Thermostatic device for greenhouses
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to the cultivation of plants, namely, devices for regulating the temperature of the greenhouse. The inventive thermostatic device for the greenhouse consists of a plastic tube 1, is fitted with two adjustable stops 5 and 6, which interacts with the protrusion 10 of the drum 9, the associated flexible thread through the blocks 17 and 18 with the load and ventilation elements of the greenhouse 14. The device provides a reduction in the inertia, i.e. reducing the time alignment temperature plastic tubing and air temperature in the greenhouse. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to agriculture, in particular for regulating the air temperature in the greenhouse.Known thermostatic device for a greenhouse containing a temperature sensitive element, the actuator and its associated actuator (SU, ed.St. N 1702941, class A 01 G 9/24, 1992, S. 3).The disadvantages of this device are the presence of inertia in operation, a limited travel of the Executive body for opening the venting transoms, opening the greenhouse at temperatures just above t the organizational characteristics of thermostatic device in terms of ensuring a more intense heating of the air in the greenhouse by ensuring full closure of the greenhouse in a predetermined temperature range, and more efficient air ventilation in the greenhouse due to the instant and full opening elements greenhouses and providing low inertia (time used to reach a working body of the actual ambient temperature in the greenhouse or the lag time of the temperature of the working fluid from air temperature).The aim is achieved in that the sensing element is made in the form of a tube of material with a large coefficient of linear expansion, at the free end of which is set stops can be moved along the length of the tube, the actuator is made in the form of a reel on it flexible filament and located on one of its ends with alternate engagement with the lugs of the ledge, and on the other lever, pivotally connected to the rod of the ventilation element door actuator made in the form of suspended through the blocks on the free end of the flexible strands of cargo, while the stop is located closer to the mounting tube, installed relative to the ledge with the overlap, equal to the amount of linear expansion of the tube at the maximum specified temperature, the other focus is located with a minimum clearance relative to the ledge, equal to the value stilny mechanism provided with an additional thrust, pivotally connected at one end with the lever of the drum and passing the other end through the guide sleeve pivotally connected with an additional lever, located on a fixed axis and pivotally connected with additional rod of the second ventilation element, for example, transoms, with thrust provided with adjustable length stops; system units are equipped with a variable geometry mechanism.In Fig. 1 shows a thermostatic device for opening (closing) the door of the greenhouse, General view; Fig. 2 is a view As in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 additional mechanism Executive body for opening (closing) additional ventilation element (transoms, window); Fig. 4 and 5 depict one and two block and tackles in the system of units for the transmission of motion from the load to the actuator.Thermostatic device for the greenhouse consists of a working body in the form of a tube 1 (length approximately 1.5 to 2 m), fixed at one end on the beam using a stationary container 3. The second open end of the tube 1 is connected to the plate 4, on which the lugs 5 and 6 of the regulation on the length of the plate 4 by 2 longitudinal grooves 7. The bracket 8 has a drum 9 which corresponds to (abuts) with supports 5 and 6 at each turn of the drum 9 180o(of Fig. 1 and 2 depict the moment of pirania ledge 10 in the stop 6).The front end face of the drum 9 is fixed to the lever 11, pivotally connected by hinge 12 with the rod 13, is made of strip or wire with a hook on the end.Rod 13 connects the actuator 12 with the door 14 of the greenhouse. The drum 9 is wound a flexible thread that connects the drum 9 with the load 16 through a system of blocks 17 and 18, mounted movably on the mounting brackets. Bracket upper block 18 mounted on the vertical post 19, the upper end of which is located at a height of approximately 2 to 3 m from the ground (depending on the selected number of cycles of automatic opening and closing of the greenhouse for one or more weeks).The length of the winding flexible strands 15 on the drum 9 should provide a progress cargo from the upper position and to the ground. To ensure the opening (closing) additional ventilation element 20 greenhouses lever 11 is connected by a hinge 12 simultaneously with the thrust of 21 passing the other end through the guide sleeve 22, pivotally connected with an additional lever 23 mounted on a stationary axis 24. The opposite end of the lever 23 pivotally connected with additional ventilation the project elements 20 greenhouses on the deadlift 21 is installed with adjustable along the length of the traction lugs 26. If the location of the ventilation element 20 on the cap lever 23 is in the form of a square with the axis of rotation near the top, and the bar 25 will be directed upwards (figures not shown).In order to reduce the height of the rack 19 with the same length winder flexible strands with drum (and, consequently, the same number of cycles of opening and closing of the greenhouse unit 18 is connected to the load 16 through a one-block sheave pulleys (Fig. 4), consisting of a block 27, earrings 28 and fastened to the bracket branches 29 flexible strands.In Fig. 5 depicts a 2 block sheave pulleys, which is advanced from the block 30, 31 and earrings mounted on the bracket additional branches 32 of the flexible strands. When the installation of the stop 6 is configured so that when the maximum temperature in the greenhouse, for example, 15oC the door 14 of the greenhouse was closed, the ledge 10 rests against the stop 6 and the amount of overlap X stop 6 bench 10 was equal to the value of thermal elongation of the tube 1 when the temperature in the greenhouse until the maximum desired temperature, for example, 30oC. emphasis 5 should be placed with a minimum clearance C relative to the ledge 10 (shown by the dotted line which corresponds to the rotation of the drum 180o). This SL is 10 the value of X, and stop 6 respectively will defend from a ledge 10 (when turning the drum 180o) on the minimum distance of C.The tube 1 is supplied through radial holes (figures not shown).Work thermostatic device for greenhouses as follows. First disconnect the rod 13 and the rod 21 of the lever 11 and move the ledge. First disconnect the rod 13 and the rod 21 of the lever 11 and move the bench 10 in the direction of the drum so that it will not extend beyond the diameter of the drum and not rested during the rotation of the drum in the lugs 5 and 6 (or removed from the zone of action of the ledge 10 of the plate 4 with the stop 5 and 6, the path of rotation around the axis of the connection pipe).Then rotate the lever 11 of the drum 9 as long as the cargo 16 will not take extreme upper position the rack 19. At the last moment arm 11 left in one of two positions:
in position when the door 14 must be closed, the lever 11 is located at a distant position from the door, and when the door 14 must be opened, at the middle position of the door 14.If the air temperature is low and not soon will increase the temperature in the greenhouse, the lever 11 left in the position shown in Fig. 1 and 2. Holding and 6 to its original position), and then connect the rod 13 and the rod 21 with the lever 11.If the greenhouse was closed in the initial position (Fig. 1 and 2), when the temperature of air inside the tube 1 will be heated and to lengthen due to linear expansion. Hollow design of the working body and having a through radial holes in the tube contributes to its rapid heating. The stop 5 is closer to the drum 9 and will take area, which crosses the ledge 10 during rotation of the drum. Stop 6 on the contrary, will come out from the zone of action of the ledge 10. When the tube 1 is lengthened by the amount X of the overlap of the ledge 10 of the stop 6, the drum 9, under the action of the tensioned load of 16 threads, turn 180o. At this point, the ledge 10 will rest against the stop 5. The load 16 will fall by an amount equal to the length of the winder yarn from the drum by turning it half a turn. In the case of single sheave pulleys (Fig. 4) the load 16 will descend to the value of 2 times smaller than without the polyspast. When 2 block sheave pulleys (Fig. 5) the movement of the load 16 is 4 times smaller and accordingly the number of cycles of operation of the system at the same height as the rack 19 will be 4 times more (when the single sheave pulleys 2 times more).During rotation of the drum 9, the lever 11 will take extreme bggau ventilation element (the transom), when the lever 11 rod 21 moves to the door and at the stop 26 will move the guide sleeve 22, which in turn will rotate the lever 23 in a counterclockwise direction. Under the action of the lever 23, the rod 25 will open the ventilation element 20.If the lever 23 in the form of a square rod 25 will open the ventilation element located on the roof of the greenhouse.In the specified position of the tube 1 and the drum 9 is now the focus will be relative to the ledge with 10 ceiling on the value of X, and the stop 6 is relatively ledge 10 (if you rotate conventionally, the drum 9 180oagain) with the smallest gap C. At lower temperatures in the greenhouse tube 1 is shortened, and at some point stop 5 moves relative to the ledge 10 on the amount of overlap X and release the drum 9. At this time, the stop 6 pridvinutsya to the drum 9 and when he flips 180othat will stop it by pirania the stupas 10. The load 16 will again fall down to such a value as described above, the lever 11 will take further extreme position of the door 14. When the rod 13 will be moved into the greenhouse and will close the door of the greenhouse.Rod 21 in this case will move to the left and rotate the lever 23 is already on areeda in series with another lowering of the load 16 as long while the load 16 will not touch the ground. At this moment disappears the tension of the thread and you want to raise the load to its extreme upper position.Linear expansion (contraction) of the tube 1 in a predetermined temperature range by the value of X is determined by the formula X = pLt where p is the specific coefficient of linear expansion, L is the length of the tube, t is the specified temperature range, which should cause the operation of the device when L 2000 mm, t 10oC and p 3010-5(for a tube of high-strength polyethylene) X 3010-52000106 mmProcess control depending on the weather can be performed through the opening (closing) of one door, or only transoms, or simultaneously doors and transoms. Full and instant opening of the ventilation elements greenhouses provides rapid ventilation of the greenhouse, creates favorable conditions for plant pollination, and full and immediate closure of the greenhouse and keeping it in a closed position promotes intensive heating of the air in the greenhouse and the preservation of the body when outside is cold air and any opening of the greenhouse, even partial undesirable.Thermostatic device for greenhouses designed for avtomaticheski will be equal to x 80 250 mm. When the maximum height of the cargo from the earth only 3 m, single-sheave pulleys, the number of cycles (open + close) will be 2(3000:250)=24, and when the double sheave pulleys will be 48.You want in one day time to close and one to open the greenhouse, i.e. one cycle. During the week turns out to 7 cycles.If 24:7=3.3V, it turns out that thermostatic device will operate in this mode and the single sheave pulleys over three weeks.Assuming adverse volatile weather conditions during the day, when it takes three times to open and three times to close the greenhouse, while the single variable geometry mechanism and the number of cycles within 3 days, the expiration thermostatic device will be 24:3=8, i.e. more than a week. Greenhouse unattended usually remains within 5 to 6 working Nam, it remains a significant safety device when the height of the cargo 3 mThermostatic device enables instant opening and closing of the greenhouse only when reaching a certain critical temperatures, low and high, which contributes to the conservation of heat in cold weather and rapid ventilation to achieve high temperatures. 1. Thermostatic device DL, the which is connected by a rod with a ventilation element, wherein the sensing element is made in the form of a tube of material with a large coefficient of linear expansion, at the free end of which is set stops can be moved along the length of the tube, the actuator is made in the form of a reel on it flexible filament and located on one of its ends with alternate engagement with the lugs of the ledge, and on the other lever, pivotally connected to the rod of the ventilation element door actuator made in the form of suspended through the blocks on the free end of the flexible strands of cargo, with emphasis, located closer to the mounting tube has a relatively ledge overlapping, equal to the amount of linear expansion of the tube at the maximum specified temperature, the other focus is located with a minimum clearance relative to the ledge, equal to the amount of narrowing of the tube at the minimum specified temperature.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the tube is made of radial through holes.3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the actuator is provided with an additional thrust, saryrn the ing articulated with an additional lever, located on a fixed axis and pivotally connected with additional rod of the second ventilation element, for example, transoms, with thrust provided with adjustable length stops.4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the block system is equipped with a variable geometry mechanism.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of flowers, vegetables, decorative and tropical plants under home conditions.
SUBSTANCE: compact chamber is composed of at least two parts, that is, bath, extension rings-inserts, hood, and pan. Pan is placed into bath, ground is spilled, sown, watered and covered with hood. Said parts are secured to one another by adhesive tape. Compact chamber may have cylindrical or square volume of enclosure vessel subdivided into at least three main parts: lower part with bath for receiving of soil or other nutritive mixture, extension rings-inserts, and upper part with hood for creating closed space, wherein permanent humidity is maintained for creating advantageous conditions for plant growing. In case space is to be increased in vertical direction, ring-insert is positioned between bath and hood. For plant illumination, in case natural illumination is insufficient, lighting device is inserted into hood throat and switched to regulated pulse-duration power unit controlled from automatic program relay, which is turned-on and turned-off in accordance with set season, solar cycle, established at starting time by means of switches. Heating, air and moisture modes are regulated by means of vent windows defined by notches-depressions formed on vessel surface. Vent windows may be removed when necessary. Vent windows may be closed and opened by means of small windows set for predetermined threshold temperature values and automatically controlled by bimetal effect, and in case of necessity, heating system is switched on.
EFFECT: simplified and convenient maintenance, improved development of plants and reliable scientific results, when used in laboratory conditions.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of agricultural crops with the use of multiple-flow apparatuses arranged at different levels for exposing plants growing in containers to light.
SUBSTANCE: lighting apparatus is composed of individual modules, each including light channel, comprising guides, and mini-hotbeds movable along guides. Mini-hotbeds are mounted on wheels of different diameter for moving by gravity so as to provide their horizontal position by placing them onto inclined guides. Each mini-hotbed may be used as independent module, is furnished with light-transparent hood which simultaneously serves as water accumulator and spreader. Lighting apparatus may be mounted in special industrial, household, supplementary and other rooms provided that stabilized temperature of 15-20° is maintained and phyto-sanitary requirements are fulfilled. Apparatus of such construction is characterized in that rigid coupling between mini-hotbeds is avoided and in that gravity is used for movement of mini-hotbeds along inclined guides in light channel. Apparatus of such construction provides year-round growing of pre-basic sanitated seed potato, seedlings of potato and other vegetables and flowers, as well as products of said crops, tree, fungi, algae seedlings and other biological objects under regulated artificial conditions while eliminating conditions for contacting of seedlings with pathogens.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and reduced consumption of power.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; growing plants at lesser consumption of electrical and thermal energy due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed greenhouse complex includes base, transparent heat-insulating dome-shaped coat with round transparent heat-insulation aperture in center. Coat is secured on load-bearing supports mounted vertically on base; it is manufactured from roofing blocks made from light-tight material at low heat conductivity and provided with through holes in form of truncated cones or pyramids coated from the inside with beam-reflecting material with their vertices directed inside or outside the coat. Holes are closed with inserts from the outside and inside which are made from thin transparent material; surfaces of said blocks directed inside coat and not occupied by through holes and technological holes are coated with beam-reflecting material. Areas with plants being cultivated, main and auxiliary technological equipment and plant life support systems are located inside coat and helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir consists of two vessels: one of them is filled with water and is mounted on base in center of coat and other is mounted coaxially inside first one and is insulated at sides and from beneath with low-conductivity material. Second vessel is closed at the top by its own transparent heat-insulating coat and is filled with common salt, for example. Two light reflectors which are cooled with water are made in form of truncated cones or truncated polyhedral pyramids. First of them with outer side light-reflecting surface is mounted with vertex downward above coat, coaxially with it. Second reflector is hollow; it is provided with light-reflecting surfaces; it is mounted coaxially relative to first reflector with vertex upward inside coat above helio-absorbing heat-insulating reservoir. Flat beam-reflecting panels located on area adjoining the coat concentrically relative to it are arranged in two rows. Each said panel is mounted on output link of its two-coordinated swivel mechanism provided with controllable drive. Base of drive is secured on bearing strut vertically mounted on ground surface. Provision is made for additional energy channel together with two said light reflectors which is made in form of flux of sun beams reflected by beam-reflecting panels of helio-absorbing heat-accumulating reservoir concentrated and directed downward. If necessary, it may be spread over entire surface. Controllable drives of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms are connected by their inputs to output of automatic control unit realized at base of computer center. Electrical inputs of center are connected with sensors of media contained in helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir and in space under coat, as well as with wind velocity and direction sensors and with coordinate position sensors of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements at intensified growth of plants due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
13 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protective complexes for plants, including greenhouses and hothouses equipped with electrotechnical and other equipment for care of plants and heat-loving bushes grown under home conditions or small-scale commercial plant growing conditions.
SUBSTANCE: protective complex has foundation pit with supporting carcass onto which transparent protective casing is put. Plastic walls of foundation pit are slightly extending beyond base of supporting carcass and are secured by means of drop screen. Foundation pit bed has ground provided with thermal layer and soil heating members. Foundation pit bed is connected through pipe to suspended closed reservoir hung under complex roof to define, in conjunction with foundation pit construction filled with ground and top layer of fertile soil, single reservoir with water influx-discharge regulated by means of electronic valves provided on branches as well as on pipe. Water is pumped through lower branch by means of water pump into suspension reservoir, and other branch equipped with electronic valve defines closed semicircle on pipe. Such construction provides water discharge by avoiding first branch from suspended reservoir into pipe equipped with corrugated insert provided at its lower end. Level of discharged water is controlled through bushing equipped with float having water level measuring ruler. Supporting carcass incorporates thermal sensors, humidity sensors, illumination sensors, air heating members, and illumination lamps. Valves are opened and closed by means of electronic device. All parts of protective complex are totally controlled by electronic instrument for maintaining optimal microclimate mode. On the basis of electronic instruments and with the use of communicating vessels principle, protective complex may be created, wherein, apart from setting optimal water level in ground soil and irrigation time, optimal heating and illumination mode may be maintained to thereby regulate plant development. Protective complex allows vegetable and other crops, as well as wild and exotic plants to be grown.
EFFECT: increased yield of vegetables and other crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, complex agricultural productions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves process and objects arranged in predetermined manner, and place planned according to relief, with geographic and other necessary factors being taken into consideration so that directions of natural air flows are corrected. Agricultural production includes complex greenhouses, heat accumulator, basin, garden, and wind shield. Air flow directed into garden is saturated with water vapors in gaseous state if increase in temperature is desirable when it is close to minimal admissible value, and in small droplet state when lower temperature is desirable. Processor functions as central controller. Objects of branches in agricultural production are selected so that objects of previous branches make raw material for objects of subsequent branches. Furthermore, joint mutually useful development of these objects at suitable conditions is possible. These conditions are created in complex greenhouse units intermediate with regard to said branches. General-purpose containers with raw material are conveyed through said complex greenhouse units. This results in multiple sequential-parallel utilization of raw materials in number of branches of industry. Method stipulates employment of useful relations between populations of organisms - objects of agricultural branches of industry: symbiosis and, according to kind of symbiosis, natural selection.
EFFECT: increased resource saving, reduced production costs of agricultural product and improved ecology of environment.
5 cl, 2 dwg