The way to control the size of the working surface of the ring double row angular contact ball bearings
(57) Abstract:Use: for the treatment of work surfaces angular contact double row ball bearings by preselecting subject to measurement and mathematical processing of measurement results. The inventive control the radius of the gutter, then at an arbitrary axial section of the ring measure the diameter of the gutter and the sum of the distances from the axis of the ring before forming the trench, measured in a direct, components with perpendiculars to the axis of the ring contact angles in the bearing. Next, determine the deviation of the diameter Dd and the sum of the distances from the nominal values (P) , calculate the difference of the deviation of the indicated amounts and compositions of the deviation of the diameter of the cosine of the contact angle f = P-dcos . This difference f equal to the offset of the line of contact of the ring under the influence of the deviation of the radius and the axial position of the chute in a direction that forms a contact angle with the perpendicular to the axis of the ring. 8 Il. The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular to control the dimensions of the parts bearing on the operations of the working surface.Widely known method consisting in measuring the diameter of the gutter, radius gutters and regulations GIEZ each of the dimensions separately and independently of the other (the Bearings./Ed. N. A. Spitsina, etc. M engineering, 1961, S. 700).However, the accuracy of processing is that you can collect only single-row angular contact bearings, when high requirements for mutual axial location of the outer and inner rings are not required and the deviation of the contact angle associated with deviations of the radii of the grooves, are acceptable. In addition, the ring double row angular contact bearings formed only one side of the trench, and the measurement of the axial position of the gutter complicated.There is a method by which control the diameter of the raceways of the outer and inner rings on the lines of contact of the rings and balls in the bearing, and the distance between the lines of contact between the outer rings and the distance from the base end to the line of contact between the inner rings. The diameter of the line of contact depends on three dimensions and is not of interest for operational control. The distance between the lines of contact or distance from the face to the line of contact carries information about the axial position of the center of curvature and radius of the gutter and can be used for setting the machine. However, the method does not contain tricks to measure the distance (ed. St. USSR N 540 is consequently, and precision machining work surfaces angular contact double row ball bearings due to the choice to be measured parameters and mathematical processing of measurement results.To achieve this result in a way of controlling the size of the working surface of the ring double row angular contact ball bearings, consisting in measuring the parameters characterizing the surface of contact of the balls with the raceways of the inner and outer rings of the bearing, measure the diameter of the chute d and the sum of the distances from the axis of the ring to form a trench P, which are measured along lines located under the contact angle of the bearing , calculate the deviation of the diameter Dd and the sum of the distances of P from the nominal values, determine the parameter f
f = P-dcos,
where f is the offset of the line of contact;
P the deviation of the sum of the distances from the axis of the ring before forming the trench;
d deviation of the diameter of the gutter;
the contact angle bearing
and compare it to the allowable values.The method allows to control when processing three sizes: the diameter of the gutter directly; the radius of the gutter directly and offset of the line of contact; the axial position of the gutter on the offset the Cove during the processing of the rings.In Fig. 1 shows the outer ring of the double row angular contact ball bearing; Fig. 2 left inner ring; Fig. 3 right inner ring; Fig. 4 the scheme of measurement of the outer ring; Fig. 5 - the inner ring of Fig. 6 dimensional circuit for calculating distances from the axis of the ring to the line of contact of the outer rings of Fig. 7 is the same, but the inner rings; Fig. 8 algorithm computing the deviation of the diameter of the gutter and shift the line of contact.For processing chutes double-row outer rings used for the simultaneous grinding of two grooves, so their dimension is small. In addition, for those bearing the most adverse operating mode is skewed when operating simultaneously at diametrically opposite points of the gutters.In Fig. 4 presents the measurement scheme that takes into account the specifics of the outer ring 1. The diameter of the grooves is measured using the measuring heads 2 (A and B), and the distance from the axis to the line of contact with the heads 3 (C and D). When the ring 1 is based on an end face on three pillars 4 and the outside diameter of the two bearings 5.The measurement scheme of the right and left inner rings 6 and 7 contains the measuring head 2 (A and B) and 3 (C and D), and the ring is based n the measurement of these distances (Fig. 6) are calculated according to formulas
< / BR>where D is the diameter of the gutter outer ring;
R is the radius of the gutter outer ring;
L is the distance between the centers of curvature of the forming grooves of the outer ring;
a contact angle.Similarly, for the inner ring 6 (Fig. 7)
< / BR>where d is the diameter of the troughs of the inner ring;
r is the radius of the troughs of the inner ring;
l is the distance from the base end to the center of curvature of the generatrix of the gutter.The dependence of the distance between a point of intersection of the axes of symmetry of the tangent to and forming a trench at the point of contact of the diameter, radius and axial position of the troughs of the outer ring:
PP1 l + g h,
< / BR>Similarly, for the inner ring (Fig. 7)
PP11.1r m n,
< / BR>Hence the computation algorithm, which allows to obtain the deviation of the diameter of the gutter and the offset to the line of contact does not depend on the variance of diameter and which is a function of the deviation of the axial position and radius of the gutter (Fig. 8). In accordance with the algorithm summed signals of the heads A and B, shall be deducted from the amount received its nominal value and thus get d deviation of the diameter of the gutter of the nominal value. At the same time summarize the signals of the heads C and D, you the CA to the gutter. Then they find works d the cosine of the contact angle. Then calculate the difference f = P-dcos/f (where f is the offset of the line of contact).The value of f = P-dcos is the result of the measurement ring on the device that is configured to "0" as the channel "d" (A, B), and the channel P (C + D) exemplary details of the same nominal dimensions.The parameter f does not depend on the variance of the diameter of the gutter, so when calculating tolerance sfsuppose d = 0.By definition, tolerancef(fmax-fmin).Obviously, when d = 0
thenf= Pmax-Pmin.Based on the above description of the formula
P = P1.1+P1.2= dcos-2r(1-cos)-2lsin
.< / BR>where r and l the accuracy of the process on the radius and axial position of the gutter achieved when using measuring devices that implement the inventive method. The way to control the size of the working surface of the ring double row angular contact ball bearings, consisting in measuring the parameters characterizing the surface of contact of the balls with the raceways of the inner and outer rings sarcophagii rings measure the diameter d of the trench and the sum of P distances from the axis of the ring to form a trench, which are measured along lines located under the contact angle of the bearing, calculate the deviation of the diameter Dd and the sum of the distances of P from the nominal values, calculate the parameter f according to the formula
f = P-dcos,
where f is the offset to the line of contact
and compare it to the allowable values.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes assembling bearings using races with random permissible deviations of sizes of outer race ΔD, inner race Δd, distance between ways in the outer race ΔH, distance between the race way and base face Δh in the inner race, which are measured at the sites of nominal contact angle β0, and measuring the axial clearance S and radial clearance P in the assembled bearing. The radial space is measured in each ball row in the section passing through the nominal position of the ball centers. The measurement are used for determining contact angle β. The value is compared with the permissible value.
EFFECT: prolonged service life.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; mounting axle boxes of wheel pairs of rolling stock.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of diameters of rear and front inner rings of left-hand and right-hand sides of wheel pair followed by selection of bearings in accordance with standard radial and axial clearances which were accumulated after outgoing check; then, bearings are mounted in axle box unit. Accumulation of bearings may be main and repeated; before repeated accumulation, spread of magnitudes of diameters of inscribed circle of bearings is determined experimentally and dimension groups are formed at definite pitch; during outgoing check, measured and stored magnitude of diameters of inscribed circle is compared with parameters of groups of main accumulation; this group is identified and signal is furnished for accumulation of bearings in accordance with this signal. After main accumulation, repeated accumulation of bearings from one or both sides of axle units is performed; bearings are transported from main accumulation position to repeated accumulation position and bearings are accumulated in strict adherence with dimension groups of main and repeated accumulation; selection of bearings is performed from repeated accumulation in accordance with definite algorithm.
EFFECT: extended technological capabilities; improved quality; increased productivity.
FIELD: railway transport; repair of axle-box units.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, repaired parts of axle-box units are delivered to position of wheelset to be repaired, with inner races of bearings installed on journals of axle. Numerical values of outer diameters of rear and front inner races are measured and stored. Using measuring, pair of bearings is identified with dimensional groups of repeat accumulation of bearing corresponding to dimensional groups of their main accumulation made after post-process gauging, and light checking of group is carrier after which they are fitted in axle-box unit. Prior to mounting of axle-box unit, range of spread of temperature values of bearing inner races is determined. Within the limits of said range, dependence of numerical values of outer diameter of inner races on their temperature is determined and stored. At post-process gauging and measuring of diameter of inner faces, temperature of each bearing and inner races are determined and store, and mean temperature of each of main accumulations of bearings is determined and stored. Prior to identification of pair of bearings in repeat accumulation, correction of numerical values of measured outer diameters of inner races according to said dependence is done, and numerical values of outer diameters of inner races for said mean temperature is determined and stored. Newly found values of outer diameters of inner races are used at identification of pair of bearings at repeat accumulation.
EFFECT: enlarged technological capabilities, improved quality and increased capacity at mounting of axle-box units of wheelset.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; manufacture of ball bearings.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of assembling of radial-thrust ball bearings with lock on one of races includes fitting balls into cage sockets, press-fitting race with lock on other race on which cage in assembly with set of balls has been preliminarily mounted. Prior to final assembly, inner race is cooled to temperature, determined by special formula, providing contraction of race by value not less than value of lock. Outer race is installed in mandrel. Cage in assembly with set of balls is placed in conical ring-lock which releases balls when bearing races are moved to each other in process of assembling, and balls are set in working position. When temperatures of bearing races become equal, bearing is removed from assembling position. To provide increased assembly clearance, outer race of bearing is heat to temperature required for functional expansion.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of assembling, reduced power consumption, prevention of damage to bearing parts.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engineering industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to repair and automated selection of pairs of bearings for pair of wheels of rolling stock depending on radial and axial clearances and preload on neck of axle. First, in the position (3) of the first level (1) of inspection, complete sets of bearings including outer race, rollers, retainer, and inner race pass the inspection at the plants (7), (8), where correspondence of bearings' geometric parameters to nominal values is determined as well as bearings' defects are detected. Then in the position (6) of outgoing inspection area (1), availability of bearings to be installed in axle equipment is determined, or they are forwarded to areas (2) to be repaired. Suitable bearings in position (6) are selected as to radial clearance and geometric parameters of inner race; code mark is made on bearings depending on what size group they belong to, and then they are forwarded to automated storage facilities (9) of rollers and races, where they are arranged in size groups. In repair area (2) consisting of lines (14), (15), (16), and (17) which are connected by transport means (10) of bearings and have common position of removal and station (18) of making up a set, there shall be repaired rollers, outer and inner races and retainers, and flaw inspection thereof is performed at plants (8), then they are washed and dried, and selected according to size groups. Information on the availability of size groups at automated storage facilities (9) of rollers and races enters, through units (11) processing the information, the control unit (12) which, being technologically connected with automated storage facilities (9) and station (21) of automated selection, gives out sets of bearings to be installed on a particular pair of wheels.
EFFECT: providing repair of complete set of bearings, which ends with automated selection of a pair of bearings used for a particular pair of wheels.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used, particularly at assemblage of reducers of driving axles of motor cars. Gripping of threaded connections of bearing mount assembly is implemented in two stages, at first of which it is used only loading process without putting of compensatory bush. At the second stage it is implemented phased gripping of nut of tail up to specified moment, practically excluding pulling tight of bearings. Periodically it is measured and compared current situations at each stage of gripping with frictional torque and, depending on received difference, it is additional turned nut of tail on definite angle. At first stage of device position for gripping it is located loading mechanism, implemented in the form of actuating cylinder, connected to pressure-bearing casing, interacting to inner ring of top bearing of drive pinion. Swinging mechanism, corresponding particular position, is implemented in the form of electric motor, connected to gear housing of back axle. Casing of electric motor is installed rotary and connected to strain gage transducer for measurement of frictional torque in duplex of bearings of bearings of drive pinion. At the second position it is located power unit, including spindle, which from one side is connected to break shaft of magnetic clutch, and from the other side - to driving pinion gear. Splined bush is implemented rotary relative to nutrunner head and is spring-loaded relative to driving pinion gear. At the second position gear housing is connected to corresponding strain gage transducer for measurement of frictional torque in duplex of bearings of driving pinion gear.
EFFECT: it is provided simplification of gripping of nut of tail of driving pinion gear, improving and accuracy increasing of screwdriving.
7 cl, 9 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: railway equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway equipment and can be used in repair of rolling stock wheel pair axle box assemblies. Proposed method consists in setting common check temperature Tch for all parts of axle box assemblies and bearing inner races, prior to repair, memorising said temperature. Experimental dependencies of roller diametres and lengths, inner and outer race ID, bearings inscribed circumference diametres and axle journal diametres are obtained in the range of said magnitudes scatter upon temperature for them to be memorised. Bearing parts sizes and wheel pair axle journal diametres are measured, as well as their temperatures, and memorised. Memorised experimental dependencies are used to correct measured sizes to be reduced to Tch. Obtained parametres are, again, memorised. Bearing parts are accumulated in accumulators subject to obtained corrected sizes. Aforesaid measured and reduced parametres are corrected prior to identification of ID of front and rear inner races of bearings in appropriate races accumulators. Selected bearings are picked up and fed onto mounting position, mounted into axle box assembly and fitted in place.
EFFECT: expanded performances and higher accuracy of measurements, higher quality of repair and mounting.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to machine building, particularly to process operations of completing items of rolling bearing type, ball screw gears etc. The procedure for completing components for assembly of items containing rolling elements consists in statistic analysis of component dimensions prior to and in the process of completing. Selection of complete sets of these components with rolling elements is performed on base of their actual dimensions. Systematic and random errors of components are revealed in the process of statistic analysis. Difference of dimensions of rolling bodies at competing is accepted within limits of summary systematic errors of components.
EFFECT: increased functionality of items.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for assembly of protective cover of "П"-shaped cross section on rolling bearing consists in installation of rings (1, 2) of L-shape cross section on sides of bearing (3) in butt-joint with overlap on its external surface and in interconnecting rings (1, 2) by welding in point of joint. Also before installation of one of rings (1) on internal cylinder surface there is made a circular groove opposite to the point of welding with ring (2). Further, ring (1) is installed on the bearing with tightness; heat insulating pad (4), for example out of thermally expanded graphite is positioned into the groove of the installed ring; ring (2) is tightly butt-jointed with ring (1) whereupon rings (1, 2) are welded along the joint.
EFFECT: reduced temperature of bearing material in zone of cover ring welding eliminates deterioration of material strength and increases reliability of bearing operation.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for producing a composite rolling bearing having a bearing flange. production of compounds of the rolling bearing with attachment flange of the bearing. At least one rolling bearing held on the bearing flange by means of an inner ring. In order to be able to fix the inner ring on the bearing flange with axial preloading without expansion, the inner ring is acted upon by a holding-down device, that radially holds down the inner ring and is preloaded against the inner ring by a regulated axial force. Advancing cone, introduced radially on the inside axially into the bearing flange, reserve material on the bearing flange radially outwardly into a recessed formation in the inner ring.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of adjustment of axial preload of inner ring.
10 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: measuring arrangements.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the X-axis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Z-axis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement of object shape.
SUBSTANCE: the device has two luminous radiating systems located relative to the measured surfaces of the object, each of them forms luminous lines at the preset sections of the object, a photoreceiver with an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input is connected to the output of the photoreceiver. The photoreceiver is made in the form of a matrix and is optically coupled to each luminous radiating system. In addition, the device has mirrors located relative to the measured surfaces of the object at an acute angle to its surface and is optically coupled to the photo-receiver through the objective lens, whose optical axis is positioned in the plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement, capacity and simplified construction of the device.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.
EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the article to be controlled on the movable traverse gear having two extent of freedom, illuminating the surface of the article by light, receiving the light reflected from the surface of the article with the use of a photodetector, moving the article parallel to the X-axis, determining coordinates of the light spots on the photodetectors of the current values of the heights of the article shape, locking the position of the table, scanning the main section of the article shape, comparing it with the reference one , and determining the quality of the article shape. The main section is scanned by moving the article parallel to the Y-axis, when the traverse gear is in a position determined from the formula proposed. The device comprises unmovable horizontal base, vertical cantilever secured to the base, unit for measuring the article shape mounted on the vertical cantilever, two carriages that define a traverse gear and provided with the individual drives controlled by a computer, and pickup of linear movements. The first carriage moves parallel to the X-axis, and the second carriage is mounted on the first one and moves parallel Y-axis.
EFFECT: improved quality of control.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring devices.
SUBSTANCE: device for controlling blade stylus profile contains immobile base, held on which is vertical overhanging support, rotary table, provided with rotation drive, angular movements sensor and blade holding device, range finder, consisting of a source of narrow light beam, integration multi-element photo-detector and objective, and personal computer. Device additionally contains a carriage, mounted on vertical overhanging support and provided with drive for movement along overhanging support along coordinate Z of coordinates system of device, connected to output of personal computer, and linear movement indicator, connected to input of personal computer, means for moving distance meter is made in form of two-part mechanism with movement plane, parallel to XOY plane of device coordinates system. Rotary table is mounted on immobile base and is made with possible rotation of blade being controlled around axis, parallel to axis Z of device coordinates system.
EFFECT: increased precision of measurements and increased trustworthiness of profile control results.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring the angles of inclination of the members of the surface of the sheet in each of the belt longitudinal sections of the strip selected by the measuring device. The angle defined by the lines of intersection of the plane tangent to the surface of the sheet at the point of measurements and plane tangent to the bearing members are measured. The flatness of the sheet is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.