The hydraulic drive tractor
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to mechanical engineering and is intended for use on agricultural and industrial tractors and other self-propelled machines. The inventive hydraulic tractor having a three-dimensional hydraulic transmission drive engines with pump 1, the hydraulic motor 2, the power and drainage hydroline 3, 4, hydroline 8 recharge and the implement hydraulic system with a pump 11, a valve 12, a cylinder 13 mounted in the drain hydroline filter 15 and the tank 16 is provided in addition to established the accumulator 24, and the input of hydroline 8 recharge communicated with the working cavity of the accumulator 24, the output drain hydroline 14 hydraulic attachments installed two-line driven from the dividing element 25 of the accumulator valve. The said valve is closed during the charging process of the accumulator 24 and is open at its discharge, and the discharge hydroline 14 at the site after the filter 15 is communicated with hydroline 8 recharge through check valve 29. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to mechanical engineering and is intended to Known hydraulic transmission drive propulsion self-propelled machine (volumetric hidrotransmisia) with pump, hydraulic motor, power hose and recharge, providing the necessary pressure (0.4 to 1.5 MPa) in the housings of hydraulic machines, cooling and filtering the working fluid (see the book by A. F. Fellow, Century, Kuranov "Hydraulic machines for animal husbandry and fodder production", M. Kolos, 19841, page 36).Makeup is an auxiliary pump, and the pressure is maintained special safety valve, through which is discharged into the tank the excess fluid above the internal leakage in the hydraulic transmission.Known hydraulic transmission includes an auxiliary pump, which degrades the energy characteristics of the drive due to power loss on the throttling of excess fluid in the pressure-relief valve. In addition, the need for driving the auxiliary pump and install a special filter for cleaning fluid limits the possibilities of arranging the hydraulic transmission and complicates its design.However, on tractors, in most cases, there is a pump mounted equipment with drain hydroline (gidron above drawbacks volume hydraulic transmission drive propulsion.The technical result expected of the invention is to improve energy performance and simplify the design volume hydraulic transmission. This is achieved by the fact that the entrance of hydroline recharge communicated with the working cavity of the hydraulic accumulator, the output drain hydroline hydraulic attachments installed two-line driven from the dividing element is designed as a piston accumulator valve closed during the charging process of the accumulator and outdoor in the process of its discharge, and the discharge hydroline on the site after the filter is communicated with hydroline recharge through check valve.In addition, the above-mentioned throttle valve is made controllable from dual line valve with two fixed positions and with the control rod with the installed fence, located between the two lugs rigidly connected with the separating element hydraulic accumulator and spaced from each other at a distance equal to the course of charge-discharge of the accumulator.In addition, the output of the drain hose volume hydraulic transmission communicated with the drain hydroline hydraulic attachments before installed in the drive.The hydraulic actuator includes a volumetric hydraulic transmission drive engines with pump 1, the hydraulic motor 2, a power hose 3, 4, with safety valves 5, 6, drain hose 7 and hydroline 8 feed check valves 9, 10 and the implement hydraulic system with a pump 11, a valve 12, a RAM 13, a drain hydroline 14 installed therein a linear filter 15. Drain hydroline 14 communicated with the tank 16. Output drain hydroline 14 installed throttle valve 17 driven from the pressure drop across the orifice 18. In series with the inductor 18 and parallel to the valve 17 relief valve 19 controlled by the pressure in the hydroline 20. In parallel to the safety valve 19 is installed throttle valve 21 with two fixed positions, and the control rod 22 is set by the stop 23. The hydraulic actuator includes a hydraulic accumulator 24, with a dividing element (piston) 25 which by means of the rod 26 is rigidly connected to the lugs 27, 28, between which is the stop 23 of the valve 21. The distance between the lugs 27 and 28 is equal to the course of charge-discharge (full speed separation element 25) of the hydraulic accumulator 24. The entrance of hydroline 8 podmena with hydroline 8 recharge through check valve 29. The output of the drain hose 7 is communicated with the drain hydroline 14 on the plot to the set of filter 15.The hydraulic actuator operates as follows.The hydraulic pump 11 mounted equipment sucks the working fluid from hirosaka 16 and delivers it to the valve 12. In neutral medium, the position of the valve 12, the working fluid through its "open heart" goes directly to the drain hydroline 14 and the filter 15. When the transfer valve 12 in one of the working positions working fluid from the pump 11 is supplied to the corresponding cylinder chamber 13 and the movement of its piston, the working fluid from the opposite cavity flows into the drain hydroline 14 and the filter 15. Thus, when all the modes of operation of the hydraulic system mounted equipment in the drain hydroline 14 has a flow rate of the working fluid. In addition, hydroline 14, mixing with the working fluid supplied by the pump 11 from the tank 16, come on drainage hydroline 7 and purified in the filter 15 internal leakage of the pump 1 and the hydraulic motor 2 volume hydraulic transmission. In the position of the hydraulic accumulator 24, shown in the drawing (the accumulator is discharged), the interaction is SEL 18 is missing. Accordingly, there is no differential pressure across the valve 17, the valve 17 is closed, and the flow of working fluid through the check valve 29 is sent to hydroline 8 recharge and later in the working volume of the hydraulic accumulator 24, and through the check valves 9 or 10 in the appropriate /not loaded/ power hydroline 3 or 4. At the same time charging the hydraulic accumulator 24 and the feed volume hydraulic transmission.In the charging process of the accumulator his separation element (piston) 25, compressing the spring, mixed right along with fixed on the rod 26 by the stops 27, 28. After completion of the course of charging, the stop 27 presses the stop 23 mounted on the stem 22 of the valve 21. The valve 21 is switched to the left (open) position. As a result of its opening appears the flow to choke 18 and accordingly the pressure drop across the valve 17. Under the pressure of the differential pressure valve 17 opens and the ability of hydroline 14, the fluid flow is directed into the tank 16.Further, the recharge volume hydraulic transmission is provided from the accumulator 24. The recharge process is the discharge of the accumulator 24 and the movement of the piston 25 and the stops 27 and 28 to the left.In what refers to the right (closed) position, in connection with the termination of the flow through him, and, respectively, through the orifice 18 closes the valve 17 and again starts the above-described charging process of the accumulator 24 with simultaneous injection volume hydraulic transmission. In normal operation, the hydraulic relief valve 19 remains closed, as its setting (2.0 MPa) higher than the maximum pressure (1.5 MPa) required to recharge volume hydraulic transmission. With increasing pressure in the hydroline 8 recharge and hydroline 14 discharge above the permitted value, the valve 19 under the influence coming through the fluid channel 20 is opened, there is a flow restrictor 18 and under the action of the differential pressure valve 17 opens, protecting the elements of the hydraulic overload.Charging the hydraulic accumulator 24 with simultaneous feeding of the hydraulic transmission can occur both in the neutral position of the valve 12 (discharge mode of the pump 11), although relatively rare, when the working position of the valve 12 and the movement of the hydraulic cylinder 13 (load mode pump 1). However, in the latter case, the serial connection diagram hydraulic accumulator 24 and the cylinder 13 has no fundamental impact on functioning is selskohozyaistvennyh tractors with a maximum pump pressure all system 20 MPa (pressure settings not shown in the drawing, the safety valve of the pump 11) design pressure at maximum load of the hydraulic cylinder does not exceed 15 - 16 MPa. Available reserve pressure (4 to 5 MPa) significantly exceeds demand system recharge volume hydraulic transmission (0.4 to 1.5 MPa).Thus, the use of makeup for volume hydraulic transmission drive propulsion pump mounted on the tractor in combination with gas accumulators allows to exclude in the system feeding power loss throttling excessive flow, to refuse the use of special auxiliary elements volume hydraulic transmission: make-up pump, filter and tank. 1. The hydraulic drive of the tractor, containing three-dimensional hydraulic transmission for driving the propulsion pump and a hydraulic motor connected between a power and a drainage hose, the implement hydraulic system having interconnected hose pump, valve, hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic tank, drain hydroline which the filter is installed and the device for feeding hydraulic transmission, associated with hydroline recharge, characterized in that the device for feeding in the form of a hydraulic accumulator, the working cavity which communicates with hydroline recharge, the output drain hydroline hydraulic attachments installed degreecompletion and outdoor during its discharge, as mentioned drain hydroline on the site after the filter is communicated with hydroline recharge through check valve.2. The hydraulic drive under item 1, characterized in that said throttle valve is made controllable from the keyboard of hydrographically with two fixed positions and with the control rod with the installed fence, located between the two lugs rigidly connected with the separation element hydraulic accumulator and spaced from each other at a distance equal to the course of charge-discharge of the accumulator.3. The hydraulic drive under item 1, characterized in that the separating element hydraulic accumulator is a piston.4. The hydraulic drive on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the outlet of the drain hose volume hydraulic transmission communicated with the drain hydroline hydraulic attachments before mounted inside the filter.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.