducting elements and contact groups, a support layer that perceives load during writing of a handwritten text, an element of transfer of axial pressure of the writing unit is made in the form of a hollow rod with a writing unit installed in it and connected by the end with the sensitive element, made in the form of an elastic membrane jammed in the in the sensor's body, besides, the element of transfer of the axial movement of the writing unit is made in the form of a ball, contacting with a piezoelement, such as a piezoelement of direct effect of movements, besides, the axis of sensitivity of the piezoelement matches with the longitudinal axis of the sensor.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of a device due to selective measurement of static or smoothly changing movements along all directions of space with their subsequent digitisation, in particular, development of a small-size device in the form of a pen; rating of the movement of the writing unit during writing of a handwritten text for subsequent statistic treatment; obtaining higher reliability, since in solid multi-layer body the sensors are protected against unfavourable conditions of environment, besides, during manufacturing of the body an excessive quantity of sensors may be installed in its layers, which, whenever necessary, may be readjusted.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes, at depth h of the medium, performing deformation thereof with pressure p through a hard flat die, determining the modulus of overall and elastic deformation of the medium E0 (kG/cm2), Eel (kG/cm2), measuring the uniform thickness of the medium under the die with a width w (cm) or diameter d (cm), wherein the method includes, at the depth h of the structured medium, determining its internal friction angle and specific cohesion cstr (kG/cm2), calculating the internal friction angle of a medium with a disturbed structure as and specific cohesion thereof determining the value of the actively compressed thickness of the material medium under the die using the relationship - for an elastic structured medium and - for a medium with a disturbed structure, where d (cm) is the diameter of a circular die equivalent to a rectangular die w×l (cm×cm) with a side w<l; the value of elastic deformation of the decompressed medium under die pressure is calculated using the relationship and the value of active collapse of the material medium under excess die pressure p (kG/cm2) in the medium is determined from the relationship

EFFECT: simple method of determining elastic and overall deformation of a compressible material medium.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in defining module Eo (MPa) of general deformation and modulus of elasticity Eelast (MPa), internal friction angle of structured medium and its specific adhesion Ctcs (MPa), setting value of external pressure p (MPa) on deformable medium at preliminary calculated values of gravity (domestic) pressure at specified depth h of medium mass analysis total deformation compressed by die elastoviscoplastic (ground) material medium is defined by relationship where Stcs (cm) is elastic draught medium , SH (cm) is sludge medium with deformed structure, B (cm) is width of flat die, is diameter of circular die equivalent to rectangular with side B, Fd (cm2) is area of round stamp, νtcs and νH are values of coefficients of relative transverse deformation of deformable medium in structured and disturbed condition, defined by relationship: in a medium as and in walls of vertical mine and under conditions of compressive compression - and and - is strength parameters of medium with deformed structure and deformation of elastic flexible peat medium is determined from relationship where is peat modulus of elasticity (MPa).

EFFECT: disclosed is method for determining deformation of material medium under pressure.

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