Power unit with a wave of the thermodynamic cycle
(57) Abstract:Usage: in engine. The inventive heat input to steam is carried out in a steam boiler and high temperature superheater, then the steam is heated and enters the rotor, which produce the bulk of the pair with the parameters required to convert the blades of the rotor. The main part of the steam condenses in the cold part of the rotor due to heat dissipation through the finned surface. Allotted heat is used for heating the feed water supplied to a steam boiler. The remaining portion of the steam is diverted to the condenser and is cooled by air, passively through the condenser fan. 7 Il. The present invention relates to the field of engine development, and can be used on vehicles, and also for mobile electric power stations.In the proposed power plant from an external heat source, the steam in the boiler and the superheater with very high settings. Modern heat-resistant materials allow you to get the steam temperature up to 1600oC. This steam is accelerated to the peripheral speed of the rotor and enters the internal cavity of the rotor and washes aetsa and mixed with steam. In the abrupt evaporation of the formed wave of steam, which moves towards the axis of rotation of the rotor. When the evaporation temperature drops sharply and in the channels, the pressure also drops. This is the next batch vapor and formed the next wave, which is catching up with the previous and gives part of its momentum. When moving educated waves to the axis they flatten and through the rotor blades out pairs of constant pressure. Next, the steam enters the low-temperature superheater, where it is heated by the cooler gases. After heating the steam accelerates back up to the peripheral speed of the rotor and enters the low-temperature part of the rotor, where it is partial condensation. The steam is compressed by centrifugal force and part of its energy goes into heating the formed water, and some heat is given by the fins, which has high conductivity and high mechanical strength. Molecules neskondensirovannyh pair move to the axis of rotation and give its energy to the rotor due to the Coriolis force. Part of the steam towards the axis of rotation is condensed into water and dropped to the periphery, and the remaining portion of the steam goes to the rotational axis and enters the condenser. The capacitor couples to the which is subtracted from the rotor and enters the boiler. Then the cycle repeats.The well-known Stirling engine, running from an external istocno heat and discharge the excess heat in the cooling system. (See kN. auth. G. Walker "Machine operating on the Stirling cycle" ed. Moscow, Energy, 1978, page 62, Fig. 6 8).The main disadvantage of the prototype is a small area of heat in the cylinder and the low temperature of the hot side of the cylinder, not exceeding 900oC. the Disadvantage is the complex kinematics and fragility of the sealing elements, as well as a small specific power of the engine.The purpose of the invention to simplify the construction, increase specific power installation, as well as its efficiencyThis goal is achieved by the fact that in a stationary superheater maximum possible steam temperature 1600oC and then with this steam is injected great energy in the rotor, through which evaporates the main mass of the pair. Due to the huge heat flow is wavy movement of the pair, thereby reducing the steam pressure in the steam boiler and to reduce the weight of the steam boiler and superheater. The bulk vapor is condensed under the influence of centrifugal forces in the rotor portion of the rotor, while he's doing mechanical work and is condensed in the condenser. Unused heat energy is discharged into the condenser in passively fan air and dissipated in the surrounding space. To increase the power density, the speed of the rotor is increased to the peripheral speed of 800 to 1000 m/sec due to the banding the outer part of the rotor thin heavy-duty plate-type metallic glass.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the power plant.In Fig. 2 shows the node And in section in an enlarged scale.In Fig. 3 shows a section b-B cold end of the rotor.In Fig. 4 depicts a cross-section In the hottest part of the rotor.In Fig. 5 shows the node g of the outer part of the rotor in an enlarged scale.In Fig. 6 depicts a cross section d-D and the supply of steam through the nozzle in the window of the rotor hottest part.In Fig. 7 shows the node E section, the host of the internal fins of the hot and cold parts of the rotor.Power unit with a wave of thermodynamic cycle consists of a fixed capacitor 1, which comprises cooling tubes of the condenser 2 and the cooling fins of the condenser 3. In the lower part of the capacitor set is tensator combines the supply of steam to the condenser 6. Water from the condenser is fed to a steam boiler water pump 7. For the condenser, a fan 8 and closes the fixed fan shroud 9. The fan is driven by a gear 10. With the pump installed heat exchanger 11, which is connected with the pump by the water supply pipe 12 and the pipe water drainage 13 she gets into a steam boiler. The steam supply pipe to the cooler 14 and the discharge of vapor from the cooler 15 is connected to the heat exchanger with the engine. The furnace 16 is located under the steam boiler 17 and over a steam boiler is a high-temperature superheater 18 and the duct 19. The supply pipe high-temperature steam into the engine 20 and the distribution pipe 21 combine high-temperature superheater with the engine. Low-temperature superheater 22 is located above the high temperature superheater. The inlet channel in the superheater 23 takes the steam out of the engine in the superheater, from which comes out the exhaust pipe 24. The engine is removed from the gear PTO 25. The steam supply pipe to the engine 26 applies steam to the engine 27. The engine consists of a fixed housing cold part 28 and a fixed housing hottest part 29, and between them there is teploizolirujushchej channel 32, which has supersonic allow the device 33 around the entire circumference of the stator. The inlet channels are sealed with the rotor labyrinth seal 34. The engine is mounted behind the legs 35. The retaining plate is pressed against the stopper bandage cold part of the rotor 36. Internal cold part of the rotor 38 is made by centrifugal casting and includes vanes 37 and open steam supply 39. At the exit of steam from the cold side of the rotor set of turbine blades 40. The outer body cold part of the rotor 41 has an inner surface 42 and outer fins 43. Rotor mounted on ball bearings 44. The fan is driven from the drive gear fan 45. The rotor is tightened the clamping shaft 46 and bolts 47. The retaining plate from the hot side of the rotor tightening the limiter 48. The inner hot part of the rotor 50 is made by centrifugal casting and includes vanes 49 and open steam supply 52. The output pair of the rotor set of turbine blades 51. Tube 53 connects the cold part of the rotor with hot. Between the cold and the hot part of the rotor is installed insulating spacer 54 and ultra thin insulating plate 55. The outer body of the hot side of the rotor 56 has an internal Arab the sponding plates installed stationary plate 59, impeding the flow of the cooling body. Leaked steam through labyrinth seal is sucked through the channel 60 and pipe 61 into the cavity capacitor with low pressure /pipe not shown/. The condensed water to the tubes is supplied through the channel 62, and the channel 63 is supplied water to the ribs in the hot part of the rotor. The hot part of the rotor bancaires heavy-duty plates 64. Cold part of the rotor bancaires heavy-duty plates 65, 66, 69 and heavy-duty plates 67 and 68 with a thermally conductive coating, such as copper plating. Plate 70 has a thermally conductive coating 68 on both sides. Plate 67, 69 and 70 welded by the laser welding seam 71. Formed heavy-duty frame is filled with thermally conductive filler 72, for example copper. The working fluid (water) in the hot and cold part of the rotor shown POS. 73.Power unit with a wave of thermodynamic cycle works as follows.From an external source of power through the gear PTO 25 spins the rotor of the motor 27. Water pump 7 pumps the water from the tank 4 in a steam boiler 17 and turns on the furnace 16, which can run on any fuel. The evaporated water in the boiler 17 enters a high-temperature, ply allow you to get the temperature of the vapor 1600oC. Superheated steam through the distribution pipe 20 and 21 is fed into the nozzle 31. To balance the rotor requires at least two nozzles located symmetrically around the circumference. In nozzles high-temperature steam is accelerated to a speed equal to the peripheral speed of the rotor of about 800 m/s and through the window 52 hits the inner edge 57 of the hot part of the rotor. After acceleration in the nozzle, the steam has a temperature of about 1200oand the edges have a water temperature of more than 300oC. In each segment of the rotor through the window 52 gets a certain amount of steam during the corresponding window through the zone of the nozzle 31. For the full rotation of the rotor in the segment between the shoulder blades 49 steam gets at least twice the number of nozzles located. As the window 52 is continuously pass through the area of the nozzle 31, the steam is supplied into the nozzle continuously. The trapped portion of the pair of ribs 57 is pressed by centrifugal force to the water surface 73. There is a huge heat flow from the steam with a temperature of 1200oC through the fins 57 and the water surface 73 in water with a temperature of about 300oC. Arises film boiling of water and the discharge of water from the channels of the ribs 57. Not evaporated water as the piston is ejected from the channels, gaining kinetic energy. Emissions is shivani with steam increases the amount of steam several times and the vapor molecules thus accelerated to enormous speeds, due to the huge pressure, so steam gets a huge boost to the axis of rotation of the rotor. With very rapid evaporation of the formed shock wave pair that Coriolis force is pressed against the shoulder 49 and releases its energy in the torque of the rotor. When water evaporates, the temperature of the vapor drops sharply with 1200oC to 450oC, and the pressure increases. The resulting shock wave starts by inertia to move toward the axis of rotation of the rotor and atraves from channels that begin to form the vacuum. The tubes 53 enters the water in the channel 63 and distributed in the cavities between the ribs 57. Incoming water from the cold side of the rotor is partially heated and cools ribs 57 to a temperature of about 340oC and approaches the critical point of evaporation, but to evaporate she can't, so how is pressed against the rotor huge centrifugal force. Through a 1/2 turn of the rotor in the resulting empty space through the window 52 gets a new piece of high-temperature steam and starts a new evaporation and new wave pair is moving towards the axis of the rotation.The previous wave of steam when driving on the shoulder 49 to the axis of rotation is gradually retarded and expands, a portion of the steam condenses and the resulting water C is on high speed runs on the previous and pushes her to the axis of rotation of the rotor. The waves rolled on one another and at the exit to the axis of rotation are constant pressure. Part of the kinetic energy in the movement of steam through the blade stands out in torque of the rotor, and the rest of the energy is converted into a constant steam pressure. When the steam escapes through the axis, he fires his remaining speed on the blades 51 and extends into the pipe 23 without twist. From here the steam enters the low-temperature superheater 22, where heated gases through the flue 19 and extending into the exhaust pipe 24. Heated steam through the pipe 26 enters the channel 32 and fires his teleperedach at supersonic nozzle apparatus 33. Low-temperature steam during acceleration to the peripheral speed of the rotor is partially condensed and through the Windows 39 hits in the cold part of the rotor. The condensed water centrifugal force is thrown to the periphery of the rotor, and the steam by centrifugal force pressed against the ribs 42 and due to the heat is condensed. Pairs with high energy, is extruded to the axis of rotation of the rotor in the area of high vacuum and releases its energy on the blades 37. As you move the pair to the axis of rotation, it loses its energy and partially liquefied, and then dropped back to the periphery of the rotor. the moment of passing of the relevant segment through the zone of the nozzle there is formed a huge pressure for a very short period of time and is clogging the water pipe. Then there is formed a discharge and water enters the hot side of the rotor. Neskondensirovannyh pairs moving blades 37 and fires his remaining teleperedach on the blades 40, enters the tube 6 and into the condenser 1.Water condenses in the tubes of the condenser 2 and is collected in the tank 4. Fan 8 probyval air through the cooling fins 3 and ejects it from the casing 9 into the atmosphere. The fan is driven by the gear 45 through the gear 10. Feed water from the tank 4 is pumped by pump 7 through the pipe 12 and into the heat exchanger 11, where it is heated by steam. Steam from the heat exchanger 11 is supplied through the pipe 14 into the channel 58 and the friction of the rotor accelerates when it is washed by the cooling fins of the rotor. Passing through the channel 58 pairs heats up and takes the interphase transition condensed water in the rotor. The hot steam through the pipe 15 gets back into the heat exchanger 11 and heats the feed water. Heated water flows through the pipe 13 and into the boiler 17. The cycle repeats.The outer fins of the rotor 43 is made of ultra thin wafers, which allow you to develop the circumferential velocity of the rotor 800 1000 m/s. Since the thickness of plates < 0.1 mm, most spotland allows you to gain a huge area of the fins, and heat-conducting filler allows you to skip the huge heat flow from the inner fins of the rotor to the outer. The use of high temperature steam allows the rotor to receive the conventional three times, which reduces steam boiler three times. Accordingly, the principal mass of steam condensed in the low-temperature part of the rotor, and the capacitor is drained 1/3 part of a couple, which also helps to reduce the capacitor three times. High-speed rotor in comparison with the turbine allows you to take remote power several times more than the existing steam turbine. All this will allow to create a compact and very powerful power unit, suitable for use on vehicles. Power unit with a wave of thermodynamic cycle, comprising a fixed housing, a rotor cavity expansion and cavity compression, the external heater and the external cooler, characterized in that the hot and cold parts of the rotor are open, the inner fins, blades, and heavy duty shroud plate, between the hot and cold part of the rotor insulating plate, which has a tube, tyre cold part of the rotor is made in visovan ribs and a stationary housing.
FIELD: power engineering; steam turbines.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at mounting of heavy-weight condensers of steam turbines connected with several exhaust ports of steam turbine low-pressure cylinders. Invention can be used also at servicing and subsequent adjusting of steam turbines especially, high-power ones. Invention improves reliability and increases economy of turbine in operation owing to decreasing excess loads on exhaust parts of low-pressure cylinders and support foundation plates of exhaust parts from side of condenser, decreasing friction forces along support surfaces of low-pressure cylinders, deformation of supports, formation of cracks and increasing vibration stability of turboset at different loads and modes of operation. According to proposed method of mounting of steam turbine condenser connected with several exhaust ports of low-pressure cylinders including assembling, preliminary truing, welding of connecting branch pipes and fixing in space by means of calibrated setting strips under springs. After operation of turboset under load, position of condenser in space is corrected to reduce load on support belt of low-pressure cylinders by disconnecting exhaust branch pipes of turbine and condenser, filling condenser with water of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes and subsequent connection of branch pipes of turbine and condenser. Disconnected condenser is filled with water whose mass corresponds to designed load ΔG taken from low-pressure cylinder which is determined by value of compression Δh of spring unit under each support of condenser, basing on its rigidity characteristic K. ΔG removed from low-pressure cylinder is =ΣΔh x K. Estimation of loads on support belt of low-pressure cylinders in process of complex tests is carried out by displacement pickups checking compression of spring under all supports of condenser, and grade pickups on built-in supports of low-pressure cylinders operating at continuous monitoring by means of processor-based devices.
EFFECT: improved reliability end economy of turbine.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of heating engineering namely to power installations.
SUBSTANCE: According to the first variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher, a collector switched to the drum. At that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body fulfilled with one removable wall, at that the axis of the drum is located horizontally, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft leaning with its ends on the bearings installed in the center of each wall of the body from the inner side along the horizontal axis, on the shaft there are firmly fastened in parallel with the axis the planes of blades and a cog-wheel, at that the blades are fulfilled in the shape of metallic plates between which there are mounted metallic partitions forming a ring capacity filled with air and symmetrical to the axis, the steam collector is located outside of the drum. According to the second variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher switched to the drum, a collector, at that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body, at that the axis of the drum is located vertically in the center of the bottom and bearings are installed from the inner side of the lid, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft whose ends lean on the bearings, on the shaft axis there firmly fastened under an angle to the axis the plates of the blades in the shape of a screw, around the shaft symmetrically to its axis there is a ring capacity filled with air. near the drum there is a hot water collector communicating with it through a launder in the upper part and through the collector in the low part. The working medium in the engine of boiling is water-steam mixture.
EFFECT: the invention allows use kinetic energy of boiling water for fulfillment of mechanical work.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of industry and ship power engineering, predominantly to transport and stationary steam-turbine plants. The design layout of turbine sets and exhausted steam condensing plant includes the main turbine, isolated generator turbines, transonic jet condensing plants of mixing type - condensate transonic jet pimps built in housings of devices for exhaust stem bleeding from turbine sets, and combined remote condensate collector.
EFFECT: invention makes possible, while keeping constant steam turbine power, to exclude conventional stem components of the main condenser with piping for turbine sets exhaust stem condensing from design layout, to lower weight of unit equipment, reduce its volume by (36÷50) % and to improve reliability of exhaust stem condensing system.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric energy generation system using ecologically clean energy-solar and external steam hybrid electric energy generation system. System comprises solar steam generator outlet end of which is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through first control valve (18), steam outlet end of external controller (15) of steam is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through second control valve (20) and second switching valve (19), outlet (4) of low pressure steam turbine unit (2) is connected to inlet end of condensation device (5), while its outlet end is connected to inlet end of deaerator (6), its outlet end is connected to inlet end of pump (7) for supply of water, its outlet end is connected to inlet end of return water of solar steam generator through first switching valve (16), and the outlet end of pump (7) is additionally connected with bypass (11) of return water of external steam through fourth switching valve (23). System further includes tank (9) for storage of soft water.
EFFECT: invention enables using waste heat of industrial production for elimination of dependence on weather and unstable and intermittent concentration of heat solar radiation.
6 cl, 4 dwg