Method of cooking food
(57) Abstract:Purpose: the invention relates to agriculture and can be used on cattle-breeding complexes and farms in feed during preparation and storage of food from waste plant material. The inventive plant material is crushed and subjected to stepwise chemical-mechanical processing. The first two stages raw materials are treated 1-10% sodium hydroxide solution, the third 1-10% solution of hydrochloric acid, the fourth - 1-10% solution of ammonium sulfate. After each stage chemical treatment of the raw material is subjected to mechanical processing by the stack. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tables. The invention relates to agriculture and can be used on cattle-breeding complexes and farms in feed during preparation and storage of food from waste plant material.Straw cereals and other waste plant materials have low nutritional value and consist mainly of cellulose, which is a complex polymer, which is difficult to digest. The problem is that this fiber to prediabetes to bring in adobepremiere ODI roughage by hydrolysis of straw in the acidic environment after enzymatic enrichment mass of fodder yeast 
There is a method of cooking food, providing grinding plant, introduction of feed additives, bringing mixture to 39-41oC and maintaining at this temperature for 3 hours Then spend the developments deal with the subsequent steaming at 90-100oC for 20-30 min 
The disadvantages of these methods are their complexity, high cost received food, due to the use of expensive components, which themselves are nutritional supplements, in addition, energy-intensive methods.The closest analogy is the way of cooking food, including ammonization plant materials anhydrous ammonia at simultaneous thermal effects in the hermetic chamber with subsequent removal of excess ammonia 
The disadvantages of this method are its harmfulness, since they use ammonia. The method is environmentally dirty and, in addition, energy-intensive, since they use steam.The objective of the invention is to develop a generic cheap environmentally friendly way of recycling waste vegetable raw materials with the aim of obtaining nutritious food.To solve the problem shredded waste R is abotu are 1-10% sodium hydroxide solution. At the third stage, the raw material is treated with 1-10% solution of hydrochloric acid, on the fourth 1-10% solution of ammonium sulfate. After each stage chemical treatment of the raw material is subjected to mechanical processing by the stack. Then the raw material is dried, and then milled to produce powder or granules.Possible fifth stage of chemical processing of raw materials. For this purpose it is dipped in a solution of 0.5-1% hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 30-35oWith dynamics. After the stack received food goes to feeding beef cattle, and drying is not carried out.At the first stage of chemical treatment during the hydrolysis by sodium hydroxide is the swelling of the fiber and the destruction of the lignin, as, being in the shell militarnych gaps, it is not included with fiber in a physical relationship. After the stack raw again immersed in a solution of sodium hydroxide. The concentration of the solution may be less than in the first stage, as is more complete destruction with subsequent leaching of lignin from the substrate. After the stack of fluid at the third stage, the raw material is dipped in a solution of hydrochloric acid for neutralization and hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose with saturation of mineral salts. In the fourth stage after with what salivarium proteins in acid environment. All stages of a chemical-mechanical processing is carried out in natural conditions at zero temperature. At the fifth stage is the acidification of the received feed (pH 2-3), and slightly elevated temperature gives it a taste.For the preparation of feed use containers, covered with a material resistant to acid solutions, such as vats, covered with vinylplasts.Example 1. 200 kg of straw barley ground in CLAIM 3 to particles 10-15 mm in length, placed in a wire mesh container of stainless steel grid with cells of 2-3 mm and placed in a VAT of 4% sodium hydroxide solution to complete immersion of the container with the raw materials. Using the crane of 5 tons capacity container with the raw material is removed, the stand 10 minutes After the stack of the liquid container with the raw material is placed into the second VAT, the same as the first, but with 1% sodium hydroxide solution, filling the container with the raw materials to complete immersion, and incubated for 10 min. raise the Container crane beam, provide raw materials to drain and plunge again into the tub, getting to the third stage. The hydrolysis is carried out 6% hydrochloric acid 10 min. Lift container crane beam, raw flows, and to absorb nitrogen and vysalivaniya proteins proceed to the fourth step. In che raise the crane beam, raw material flows.If you are fodder, after the fourth stage the feed is maintained through the AVM is 1.5, the temperature of which is not more than +60oWith the output feed. Then granularit, receiving granules humidity of 12% with a pH of 2.If after the fourth stage feed is for direct feeding beef cattle, the container with food, you can survive even in the fifth tank with 1% hydrochloric acid solution for 10 min at 35oAnd the bubbling of the solution by the air pumped by the compressor VK-6. Rich in mineral salts food after the stack is fed to animals and has a pH of 2.5.Similarly was treated barley straw at different concentrations on each of the four stages.The data of examples 1-3 are given in table.1.As shown in our experiments, starting with a one percent solution concentrations at all stages, the feedstock improves its taste and nutritional indicators (see example 2). If the solution concentration reached 10% of that received less nutritious food (see example 3 and the note to the table.1). The most favourable conditions are solution concentration at all stages from 1 to 10% of this raw material.Example 4. 200 kg of sunflower husks are placed in a mesh container of stainless steel grid with cells of 2-3 mm and begin a four-step chemical-mechanical processing of raw materials as described in example 1, changing only the concentration of the solutions. In the first stage, the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution of 5% on the second stage of 2% on the third concentration of the hydrochloric acid solution is equal to 7% in the fourth stage process raw materials 9% solution of ammonium sulfate. The results of chemical studies obtained after drying of the feed are given in table.2.Analogously to example 1 was conducted experiments with other waste plant materials. The results of the chemical analysis of the obtained feed on usvaemogo nitrogen and crude protein are given in table.3 after drying.As can be seen from the data (table.3) the proposed method is more versatile because you can use a variety of inexpensive waste plant materials, while receiving nutritious food, rich in protein, nitrogen and mineral salts. The concentrations of chemical substances safe and easily neutralized, which ensures the safety of the method and its ecological purity. 1. The method is, drying, characterized in that the chemical treatment of the crushed raw materials are in four stages, the first two stages it is treated with 1 to 10% sodium hydroxide solution, and then 1 to 10% hydrochloric acid solution and complete chemical treatment 1 10% solution of ammonium sulfate, after each treatment include mechanical stack of the corresponding solution.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that after the mechanical stack ammonium sulphate raw material is additionally treated with 0.5 to 1.0% solution of hydrochloric acid at 30 35oWith the finished product.3. The method according to each of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that as a waste plant materials used rice straw.4. The method according to each of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that as a waste plant materials use straw wheat.5. The method according to each of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that as a waste plant materials using barley straw.6. The method according to each of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that as a waste plant materials used hay.7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a waste plant materials used beet goodalricke.9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that obtained after drying food is crushed or granularit.
FIELD: utilization and rational use of lignin-containing raw material; delignofication of vegetable raw material.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the vegetable raw material followed by ultrasound treatment at frequency of 22.0-24.0 kHz continued for 10-15 min and biological action on vegetable raw material by inoculate of fungus Panus tigrinus BKM F-3616 D continued for 9-14 days at temperature of +24 to +26°C.
EFFECT: facilitated process of bio-conversion; increased food value of vegetable raw material; possibility of utilizing lignin from ligno-cellulose wastes.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: feed production industry.
SUBSTANCE: haulm is treated with hydrolyzing agent followed by dispersion of treated haulm, screen calibration and briquette forming.
EFFECT: feed of prolonged storage time.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: feed production, in particular, equipment for preparing of animal feed from raw plant material.
SUBSTANCE: line has pipelines, conveyors and mixers, and is additionally equipped with independently positioned leguminous and vegetable crop processing unit arranged at one side of line, and unit for acidic-alkaline processing of coarse fodders, arranged at other side of line. Said units are connected with one another through auxiliary conveyor and intake-feeding pipeline. Leguminous and vegetable crop processing unit is formed as resonance hydraulic impact device connected to liquid feed mixer through circulation pipeline and intake pipeline. Unit for acidic and alkaline processing of coarse fodder is formed as gravitational reversing mixer connected to block of dosing pumps for alkaline and acid and block of alkaline and acid reservoirs. Pressure pipeline disposed at line inlet part is connected with its one run to blocks of alkaline and acid reservoirs, and its other run is inserted into liquid feed mixer. Discharge conveyor and discharge pipeline are disposed in inclined position and are extending through the whole line. Discharge pipeline is connected with its one end to circulation pipeline which is inserted into liquid feed mixer, and with its other end to intake-feeding pipeline, gravitational reversing mixer and liquid feed mixer. Feeding conveyors are connected to liquid feed mixer and simultaneously with gravitational reversing mixer.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities of feed preparing process.
FIELD: feed production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using sawdust treated by hydrothermal process in mixture with irlites as substrate; germinating corn grain in tiers, said grain being preliminarily soaked for 1-2 days in aqueous solution of distillery dregs in the ratio of 1:1 at temperature of 20-25 C; performing germination process with the use of sawdust preliminarily treated by hydrothermal process in mixture with irlites in the ratio of 10:1; 7-10 days after said process, feeding biomass to cattle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced production costs.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, processes used in animal farming.
SUBSTANCE: method involves grinding raw plant material; mixing with 0.3-0.4%-hydrochloric solution at temperature of 60-80 C at weight ratio of 1.0-1.5-10-15; processing resultant suspension in apparatus during 1-3 hours at temperature of 120-150 C under pressure of 0.2-0.5 MPa created using open steam; providing additional pulsed compression of suspension at frequency of 1-6 pulses per minute and at pressure exceeding operating pressure by 0.03-0.05 MPa; providing pressure drop to operating pressure value.
EFFECT: provision for deep processing of raw plant material with high content of easily assimilated components such as saccharine.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: production of feed additives which may be used as biologically active feed additives in poultry farming, animal farming, fur farming, and fish industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves processing extracts of coniferous greens; performing microgranulation of neutralized coniferous greens extract using water-soluble polymeric matrix-binder in the form of aqueous solution and combining said matrix-binder with said extract; introducing drops of resultant mixture into aqueous solution of cross-linking agent; using sodium alginate or complex of protein-anion polysaccharide consisting of gelatin and sodium alginate as polymeric matrix-binder, and water-soluble calcium salts as cross-linking agent providing production of water-insoluble matrix of microgranules. Dried granules produced contain the following components, wt% (on conversion to dry substance): coniferous greens extracts 70-90; polymeric matrix-binder 9-25; cross-linking agent (on conversion to calcium ion Ca2+) 0.04-0.10. According to another version of method and version of feed additive produced by method, polymeric matrix-binder is complex of protein-anion polysaccharide containing gelatin and sodium alginate, and cross-linking agent contains water-soluble ferric salts providing production of water-insoluble microgranules matrix. Resultant dried granules contain the following components, wt% (on conversion to dry substance): coniferous greens extracts 70-90; polymeric matrix-binder 9-25; cross-linking agent (on conversion to iron ion Fe3+) 0.05-0.5.
EFFECT: simplified process and reduced costs for producing of feed additive.
9 cl, 3 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, preparing of feeds for animals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves steaming-through raw material impregnated with acid solution; grinding raw material and delivering into reactor; sealing reactor; holding raw material under reduced pressure in reactor; feeding hot acid solution into reactor; providing impregnation of raw material with acid solution and hydrolysis under excessive pressure during time period of up to 3 hours; maintaining temperature of 85-100 C in reactor during hydrolysis process; upon termination of hydrolysis process, drawing acid solution from reactor through pipeline into working reservoir, wherein neutralizing acid using reactant having acidity of 6.0-7.0; drawing neutralized liquid from reservoir back into reactor and repeatedly impregnating raw material with liquid; holding raw material within reactor during 5-25 min; drawing liquid from reactor into reservoir and controlling its acidity; in case of occurrence of acidic reaction, providing liquid neutralization until pH value is 6.0-7.0; drawing liquid back into reactor containing raw material and impregnating the latter with liquid; repeating cycle until neutrality is stabilized within the range of pH=6.0-7.0 and drawing working liquid into reservoir; unsealing reactor; withdrawing and using resultant product as animal feed. Apparatus has reactor formed as reservoir with cover to be opened or hermetically closed, and working reservoir with cover to be opened and hermetically closed. Vacuum type delivery pump, hot water and gas generator are connected to reactor and working reservoir through pipelines equipped with locking-and-adjusting valves. Reactor and working reservoir are furnished with controlling and measuring instruments and safety-bypass valve.
EFFECT: improved quality of feeds and reduced power consumption.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: wood-working industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in destruction, drying breakage of the wood stock, destruction is performed by treatment of it by a cellulose solution with concentration of celloviridone ferment within 0.1 to 10 percent by mass during 2 to 48 hours, at a relation of solid substrate and solution within 1:2 to 1:20, with a subsequent drying at a temperature of not higher than 100 C. Treatment of the wood stock by the cellulose solution is conducted at a temperature of not higher than 50 C.
EFFECT: wood flour is produced without any use of sulfuric acid, lowered of the production process.
3 cl, 5 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: agriculture; veterinary science.
SUBSTANCE: method includes a giving to animal with a forage additional of enterosorbent - a wood biopolymer, namely: an animal feed a wood biopolymer with the content of 1.5% of dihydroquercetine in dose: for cows 10...30 g on a head in day, for calves - 5...10 g on a head in day, for pigs - 1...5 g on a head in day.
EFFECT: invention allows developing simple and technologically accessible method of heavy metals and radionuclides elimination from an organism of animals.
6 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: water-soluble feed additive from organic stuff contains a finely-dispersed solid phase, structured gel-forming water bound with the dispersed solid phase particles and free water and with the following ratios of the components, i.e., % by weight, finely-dispersed solid phase 15 to 25, structured gel-forming bound water 55 to 65, free water making the rest. The method of the additive production comprises grinding the stuff to the grain size of (1-3)×10-3 m, increasing moisture content to 75 to 85% by adding or removing water, dispersing the solid phase in the field of shear strains and variable pressure to the grain size of 10-5 to 10-6 m, destructing the stuff cellular structure by impact waves and homogenising the resulted mix to a gel state by hydrodynamic cavitation.
EFFECT: water solubility of additive, increased content of biological nutrients, increased storage terms.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex