The stabilizer of the electrolyte in a lead battery "vega"

 

(57) Abstract:

The stabilizer of the electrolyte in a lead battery contains, g/l: wetting - 0,5, growth regulator crystals is 0.1. As wetting the stabilizer may contain sultanol or preparation of OS-20, and as a regulator of crystal growth 1.4 butandiol or thiourea. Invented stabilizer improves the processing properties of the electrolytes in lead-acid batteries. 1 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the field of electrochemistry, and more particularly to the use of special additives to improve the technological properties of electrolytes in lead-acid batteries.

The electrolytes used in electrochemical processes are in a state of chemical and thermodynamic instability. Due to variable loads on the electrodes are constantly changing density, chemical composition, temperature, viscosity and other parameters of the electrolyte, which negatively affects the technological results of the process.

In chemical power sources such instability of the electrolyte causes the first reduces the service life of the battery. Stabilization of the electrolyte is especially important for batteries AVT is the chronic conditions nagasarete battery.

Known for a large group of organic and inorganic substances used in the electrolytes as a stabilizing additive. They improve technological processes and are widely used in the electrolysis of aqueous solutions in non-ferrous metallurgy, getting shiny covered galvanic, chemical etching and elektropolieren metal surfaces.

In most cases, stabilizing additives are surface-active substances, and their effects often depends on the concentration. For example, in the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of non-ferrous metals, some additives surfactants at low concentrations increases, and at high reduce the hydrogen overvoltage, which affects the deposition of metals and their quality [1]

Especially widely stabilizing additives used in electroplating to produce metallic coatings. Only to get shiny coating of Nickel is known to more than a hundred different organic substances bishopapostles and their various combinations.

Stabilization of electrolytes, there are numerous inventor's certificates and patents for inventions, for example, and.with. 1409680, CL C 25 D 24/14, USSR, 1986, shall receive a bronze coatings", A. C. 1413156, CL C 25 D 3/22, USSR, 1988, "brightening agent composition for alkaline electrolyte galvanizing and other

The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the battery additive "Phoenix", advertised in the media JSC "AutoConvert". The additive is a mixture of aliphatic amines used in the manufacture of detergents and flotation reagents. According to the advertisement, battery additive "Phoenix" increases the density of the electrolyte, clean the electrodes and the electrolyte from operational pollution, increases the wettability of the electrodes by the electrolyte during charging of the dry battery, which reduces sulfation of the electrodes.

However, the additive "Phoenix" is not an inhibitor, managing crystallization products of chemical reactions on lead plates of the battery. Therefore, it is not a tool for combating irreversible sulfation of electrodes, dislodging active mass and corrosion of conductors. A significant drawback of battery additives "Phoenix" is the relatively high cost of its receipt.

The aim of the invention is to increase the service life of lead acid batteries and Ostroda products of electrochemical reactions.

Upon receipt of brilliant coatings electroplating is widely used substances that act as inhibitors that increase or decrease the crystallization. Inhibitor sensitivity of various different metals. High sensitivity have copper, Nickel and iron, and the average sensitivity zinc, cadmium and antimony. Lead, tin and bismuth insensitive to inhibitors, therefore, not used to obtain a shiny coating.

The inhibitory ability of some substances to affect the crystal growth of the deposited metal is determined by the degree of adsorption of molecules on the surface of the crystals. Upon receipt of brilliant coatings are applied inhibitors, preventing crystal growth and leveling their deposition on the metal surface. Immunity of some metals to the inhibitors can be explained by the inability of adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the metal surface, in particular, lead. This phenomenon occurs due to low adhesion (wettability) of lead in sulphuric acid. High surface tension at the phase boundary of the electrode-electrolyte does not allow the transition of inhibitor molecules from the electrolyte on the lead plates of the electrodes. Proof of th more than twice its stress on the Nickel, iron and copper (0,63 B for Nickel and 1.56 B for lead).

If you increase the wettability of the lead electrodes by the electrolyte, due to the decrease in surface tension at the electrode-electrolyte interface, then there are conditions for adsorption of particles of inhibitor on the surface of the crystals of sulphate of lead and its dioxide, deposited on the lead electrodes.

Wear the battery and the loss of electrical capacity is due to the following processes occurring at the electrodes:

Dislodging active mass, predominantly positive electrode. The service life of active mass is determined by the conditions of crystallization of lead sulfate at the discharge. The formation of loose sediments sulfate, which subsequent charge turns into solid lead dioxide, reduces vplyvania active mass. If the electrode surface is covered with a dense precipitate of sulphate of lead, when charging is formed of lead dioxide, with dendritic (needle-like) structure. Such crystals cause a short circuit between the electrodes and easily fall off. Exposure of the electrodes due to vplyvania active mass contributes to accelerated corrosion under the action of the electrolyte is STI, for example, from 1.2 to 1.1 g/cm3increases the service life of active mass in 8 to 10 times and is the most highly effective factor in increasing battery life.

Irreversible sulfation, mostly negative electrode. This sulfation causes a decrease in battery capacity and is associated with a decrease in the dissolution rate of lead sulfate. As a result of numerous places on the surface and in the pores of the plates are large, insoluble when charging, the crystals of sulphate of lead. Gradually form a continuous layer of crystalline sulfate, which isolates the active mass of the electrode from contact with the electrolyte. As the sulphate of lead has a low electrical conductivity dramatically increases the internal resistance of the battery and decreases its capacity. Sulfated electrodes consist only of large crystals of lead due to the fact that the solubility of small crystals of sulphate of lead is higher than large. The reasons for the formation of large crystals of lead sulfate can be many factors that depend on battery life.

Corrosion of grids and electrodes, which is typically characterized by spalling and dislodging of the active mass. Selected kissed material of shunts and destroys it. There is a superficial oxidation of the veins of shunts, and then begins the diffusion of oxygen through the formed oxide film in the deeper layers of shunts. In the anodic oxygen evolution and oxidation processes on the surface of the electrodes is an increase in linear dimensions and deformation of the electrodes.

Cathodic hydrogen evolution on the surface of the lead electrode also contributes to their corrosion, as it causes the appearance of pores in galvanic coatings due to adhesion of bubbles of hydrogen to the cathode surface. Such sticking of hydrogen to the cathode contributes to the high surface tension at the phase boundary.

Analysis of the causes rapid failure of the battery and the loss of capacity shows that all of them are connected mainly with the conditions of crystallization of sulfate and lead dioxide on lead electrolytes. If you control the crystallization in the direction of reducing the growth of crystals of sulphate of lead, it is possible to significantly increase the service life of the lead battery, and also to restore the battery lost capacity as a result of irreversible sulfate crystallization of the electrodes. Electroplating such management osushestvljali susceptibility to such additives.

If you reduce the surface tension at the phase boundary of the electrode-electrolyte (lead-sulphuric acid), i.e., to artificially increase the wettability of electrodes, electrolytes, it will create favorable conditions for transition to the surface and adsorption of particles inhibitor of the electrolyte. Because adsorption occurs mainly on the edges of the rough edges and the places of their growth, the ions are forced to run out in the pits and inactive areas of the electrode. Thus the inhibitor produces the alignment of the surface profile.

The essence of the invention is that the electrolyte in a lead battery additive is introduced, consisting of two parts: the wetting of the electrodes and inhibitor limiting crystallization on the electrodes. The introduction of such stabilizing additives can not only increase the battery life of the battery, but to restore its capacity. As the wetting agent may be used surfactants used to reduce surface tension during electrolysis, galvanic or flotation. In the stabilizer of the electrolyte inhibitor can be one of the substances used in galvanic to get shiny coatings.

For hundred of the cost, widely used in industry for production of detergents and has a high wetting ability. Sulfinol is a mixture of sodium salts alkylbenzenesulfonic with the formula:

< / BR>
He is a free-flowing powder from yellow to light brown in color, easily soluble in distilled water. Sultanol widely used as wetting, cleansing and emulsifying agent in the production of washing powders and flotation reagents. As with all surface-active substances sultanol has allergic action. The concentration of sultanol in the electrolyte is assumed to be equal to 0.5 g/l, since the greater the concentration increased foam formation on the surface of the electrolyte during charging of the battery.

Another part of the stabilizer of the electrolyte VEGA selected 1,4-butandiol, which is widely used in electroplating as an inhibitor when getting shiny Nickel coatings and has the formula:

HOCH2CCCH2OH,

1,4-Butandiol forms colourless crystals, readily soluble in water. It is derived from acetylene and formaldehyde in the presence of acetylenic copper. Butandiol is used in organic synthesis, for example, when receiving the TEW and high efficiency as inhibitor. When working with 1,4-butandiol, as sulfanola should use protective gloves and local ventilation.

The concentration of butynediol in the electrolyte is assumed to be 0.1 g/l At high concentrations of 1,4-butandiol electroplating is a sharp decrease of the output current, and the resulting coatings become brittle.

In the stabilizer electrolyte "VEGA" sulfinol and 1,4-butandiol are in the ratio 5:1, which ensures the necessary concentration in the electrolyte. It can be used in the form of a powder, paste or concentrated aqueous solution with a flow rate of 0.6 g of stabilizer per 1 liter of the electrolyte. Since the amount of electrolyte in different brands of batteries in multiples of 1, for convenience of consumers stabilizer electrolyte "VEGA" should be released in small packages, a multiple of 0.6 g, for example, 3.0 g 5 l of electrolyte. The stabilizer can be entered directly into the electrolyte of the battery, or to pre-dissolve it in distilled water.

Starter battery ST, who served more than three years and have a maximum residual capacity 29 Ah (instead of 38 Ah passport), after discharge within 8 h bit current 5A was washed with distilled Vaastu 1.20 g/cm3the battery was charged with a current of 4A within 12 hours After repeated recharging the battery capacity was AC and remained unchanged for three days. Then the battery was installed on the car "Tavria", which successfully operated more than 6 months without appreciable reduction capacity. This example use of the invention shows that by using a stabilizer of the electrolyte VEGA can not only significantly increase the service life of lead acid batteries, but to restore their nominal capacity lost as a result of irreversible sulfate crystallization of the electrodes. Battery power even increases slightly due to the alignment density of the electrolyte at the height of the electrodes and a more even distribution of sulphate of lead in precipitation during discharge of the battery.

An important advantage of the stabilizer "VEGA" is the absence of distilled water losses through evaporation from the battery. During charging the surface of the electrolyte is covered with a stable foam of small bubbles, permeable to hydrogen and oxygen but impermeable to water vapor. The formation of such foam is explained by the floating action of 1,4-butandiol. The result of this action is also the camping on the surface and edges of the crystals of 1,4-butandiol inhibits the growth of crystals of sulphate of lead, but the ice crystals that are formed in the electrolyte at low temperatures. By lowering the freezing temperature of the electrolyte, the stabilizer VEGA allows you to use the electrolyte of low density, which will increase the service life of the active mass of the electrode.

Finally, the proposed stabilizer electrolyte "VEGA" several times cheaper prototype battery additives "Phoenix".

The above advantages of the stabilizer electrolyte VEGA for the lead-acid battery allows you to create a battery of a large electric capacity and reliability required, for example, in the manufacture of electric vehicles.

1. The stabilizer of the electrolyte in a lead battery, containing a wetting agent, characterized in that it further comprises a controller crystal growth in the following ratio of components, g/l:

The wetting 0,5

The growth regulator crystals 0,1

2. The stabilizer under item 1, characterized in that as a growth regulator crystals contains 1,4-butanediol or thiourea.

 

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