Mechanical automatic continuously variable transmission

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a self-tuning mechanisms of transmission for self-propelled machines, drives technological machines and machines and can be used in automobile, tractor, machine tool. Summary of the invention in that the movable apicil the second row comes with a second ring gear, the two outputs of the differential range: Central sun wheel and movable apical interconnected closing link made in the form of blocks of satellites installed movably on the axes of the satellites of the first two rows, one satellite unit meshed with a second crown of epicycle and a Central sun wheel optional third row is fixed to the output shaft, the second satellite unit is a Central sun wheel generator mounted coaxially and slidably on the output shaft and located between the second and third rows, the Central sun gear of the second differential number provided on the ends of the parallel eccentric studs, movably mounted diametrically opposite in the eccentric hole of the Central sun wheel of the first and second planetary differential series, cylindrical CH is high series and generator equipped cylindrical torsion springs. 2 Il.

The invention relates to a self-tuning mechanisms of transmission for self-propelled machines, drives technological machines and machines and can be used in the automotive industry, tractor industry, various actuators, machines and machine tools as automatic variants.

There are various gear for a step change of frequency of rotation of the output shaft, made in the form of boxes speeds and used in drives of machine tools, textile machines, transmissions in the automotive, tractor, agricultural machinery (A. S. Antonov and other Army vehicles. Design and calculation. S. 173, 1970).

In such gear change speed of the output shaft depending on the magnitude overcome payload is carried out by the operator of the switch arm, which is a significant disadvantage. However, such mechanical transmission has higher efficiency, relatively low cost of manufacturing, they are more convenient for maintenance than automatic hydrodynamic Powershift transmission or a continuously variable transmission with complex electrical converters (C. A. Sotnikov is astate of rotation of the output shaft of the self-regulatory continuously variable mechanical transmission non-friction type, is an effective means of increasing the productivity of the process maintenance and improvement of the basic performance characteristics of self-propelled machines.

Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result to the technical solution is self-regulated stepless differential planetary gear train non-friction type, containing an oscillator and a rectifier, in which the leading carrier of the differential series performs an oscillatory motion. The oscillator carrier may be any hinge lever chetyrehzvennoj, which regulates the length of the crank and rocker made in one piece with the planet carrier. Rectifier, providing dynamic asymmetry of the system during the swing in order to transmit torque in one desired direction, is irreversible Sanatornaya a single-thread worm pair. The feedback circuit composed of a Central sun gear fixed on the driven shaft, meshed with the satellites, the elastic shaft and bevel gear pairs, one wheel of which is mounted on the shaft of the worm rectifier (A. A. Blagonravov. Mechanical stepless transmission non-friction type. M "Mash", 1974, S. 33, Fig. 5).

The main disadvantage of transfer is that it contains several worm rectifiers and circuits reverse slastation degree of uniformity of torque on the driven shaft. Therefore, the transfer of bulky and inconvenient in operation, it is merely a theoretical example of the implementation of the kinematic and dynamic conditions for the existence of a continuously variable transmission with holonomic connections without friction pairs. In addition, such transfer only partially satisfied the condition, namely, that the system must have a power function, partial derivatives which generalized coordinates are small compared with the transmitted points, i.e. in the transfer condition is not satisfied may lower power circulating in the regulated branch transfer. Elastic element, performing in her power function must be quite hard and durable, and therefore large and robust, because it is involved in the transfer of all the torque in the feedback circuit. Due to the above reasons, the transfer of complex design, inconvenient to use and unreliable.

The objective of the invention is to simplify the design and increase the reliability of the mechanical automatic continuously variable transmission.

This is achieved by mechanical automatic continuously variable transmission, comprising a housing, input is on point the rectifier and the power element functions, according to the invention, the movable apicil the second row comes with a second ring gear, the two outputs of the differential range: Central sun wheel and movable apical interconnected closing the chain, which consists of a block of satellites installed movably on the axes of satellites the first two series, one satellite unit meshed with a second crown of epicycle and a Central sun wheel optional third row is fixed to the output shaft, the second satellite unit with a Central sun wheel generator mounted coaxially and slidably on the output shaft and located between the second and third rows, the Central sun wheel generator and the second differential number provided on the ends of the parallel eccentric studs, movably mounted diametrically opposite in the eccentric hole of the Central sun wheel of the first and second planetary differential series, cylindrical smooth facing each other, the portions of the Central sun wheel of the first planetary, the second differential series and generator equipped cylindrical torsion springs.

In Fig. 1 shows cinematelevision boxes.

Mechanical automatic continuously variable transmission includes a housing 1, input 2 and output 3 shafts, the first planetary series, which includes a Central sun gear 4 mounted on the input shaft 2, drove 5 6 satellites and the Central wheel 7 with internal gearing, mounted stationary in the housing 1, the second differential range, which includes a Central sun gear 8, satellites 9 and the movable apical 10; AC generator torque, which serves as the closing of the second differential range of the feedback circuit composed of a block of satellites 11 and 12, installed movably on the axes 13 satellites 6 and 9 of the first two rows, and from the Central sun wheel 14 mounted coaxially and movably on the continuation of the output shaft 3; a rectifier, which is the wheel 7, perceiving reference or torque reaction, thus ensuring a dynamic asymmetry of the moving system, the momentum only in the side of the carrier 5 with its axis 13, and the elements of the power function, which is a cylindrical torsion springs 15. Mobile apical 10 of the second row comes with a second ring gear 16. Two outputs of the differential range: Central solar Kalila 10 and a Central sun wheel 17, fixed to the output shaft 3 and the second satellites 11 block with a Central wheel 14. Central wheel 8 and 14 provided on the end faces parallel to the axis of the entire moving system, but eccentric thereto spaced studs 18 and 19, movably mounted diametrically opposite in the eccentric hole of the Central sun wheel 4 and 8 of the first and second planetary differential series. On a cylindrical smooth facing each other, the portions of the Central wheel 4, 8 and 14 equipped cylindrical torsion springs 15. The eccentricities of studs 18 and 19 wheels 8 and 14 and holes in the wheels 4 and 8 are equal in magnitude. Eccentric pairs are installed when assembling the eccentricities are diametrically opposed. The Central wheel 4, 8, 14 and 17 with each other, apical 10, his second crown 16 and the Central fixed wheel 7 between itself and the satellites 6, 9, 11 and 12 interconnected performed with the same parameters (module, number of teeth).

Transmission works as follows.

During the rotation of the input 2 is connected through the clutch to the shaft of the motor, the torque is transmitted cage 5 and the axis 13 as the input links of the first planetary series. This time the main pass through the axis 13 of the satellite is tricky spike 18 informs the wheel 8 additional torque, defined circumferential force two times smaller than the force acting on the drive rod 5 and its axis 13.

This additional time connects the second degree of mobility of satellites 9 differential series. These two things combine, are transferred to the output differential series, namely apical 10.

In the first case, when, for example, self-propelled machine straivaetsya with designated, the output shaft 3 with the wheel 17 at the initial moment motionless. Therefore, according to the film speed in Fig. 2, apical 10 on the satellites 12 tends quickly to our teams around the wheel 17 (shown in picture in phantom lines) until the differential circuit of the series feedback circuit and education thereby closed differential mechanism with a certain rotational speed of the output, namely epicycle 10, therefore, the output wheel 17. As you know, at the end of the link must have a fixed axis of rotation, this feature in the closing of the circuit by a Central sun wheel 14, mounted on the continuation of the output shaft 3. The need of the differential circuit number is NC the role of epicycle 10 as it rotates, because he at the same time, through satellites strives 9 is nsta ratio between the unit (the same number of teeth satellites 11 and 12 between them, wheels 14 and 17). Therefore, at the initial moment of the wheel 14 also tends to remain stationary and his eccentric dowel 19 is braked rotation of the wheel 8 differential series. Thus, the wheel 8 under the action of the torque on the output shaft 3 and the wheel 17 is forced to lag in the rotation of the wheel 4, the full stop is possible only in the case when there is no impact on his thorn 18 wheel side 4, i.e., when the wheel 8 rotates with the same frequency as the wheel 4, but in the opposite direction. But this is not because the wheel 8, as mentioned above, may be considered in extreme case, only fixed at a constant rotation wheel 4 in the same direction. Thus, the wheel 8, tends to lag in the rotation of the wheel 4, but being all the time under his influence through tenon 18, twists the spring 15 until then, until a dynamic equilibrium; the equality of the maximum drag torque on the output shaft of the wheel 17 in the period of the moving self-propelled vehicles the amount of driving moments: standing on the axes 13 of the carrier 5 and AC due to the action of a stud 18 and twisted springs on the wheel 8. The more the drag torque on the wheel 17, the bol is more, the amplitude from the average position between the constantly rotating wheel 4 and the wheel 14, copy the rotation of the wheel 17. In the second limiting case, the lack of resistance on the output shaft 3, for example, the motion of self-propelled machine on a level road with a slight downward inclination, rotation of wheel 17 with the maximum frequency of the wheel 14, jockey wheel 17, and apical 10 rotating with the lowest frequency, does not have a braking effect on the wheel 8, the kinematic chain is not opened, all the Central sun wheel 8, 14 and 17 rotate with the same maximum frequency equal to the frequency of rotation of the wheel 4, the springs 15 are not subjected to twisting, no oscillations of the wheel 8, only one torque on the axis 13 of the carrier 5 at the minimum point on the wheel 8 is sufficient to overcome the resistance on the wheel 17. This is a direct 4-I transmission with a maximum speed self-propelled machine. This limiting case is shown in Fig. 2 solid lines. All other transfer (2-I and 3-I by analogy with the four-speed box) are carried out while rotating epicycle 10, the Central wheels 14 and 17 with intermediate between the limiting values frequency in medium-amplitude vibrations of the wheel 8, at medium angles of torsion springs 15 (this case is shown in Fig. 2 dainish self-propelled machine is established that the dynamic balance of the moving system, achieved or that the frequency of rotation of the output shaft 3, is automatically continuously variable self-adjusting gear ratio in the box.

As is known, the conversion differential (in this case second) number in the self-regulatory continuously variable transmission is necessary to make such connection, in which at steady state of at least one of the generalized speeds would be a periodic function of time and would have a DC component proportional to the angular frequencyCthe rotation of the output shaft, and a variable component proportional to the angular speednthe drive for this series link led 5. Movement differential series with three degrees of freedom is described by the equation

u18+u210+u3n= 0,

where u1; u2and u3gear ratio, satisfying the condition u1+u2+u3=0;

8;10,nthe instantaneous angular frequency of rotation of the oscillating link wheel 8, free link epicycle 10 and the leading rotating in one direction link led 5.

Under the action of the studs 18 and 19 on the law of the eccentric oscillating element does Garm the Central sun gear 4 of the planetary series;

the angle of lag of the wheel 8 from the wheel 4, the deviation of the wheel 8 from the middle position between the wheels 4 and 14, the torsion spring 15.

Then the angular velocity, the rotational speed of the free item epicycle will be equal to

< / BR>
The DC component in equation (4) provides drove 5 when the rotation of the shaft of a constant speed motor, a variable component of the AC generator torque feedback circuit and by copying rotating or stationary position (when moving) wheels, 17 wheel 14, acting through the spike 19 and the spring 15 on the wheel 8.

Gear ratio u1u2u3determined by the numbers of teeth of the movable elements using equation jeep with

10= u810n+un10;88, (5)

where un10;8its final drive ratio from epicycle 10 to the Central wheel 8 with a stationary drive rod 5;

u810;nits final drive ratio from epicycle 10 to carrier 5 with a stationary wheel 8.

< / BR>
Comparing equations (4) and (5), we find that

< / BR>
where Z8and Z10the number of teeth of the gear 8 and epicycle 10.

Equation (4) UB> get the 17=nu1617+16Un17,16< / BR>
where

< / BR>
When the planetary number of Z7=Z10; Z4=Z17< / BR>
17=4cos

16=10/< / BR>
Z6=Z10; Z8=Z17< / BR>
(9)

Equation (8) shows that the angular frequency of rotation of the output shaft 3 with the wheel 173= 17at a constant angular frequency of rotation of the carrier 5nin General, intermediate between the limiting case, depends on the magnitude of the angular rotation frequency of epicycle10or16More than10the less3and Vice-versa. And the angular rotation frequency according to equation (6) depends on the amplitude of oscillations of the wheel 8, the angle of deflection of the wheel 8 from the middle position between the wheels 4 and 14. Any such deviation leads to an increase in the total eccentricity in the radial direction of studs 18 and 19 for one half of the relative rotation of the wheel 8 in comparison with the wheels 4 and 14, to the deformation of the springs 15 in this direction. The total eccentricity of the studs 18 and 19 due to the coincidence of the axes of the gear rims and shoulders for springs 15 wheels 4 and 14 with the common axis of the gearbox, and because of the resistance of the springs 15 is always striving to be equal to zero, OTE research prototype boxes show due to this structural embodiment jamming in the gearing and bearings are not. As is known, the impact of the circular eccentric extends at an angle equal to 180ohowever , if there are two diameters of oppositely spaced eccentrics (in our case, the two studs 18 and 19) acting on one link (wheel), their impact becomes more intense, but with twice the frequency, i.e. at an angle equal to 90o. Therefore, the maximum angle v in equations (6) and (9) 90o. When the angle v=0; cos=1 and8=17=4direct transfer (4th speed by analogy with the four-speed gearbox) with a maximum angular frequency of the output shaft 3. When the angle =90cos=08=17= 0 self-propelled machine straivaetsya with seat, box allows you to adjust the rotational speed of the output shaft 3 from 0 to4the range of variation of the transmission ratio is large enough, which is quite acceptable for all classes of self-propelled vehicles and machines.

The angle of torsion of the springs is determined by the solution of the equation of forced oscillations

ICR+Kf = Msint,

where ICRthe moment of inertia reduced to the oscillating link - wheel 8; is the second moment acting upon the wheel 8 through the tenon 18 with period and frequency where w is the angular frequency of rotation of the output shaft 2.

The deflection angle v from the mean position is evenly distributed between the two springs 15, each spring 15 can be tied at the maximum angle that occurs when the moving self-propelled machine. Therefore, in the circuit of the variable component in closing the circuit circulates a small power corresponding quarter of the total torque transmitted to the wheel 17. This is achieved by performing one of the basic requirements for self-regulatory non-friction transmission with holonomic connections fulfilling the conditions may lower circulating power adjustable branch.

Extreme extreme positions of the mechanism box when = 0and = 90provided also kinematic scheme, the equality of ratios from the led 5 to epicycle 10 infinity, and from the wheel 17 to the wheel unit 14.

< / BR>
As a consequence, apical 10 always seeks to take as the wheel 7, the fixed position, and the wheel 14 to copy a fixed position or rotation of the wheel 17.

Box has nine ACC is>/BR>W=3n-2P5-P4=39-210-7=0

in the position of the search of dynamic equilibrium is equal to zero, and at steady state when reaching a dynamic equilibrium is equal to one, because in this case the feedback loop is closed, it becomes hard, the gear wheels 14 and 17, copying each other, work as a link.

We offer box has, besides a wide range of ratios, significant advantages over the prototype, because there is no eccentric, slotted drive, not allowing you to get the best angles, pressure, rectifiers and the generator point of the individual nodes. All this determines the simplicity of its design and reliability. The prototype is only a theoretical example of the possibilities for sushestvovanija continuously variable mechanical transmission with holonomic constraints. In the box is a mandatory condition for the circulation of a relatively small power adjustable branches.

Mechanical automatic continuously variable transmission, comprising a housing, input and output shafts, first and second planetary differential series of gears, the alternator, the rectifier and the elements of the power function, characterized in that the ring gear ring two outputs of the differential number of Central sun wheel and movable apical interconnected trailing chain, made from a block of satellites installed movably on the axes of the satellites of the first two rows, one satellite unit meshed with a second crown of epicycle and a Central sun wheel optional third row is fixed to the output shaft, the second satellite unit with a Central sun wheel generator mounted coaxially and slidably on the output shaft and located between the second and third rows, the Central sun wheel generator and the second differential number provided on the ends of the parallel eccentric studs, installed movably diametrically opposite in the eccentric hole of the Central sun wheel of the first and second planetary differential series, cylindrical smooth facing each other, the portions of the Central sun wheel of the first planetary, the second differential series and generator installed cylindrical torsion springs.

 

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