Device for preparation of samples of ice in the ice well
(57) Abstract:Usage: in letterlike and Hydrometeorology for making ice samples when tested for durability in field and laboratory conditions. The device includes a support part 6, on which are fixed wind cooler in the form of an inverted hollow truncated pyramid to four bars, curved rods, one of which is the guide and secured to the edges of the truncated pyramid, and the other with a thread - supporting bars with brackets to lift the ring with a sample of ice from the hole. To the oblique side of the outer surface of the ring is fixed complex double layer polymer film, the curve of which is water, and the free ends on the air. In the ring groove posted by the regulator, which controls the thickness of numerazione layer of ice. The regulator is made in the form of a V-shaped transparent tube, in a short part of the flood water, and in the long - freezing liquid, such as kerosene, on the surface of which is placed a float with the electrical contact and wire. Cover closing a long tube equipped with a screw with an electric contact and the wire, the wire is fed to a detector, for example, sound. 2 C.p. f-lelevich and laboratory conditions. The invention can be used in letterlike and Hydrometeorology.Analog is an invention by the author. mon.N 1310680, CL G 01 N 3/10, 1987. The device consists of a cylindrical metal vessel, separated by a wall with a round hole on the two vessels. In the lower container pour the water, and the upper is for receiving pieces of ice. In the wall with a round hole must sample the ice and destroy it, creating fluid pressure in the vessel. Disadvantages similar to the following:
the frosting sample of ice in a round hole capacitance of the device is carried out at ambient temperature and acceleration numerazione by cooling is not provided;
the sample thickness of the ice is determined approximately by the formula;
wall with a round hole fixed, so the sample of ice have only capacity;
The prototype of the present invention is the device according to ed.mon. N 1464016, CL Al, F 25 C 1/02, G 01 N 3/02, 1989. This device is intended for preparation of samples of ice in the well of the ice cover and test them for strength.It is provided with a supporting part with a hole in the center to enter, for example, of a rod with a stamp in the test samples, and the holes of the two vertical tubes that deliver outdoor air to the tubular ring and tap it. Acceleration numerazione by cooling water in the rings for education sample ice occurs on the inner perimeter of the ring. This water cooling system in the ring prevents uniform freezing ice, as around the ice ring will nemorarius faster than in the center.The disadvantage of this device is that it has no means of lifting rings with samples for testing them in laboratory conditions.In addition, the device has no regulator thickness of the ice layer, and this value has a random character.The aim of the invention is to accelerate numerazione ice ring in the hole of the ice cover. This goal is achieved by the fact that the device is equipped with a windshield cooler in the form attached to the supporting part of the inverted hollow truncated pyramid, the bottom slice is drawn to the surface of the ice, while supporting part is made staple for lifting ring with a sample of ice from the hole.In addition to the oblique side of the outer surface of the ring is fixed folded in half layer of a polymeric film, the curve of which is water, and the free ends in the air.In addition, the outer side of the hour is a short part of which is filled with water, as long nonfreezing liquid on the surface of which is placed a float with the electrical contact and wire, and the top tube is closed by a metal lid with wire and hole for air, equipped with a metal screw having in the lower part of the contact, and the wires from the lid and from the float connected to the detector.Wind cooler with metal rails fixed along the perimeter of the outer surface of the inverted hollow truncated pyramid, promotes numerazione sample of ice in the well of the ice cover. To facilitate lifting of the ring with a sample of ice from the well of the ice cover and subsequent testing of the sample in the laboratory, the beveled side surface of the ring is supplied folded in half polymer film so that the cavity between the layers of film is not exposed to water. Control sample thickness of ice placed in the ring groove, install the correct thickness numerazione layer of ice.In Fig. 1 shows a wind cooler sample of ice in the ring, the cross section a-a in Fig. 2; Fig.2 is a top view B-b B section b-b of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 incision regulator thickness of the ice layer.Device for photoradical 2 (Fig. 1 and 2), in the form of an inverted hollow truncated pyramid, to the bars 3 four curved rods 4 one of which is the guides 5 and secured to the edges of the truncated pyramid, and the other 6 are threaded on to the end bars 3 of the supporting part 1, with the bracket 7. On the faces of the truncated pyramid four fixed guide rod 8. Across the bars 3 are freely placed two metal plates 9 by bolts 10, the ends of which are fixed ring 11 with a sample of the ice 12. The ring 11 has a beveled outer side surface 13, to which is fixed a folded twice polymer film 14 and the groove 15 to accommodate the controller 16 (Fig. 3) the sample thickness of the ice 12, made of V-shaped curved transparent tube, in short portion 17 which poured water, and in the long part 18 non-freezing liquid, such as kerosene. On the surface placed the float 19 with the electrical contact 20 and the wire 21. The top of the long tube 18 is closed by a metal cover 22 with an opening for air (Fig. 3 not shown). The cover 22 has a metal screw 23 with the electrical contact 24 and wire 25. Wires 21 and 25 is fed to a detector 26, for example, sound. Long section 18 of the controller 16 has a scale 27 to install the screw 23, the cover 22, to require the ü is as follows.In ice drill hole on the surface of the water in the well is lowered floating (e.g., wood) ring 11, with the side folded twice polymer film 14. In the groove 15 put the controller 16, the wires 21 and 25 is fixed on the surface of the ice so that the ring 11 were on the water in the middle of the well. On top of the well to the surface of the ice sheet stack supporting part 1 windshield cooler 2, changes the direction of the wind at an angle, along the guide rods 5 and 8, the ring 11.The cooling effect will depend on the wind speed over the ice cover and the magnitude of the negative air temperatures. For example, if the wind speed is equal to 11.0 m/s, and the temperature on thermometer (-6,7o(C) cooling (equivalent) temperature wind will be equal to (-26,1oC) due to this sample of ice 12, for example, a thickness of 1.0 cm, will be numorous in the ring 11 for 0.5 hour, instead of 2.0 hours at a temperature of (-6,7oC<) without wind. (See Valleys P. A. Handbook on safety. M Energoizdat, 1980. table. 354, c. 765).Time numerazione sample ice ring prorated according to the formula
where h is the ice thickness, cm; t temperature,oC (see Ana is the value of the thickness numerazione sample of ice in the ring.After the formation of ice in the ring 11 attached to it bolts 10, so that the plate 9 is freely laid on the beams 3 of the basic part 1. Upon actuation of the signalling device 26 of the supporting portion 1 of the bracket 7 is lifted by the ring 11 and the sample of ice 12. The expanded polymer film 14 is formed, releasing the ring 11. Sample of ice in the ring are testing in laboratory conditions. If necessary, the sample of ice can be tested on the spot, i.e. in the well of the ice cover without lifting it with the ring. 1. Device for preparation of samples of ice in the well of the ice cover, containing the supporting part and the ring, wherein the device is equipped with a windshield cooler in the form attached to the supporting part of the inverted hollow truncated pyramid, the bottom slice is drawn to the surface of the ice, while supporting part is made staple for lifting ring with a sample of ice from the hole.2. The device according to p. 1, wherein the oblique side of the outer surface of the ring is fixed folded in half layer of a polymeric film, the curve of which is water, and the free ends in the air.3. The device according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the outer side of the ring made the ora filled with water, as long nonfreezing liquid on the surface of which is placed a float with the electrical contact and wire, and the top tube is closed by a metal lid with wire and holes for air, equipped with a metal screw having in the lower part of the contact, and the wires from the lid and from the float connected to the detector.
FIELD: agriculture and different industries; irrigation farming.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of agriculture, in particular, to an irrigation farming at construction of the irrigation and drainage systems with a closed cycle of a water rotation and also to the industrial and agricultural water supply facilities. The installation includes a water feeding duct with a sensor of mineralization of the water, a water separator and water outlets; an accumulator of the mineralized water with two sections, an accumulator of a desalinated water, an evaporator, pumping stations, feeding water pressure pipelines; an ice site with a counter-filtering screen, protective dikes, a cutoff drain and water outlets; apparatuses for a winter sprinkling to freeze on an ice block; a channel-collector of the saline solutions and the desalinated water; a gravity flow self-contained collector with water-intakes from the channel-collector;, a command and measuring complex (CMC) for control over the process of a water desalination in the collector; a power plant, a device for a heating of the air and a compressor to feed the heated air in the collector. Located sequentially around the ice-site accumulators of the mineralized and a desalinated water, an evaporator - are separated from the channel - collector by a ring-shaped dike and separated by bridges and their outer boundaries form a closed contour having a lineout of the territory within the limits of the landscape intended for creation of the installation. The depth of the evaporator is determined according to a mathematical dependence. The installation shall ensure desalination of the mineralized water by freezing with use of the natural climatic factors in conditions of a flat topography of the location at a high coefficient of land utilization within the limits of the area occupied by the installation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures desalination of the mineralized water by freezing with use of the natural climatic factors.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises freezing ice on concrete plate and allowing the ice to stand at a given temperature along a specified time interval.
EFFECT: enhanced rigidity and lowered friction coefficient of the ice.
FIELD: manufacturing ice.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises freezing the first layer of ice by condensing moisture from the ambient air on the plate of the base with a temperature from -6°C to -11°C provided by circulating a coolant at a temperature from -9°C to -14°C, freezing the second layer and each next layers of ice by supplying cleaned water after the freezing of the previous layer due to circulating coolant in the plate of the base at a temperature from -9°C to -14°C, removing stress by means of slowed down heating of the surface layers of ice up to the temperature of the surface layers ranging from -0.5 to 0.2°C by means of circulation coolant with a temperature from -2°C to -4°C, and planing ice down to a depth of no more than 0.35 mm with adding water at a temperature of 40°-75° C.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of ice.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: refrigerator includes refrigerating chamber, which is arranged accordingly in top part of refrigerator body, and freezing chamber, which is arranged accordingly in bottom part of refrigerator body, contains ice-generating chamber, which is separated in refrigerating chamber by means of isolating partitions and contains ice generator for generation of ice and ice storage for storage of ice produced in ice generator, one or several heat-exchanges that serve as composite parts of heat exchanging cycle for creation of cold air and regulation of temperatures in refrigerating and freezing chambers, and give-out device that communicates with ice storage and is installed on the door. Application of this invention provides minimum losses of cold air in case of door opening, simplification of give-out device for water supply.
EFFECT: provision of minimum losses of cold air in case of door opening, simplification of give-out device for water supply.
32 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: plant for layerwise freezing and using of natural ice while cooling milk comprises a thermally insulated reservoir, a level sensor, a control unit, a water pump and a motorized valve installed in the pipe connecting the water supply system with the thermally insulated reservoir, inside which there are two pairs of vertically spaced electrodes which are connected to the electronic comparison unit, and the lower part of the recessed-type ice storage is provided with the restrictive lattice not allowing to completely fill the entire volume of the ice storage with ice, the upper part has a neck with the self-regulating heating tape fixed thereon for sealing off ice layers from the neck walls, and for submerging the sealed-off ice layers there is a hydraulic distributor with a hydraulic cylinder mounted on a curved support; for fixing the submerged ice formations, there are four channel racks with plate clamps fixed thereon. The formation of water doses for layerwise freezing is carried out by means of the siphon tank-dispenser, the operating frequency of which is regulated by the consumption valve and the siphon length.
EFFECT: increasing the cooling efficiency.
FIELD: building, particularly devices for determining physical and technical ground characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: device has lever loading system and lifting means. Lifting means includes crank drive connected to electric motor through reducer and electromagnet, which is intermediate unit between crank drive and bar. Power is supplied to electromagnet by AC network through voltage stabilizer, toggle switch, reducing transformer and rectifier.
EFFECT: possibility to automatic maintain rated pressure applied to ground along with retention of load application frequency, possibility to create different boundary sample loading conditions.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises bed, electric motor, wedge-belt transmission, worm reduction gear-counter, system of levers and clamps, and eccentric mechanism made of two eccentrics fit on the shaft in series and arranged at 180° one with respect to the other. The bearing are press-fitted in the eccentrics. The eccentric and bearing are set in the cassette which is provided with the pushers. The pushers act on the levers that rotate about the axes arranged on the beam and affect the clamps for securing specimen thus bending it.
EFFECT: simplified structure.
FIELD: TEST EQUIPMENT.
SUBSTANCE: DEVICE CAN BE USED IN STANDARD TSET MACHINES INTENDED FOR RECORDING DIAGRAMS OF DEFORMATION TO DETERMINE CRITICAL FORCE. Device has support part for resting ends of sample against it during test. Device is provided with cylindrical case with motionless support being aligned with case; support is disposed at lower part of case. It also has cylindrical piston, aligned with case and being movable at vertical direction for loading sample. Cylindrical piston has deepening along central axis of cylinder for spherical hinge. Case is also provided with removable cylindrical insertions of two types used for fixing sample in device. First-type insertion is made in form of cylinder with opening along its central axis; opening corresponds to cross-lateral; section of sample. Second-type insertion is made cylindrical as well; it has recesses along central axis at both sides for spherical hinges.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of critical force at lacks in stability.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to machines for mechanical testing of materials on pressure and bending particularly to presses.
SUBSTANCE: the thermic press has a foundation, pillars. Immobile and mobile cross-arms, an upper plate connected with the mobile cross-arm, and an immobile plate, a loading arrangement. At that the loading arrangement is fulfilled in the shape of two thermosetting elements with built-in heating elements. Besides the thermosetting elements are connected between themselves with the aid of a lever.
EFFECT: improves mechanical testing of materials.
FIELD: physics, measuring.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the control and measuring technics, in particular, a plane wing, and can be used for the control of structural behavior by gauging of vibrations of the cantilever of a wing immediately in flight. The device includes three accelerometres, the circuit changer of analogue signals for connection of accelerometres to analogue-digitizer, analogue-digitizer, three parallel registers, two adders, two storage devices, a control mean and the counter of updating of the address. Accelerometres are erected on the right, left cantilevers of a wing and at centre of masses of a flying machine for parametric evaluation of wing stiffnesses on an arcuation in the course of flight operation. Signals from accelerometres arrive on the device for record. On the earth there is an evaluation and an estimate of frequencies natural momental oscillations of the left and right wing. Effects of an estimate collect on set in group of service of resorts of the objective control for a statistical estimate of decrease in rigidity of a wing on an arcuation while in service.
EFFECT: structural behavior control possibility by gauging of vibrations of the cantilever of a wing immediately in flight and in reliability increase of the control.
FIELD: physics, tests.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to test equipment, intended for modeling of physical processes in loaded array of rocks in laboratory conditions. Bench for physical modeling of geomechanical processes comprises body for installation of tested sample, at least one stamp installed in body for interaction with sample, hydraulic cylinders according to number of stamps, connected to them, every of which comprises piston and under-piston cavity, and drives of hydraulic cylinders displacement, is equipped with additional hydraulic cylinders with piston, under-piston cavity of which is hydraulically connected to under-piston cavity of at least one hydraulic cylinder, and at least one loading mechanism, which is kinematically connected to piston of additional hydraulic cylinder.
EFFECT: higher validity of produced research results, and also expansion of device functional resources due to provision of possibility to test the samples under action of complex and independent loads with controlled variation parametres at smoothly and independently changing levels of rock samples loading.
11 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: rotor of the machine designed to convert flow kinetic energy into mechanical power has, when opened, control zone visible from outside and invisible zone of observation in its inside. Said control zone features, in machine operation, a relatively non-critical strain, while zone of observation displays origination of relatively critical strains. Critical zone features a weakened section of preset breakage point representing a notch. Note here that, to limit weakened section, there is a recess, for example a discharge hole, whereat terminates aforesaid non-critical defect. Another invention of proposed set, relates to machine intended for converting flow kinetic energy into mechanical power and comprising abode described rotor. One more invention of proposed set relates to the method of detecting machine opened rotor state comprising analysing rotor critical zone to reveal non-critical defect in the form of fracture. Given said defect, rotor state is taken to be "requiring a check" if said fracture features length exceeding tolerances.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of service life, reduced costs of rotor maintenance.
12 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: stand for simulating stress-strain state of soil in plane stress state has a chamber for the soil model, dies along the inner wall of the chamber, die actuators and apparatus for imitating cavities. The apparatus for imitating cavities is in form of a set of segments with locks for joining to each other with formation of spirals in accordance with parametres of projections of the simulated object. The chamber is three-dimensional and the dies are on the lateral walls of the chamber. Elastic characteristics of the segments correspond to elastic characteristics of the soil.
EFFECT: increased amount of information due to analysis of the behaviour of soil in plane stress state with stepped spiral processing of the three-dimensional model.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed method is distinguished by summation of formed delay time-varying current pulses from sensors mounted on the broken pipe in ascending order of their numbers and outputting the resultant signal in form of a diagram on an interface. "Breakdown" steps on the diagram indicate disconnection of a sensor when a crack front passes under it. The system for realising the said method includes the following: a dc voltage source, a voltage modulator, a generator, a circuit for protecting the line from overvoltage, a disruption sensor board, a disruption sensor, a current sensor, a receiver for pulses from the sensors, an information display device, an interface for connection with a data collection processor and a symmetrical two-wire line. The disruption sensor board has a power stabiliser, a current pulse former and a current switch.
EFFECT: simple method of measuring breakdown parametres of a main gas pipeline, faster operation and easier servicing.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: rod of known area of cross section is immersed into tested gel-like product at specified depth. Obtained values of general weight of loads and rod and area of cross section of the rod or used head are used for calculation of strength of an analysed gel-like product. Liquid phase of the analysed gel-like product separated due to forced syneresis during tests is removed from a zone of indenter contact with surface of the product. As an indenter there are used special heads of various areas in form of flat disks with ratio of thickness to diametre 1:10. A grid of mutually perpendicular grooves is cut on surface of the heads from the side of contact with the tested sample. The grooves have triangle cross section of 0.2 mm depth and grid pitch 0.1 of head diametre. The design of the heads facilitates uniform distribution of loading force along area of the indenter, reduction of hydrostatic pressure of liquid phase and tangential plastic deformation of the gel-like product causing premature fracture of tested samples.
EFFECT: measurement of weak gel-like products, maximal accurate measurement of both weak and super strong gel-like products, measurement of both non-elastic and elastic gels and uniform distribution of stresses along area of their contact with tested sample.
5 cl, 2 dwg